Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by country standards

  • Organic regulations/standards by region
    • Europe
      • Sweden
        • Krav
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Animal fodder, animal origin, - SE KRAV 2006
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Conventional feed of animal origin is not allowed to be fed to ruminants, but may be fed to pigs and chickens. For ruminants, organic by-products from milk processing such as whey and skim milk may be used (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.12).
There are no restrictions on the use of conventional feed of animal origin to ruminants in EU Regulation 2092/91. There are restrictions on the type of conventional feedstuff of animal origin but there is no requirement that any should be organic. Ruminants do not naturally eat fish and should therefore not be feed with fish products.
Animal fodder, origin - SE KRAV 2006
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50% of the feed should be grown on the farm. There are exceptions for small farms (for example 3 cows with off spring or 10 beef cattle or 3 sows with off spring). Cooperation on growing of feed can be done between neighbour farms, there is a need for a cooperation contract. Exceptions can be made special cases (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.6).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 4.3 requires that 50% of the feed for herbivores should come from the farm itself or if that is not possible be produced in cooperation with other organic farms. The KRAV standards cover all animals while EU Regulation 2092/91 covers herbivores. In the KRAV standards pigs should have the possibility to graze and also be provided with roughage during the winter. The KRAV standards make exceptions for small farms were it might be difficult to have the machinery to produce feed of the required kind on the farm.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement - SE KRAV 2006
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All animals should have free access to roughage. In the diet for ruminants reared for meat there may be maximum 30% concentrate. For dairy animals there may be maximum 40% concentrate except for the first three months in lactation when it may be 50%. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.10 and 5.3.11).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 4.7 it is required that 60% of the feed for herbivores is roughage. This can be reduced to 50% for dairy animals during three months early in the lactation. Paragraph 4.11 requires that roughage shall be added to the daily diet for pigs and poultry. The KRAV standards require free access to roughage.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, grazing - SE KRAV 2006
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Grazing should constitute at least 50% of the dry matter for ruminants (during the grazing season). For dairy animals and bullocks a somewhat lower proportion can be allowed for shorter periods but as a minimum half or the roughage should be from grazing. Pigs and poultry should have the possibility to graze, providing both feed and opportunity for activity. Stud bulls may be kept in outdoor runs but during the grazing period they should have access to fresh grass (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.13 and 5.3.14).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require grazing for pigs or poultry. For herbivores it is required in paragraph 4.7 that rearing systems for herbivores are to be based on maximum use of pasturage. All animals, including pigs and poultry graze. For poultry though it might not be such an important part of the diet, activity it is very important. Sweden has a lot of land for grazing and it is important that these areas are used, also from a biodiversity perspective.
Animal rearing, weaning, pigs - SE KRAV 2006 Piglets should not be weaned until they are 7 weeks old (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.19). In EU Regulation 2091/91 pigs should not be weaned before 40 days. It might seem that the 9 extra days is a short time but on a fifth of its lifespan the piglet is quite much stronger and also more resistant against diseases.
Animals breeding, birth - SE KRAV 2006
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Animals shall be given the opportunity to be alone during giving birth and laying eggs. Cows shall be allowed to calve alone and may only in exceptional cases be tethered. Indoor calving shall take place in a calving box. Sows shall farrow alone and farrowing may take place in a farrowing hut or if indoors in a separate space with sufficient freedom and space. There shall be enough nesting material for sows (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1, 5.2.2 and 5.2.3).
Specific conditions for cows and pigs giving birth is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Animal welfare is one of the most important areas of organic production. Conditions in some conventional systems are far from providing animals the possibility of giving birth in a more natural and undisturbed way. Therefore it is important to clearly express this in organic standards.
Aquaculture, fishing - SE KRAV 2006
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KRAV has elaborate standards for fishing covering stock assessment, fishing vessels, fishing methods, landing and processing. There are several standards which focus on environmental issues (KRAV standards chapter 19).
Fishing is not covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Fishing has a huge environmental impact. At the time of establishing the KRAV fishing standard it was not possible to use the Marine Stewardship Council standard due to strong resistance by the fishermen’s association.
Aquaculture, general requirements - SE KRAV 2006
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KRAV has standards for aquaculture covering conversion, environmental aspects, animal welfare, health, feed and slaughter. There are specific standards for salmonoids, perch and mussels (KRAV Standards chapter 7).
There are no detailed rules for aquaculture in EU Regulation 2092/91 but there is a reference to the possibility for the Member States to recognise private standards. There is an interest from consumers to also get organic aquaculture products. There are several environmental and health issues in aquaculture were organic production makes a difference.
Biodiversity, landscape, cultural heritage plan - SE KRAV Standards 2006
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The standards are requiring that all famers shall have a plan for the management of nature and cultural heritage. This is a plan which identifies areas with rich biodiversity and important cultural heritages on the farm. It also gives advice for how these should be handled to be conserved and enhanced.(KRAV Standards paragraph 3.1.8).
This is an additional requirement which is not covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Biodiversity is an important area in organic agriculture. There has been an difficulty to cover the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity and also of cultural heritages. This standard has been agreed upon after a wide stakeholder consultation.
Cleaning agents - SE KRAV 2006
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Cleaning agents used for cleaning of all kind of facilities and equipment (areas for production, processing, handling and storages) shall be eco-labeled if available. If there is no environmental labeled product avaiable the Precautionary Principle shall be used. (KRAV Standards paragraph 2.12.10.)
In EU Regulation 2092/91 there is a list of products allowed for cleaning and disinfection of buildings for animal husbandry but not for areas for storing, handling or processing. The standards requires the use of the most environmental friendly product whenever possible in all kind of production. In Sweden there are two systems for eco labelling of cleaning agents, mainly for use in private homes but some are also for professional use.
Cleaning, disinfection and pest control - SE KRAV 2006
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KRAV has a whole range of standards for handling cleaning, disinfection and pest control in all areas were organic products are produced, handled, processed and stored. The operators shall first of all work with precautionary measures and also do a risk assessment to foresee and prevent problems. The operator shall carry out sanitary and building measures to minimise potential problems. Cleaning of facilities is stressed. For chemical products used which may be of possible danger to human health or environment the products less harmful shall be used (this is a Swedish legal requirement). For disinfection and pest control in storages, handling and processing facilities, mechanical methods shall be preferred. If these are not effective physical methods can be used, after that biotechnical methods can be used and as the last option chemical methods can be used when the other methods are considered impossible. Organic products should not be contaminated by the disinfection or pest control methods and all activities have to be documented. (KRAV Standards paragraph 2.12.9 - 2.12.11).
Cleaning, disinfection and pest control is covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91 to the extent of reducing the risk for contamination of organic products but the more thorough stepwise approach of working with precautionary measures and risk assessment is not covered. The step by step system avoiding the use of chemicals for disinfection and pest control is also not covered. Cleaning, disinfection and pest control are areas were it is a risk for contamination of organic products by the substances used. Through a good management system the use of problems can be reduced considerably. The substances used for fumigations and other pest control efforts are often toxic and have other environmental effects.
Collection of wild plants, buffer zones - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards for wild collection requires 25 metre buffer zones to roads (if there is more then 3000 vehicles per day), and to land which has been treated with chemical fertilisers or pesticides. The standards also set a maximum limit for caesium levels in land from which berries and mushrooms are collected (KRAV standards paragraph 8.1.6).
Contamination risks in wild collection are not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. It is important for consumers trust in organic products that there are as little contaminants as possible. Sweden has problems with contamination of caesium after the Chernobyl accident.
Collection of wild plants, education - SE KRAV 2006
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Persons who gather or pick wild products should have access to maps of the approved areas for collection so that all collection is done only on these areas. All information, instructions and standards should be available in a language which the collectors understand at the delivery station (KRAV standards paragraph 8.1.9).
This is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. It is important that collectors have maps and understandable information, instructions and standards to minimise the risk for collection on non-allowed areas or in the wrong way.
Conservation, primary ecosystems/rainforests - SE KRAV Standards 2006
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Clearing of primary ecosystems as rainforests, wetlands and primary grassland is prohibited (KRAV Standards paragraph 3.1.6).
The previous vegetation cover on land used for agriculture is not covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91. From nature conservation perspective this is an important area where agriculture is a risk factor. The conservation of rain forests in particular is a concern of many consumers.
Contamination, buffer zones - SE KRAV 2006
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When chemical pesticides or chemical fertilisers are used on neighbouring land to organic farmland actions should be taken to minimise the risk of contamination. This can be an agreement with the neighbour about a buffer zone, establishing an own buffer zone or planting a windbreak. On a not fully converted organic farm there should be an internal buffer zone for land where chemical pesticides are used (KRAV standards paragraph 4.2.3 and 4.2.4).
In EU 2092/91 there are general requirements for reducing the risk of contamination but the KRAV standards are more specific. The risk for contamination from drift is an important issue. The risk varies depending on the neighbours farming activities. The establishment of a specified internal buffer zone in a not fully converted organic farm is necessary for both reducing drift and also to clearly separate organic and conventional farming.
Contamination, farm machinery - SE KRAV Jan 2006
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The KRAV standards require that machinery such as seed drills, manure spreaders and sprayers used in conventional farming have to be well cleaned before use in organic farming (KRAV standards paragraph 3.1.11).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 there is a general statement that precautionary measures shall be taken to reduce the risk of contamination by unauthorised products throughout the production chain, but not a more specific statement. There is a risk of using the same machinery in conventional and organic farming. To request separate machinery is seen as too difficult and expensive. Therefore thorough cleaning is requested.
Contamination, farm refuse - SE KRAV 2006
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Farms should be clean and neat. Plastics, scrap metal, paper, oils and other waste products should be sent for reuse, recycling or energy recovery. Materials and spare parts for machinery can be kept but should be in good order (KRAV standards paragraph 3.1.10).
The order on the farm itself is not covered by EU 2092/91. Organic farms should look neat and representative. It should be possible for consumers to visit every single organic farm and have a good impression. Old scrap metal, oils and plastic can be an environmental risk and a risk for animals on the farm.
Contamination, general requirements - SE KRAV 2006
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KRAV standards for some issues cover the whole farm and not only the farmland. Chemical pesticides can not be used on gravel paths, roads and farmyards. Cultivation of GMO-crops is not allowed on the conventional part of a holding. Environmental adapted substances must be used in facilities (e.g. toilets) where the drainage is connected to manure storages where the manure will be used in the organic farming (KRAV-standards paragraph 3.1.6).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover areas on the farm that are not farmland. For manure there are general standards that it should not be contaminated. This standard is mainly applicable for partly converted farms. Spraying herbicides against weeds on the farmyard or growing GMO crops on the conventional part is not trustworthy on a farm with organic production. This is the fact even if there are no risks for contamination.
Contamination, heavy metals- SE KRAV Standards 2006
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There are maximum limits for the amounts of heavy metals brought into farmland by the use of inputs (fertilizers, soil conditioners, chemical pesticides, herbicides) or indirectly by the use in animal husbandry (feed, feed minerals and medicines). Fertilisers and soil conditioners shall be analysed when there is a reason to expect high concentrations of contaminants (KRAV Standards paragraph 4.2.5 and 4.3.7). There are limits for lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel and zinc (Annex 3).
In the EU regulation 2092/91 there are limitations for the heavy metal content of composted or fermented household waste, fur and aluminium calcium phosphate, but not for the amounts of heavy metals brought into a farm, whereas the KRAV standards have a more general approach to the issue of heavy metal contamination of soil. There are increasing amounts of heavy metals in the agricultural nutrient circulation system. Organic agriculture is dependent on the soil and the nutrients in the soil to produce food and feed. There is also an increased risk for the use of not so well known fertilisers which will fulfil organic standards but where the heavy metal content might be too high. An organic farmer should have full knowledge about what is brought into the farm and in to the soil.
Contamination, pollution, highways - SE KRAV Standards 2006
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Areas were plants are cultivated and products stored should be located so that the production is not contaminated and the value of the production is reduced as food or feed. Crop production for food shall not be situated closer then 25 meters from roads having more then 3000 vehicles per 24 hours (KRAV Standards paragraph 4.2.1)
There are general requirements in the EU Regulation 2092/91 about the risk of contamination of products in the inspection requirements in Annex III but not in the production rules. There is no regulation of the distance to roads or other pollution sources in the EU Regulation 2092/91. This is a standard which has strong consumer support. The concern about contamination from cars into fields and crops close to roads is substantial. There is little scientific research in this area which should be of concern not only for organic but also for conventional produce.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - SE KRAV 2006
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For certified products; meat, wool and hides the animals have to be raised according to the KRAV standards 2 months before the calculated birth of ruminants and 1 month for pigs. Animals present on the farm at conversion can be certified after 1 year. This also applies to conventional animals bought in later for breeding, milk or egg production (KRAV standards paragraph 5.1.5).
In EU 2092/91 conventional animals can be brought in to the operation and there is no requirement of organic management before birth. The conversion time is 12 months for beef, 6 months for sheep, goat and pigs for meat. For milk production it is 6 weeks, 10 weeks for poultry for meat and 6 weeks for egg-production. The overall goal is to only bring in organic animals but as this is not possible conversion times are needed. At initial conversion there are animals on the farm, to keep consumer trust and handle competition between farmers there is a need for strict conversion times.
Crop rotation, certified land - SE KRAV 2006
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It is not permissable to rotate the certified production. The operator can not remove certified organic land and bring in conventional land into the certification scheme without KRAVs approval (KRAV standards paragraph 4.1.8).
The rotation of organic and conventional land is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Farmers are not allowed to have an organic farming system and then remove organic fields from the certification to treat them with chemical pesticides or chemical fertilisers and then possibly bring them in again into organic production. There are occasions were it is appropriate to take out land to gain a more coherent organic part of a split production.
Environmental policy - SE KRAV 2006
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All KRAV certified operators must have an environmental policy and manage a systematical environmental effort (KRAV Standards paragraph 2.11.3 ). For farmers the Swedish Federation of Farmers Environmental Audits can be used. Is is a self auditing of the environmental aspects of the farm (KRAV Standards paragraph 3.1.7).
A request for a general environmental policy or managment system is not covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91. For organic farming in Sweden it is important to not only fullfil basic organic requirement but also to be in the forefront for environmental issues in general.
Fertilization, intensity - SE KRAV 2006
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KRAV can request that a farmer has a plant nutrient equation done for the whole farm and all inputs used (KRAV standards paragraph 4.1.6).
Plant nutrient equation or balances are not covered in EU 2092/91. To use manure and other inputs in an effective and responsible way is important in organic production. For farms where there is a risk for overuse of inputs and risks to the environment, a nutrient balance can be requested. This is also a educational tool for the farmer.
Free range conditions, access to soil, piglets - SE KRAV 2006
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Piglets should have access to soil the year around (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.24).
This is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Piglets intake required amounts of iron from the soil. This is more natural then feed minerals.
Labelling claims, processed products - SE KRAV 2006
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The ultimate processing country should be indicated on the package. For ingredients the operator should always be able to give the information of the country of origin. This can be done through direct information on the package, web pages, telephone customer service etc (KRAV standards paragraph 2.13.16).
This is not covered in EU egulation 2092/91. Many customers are interested in where their food comes from. The origin of ingredients might change, therefore it is up to the operator if they want to print information on the package or would like to inform in other ways.
Labelling claims, processed products, food additives - SE KRAV 2006
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Food additives should be described by name and not only number in the ingredients panel (KRAV standards paragraph 2.13.13).
This is not required by EU Regulation 2092/91. It is important to give the most possible information to the consumer.
Labelling claims, production places - SE KRAV 2006
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A certified production place (factories, slaughterhouses etc) can not be marked as KRAV certified independent of the products (KRAV standards paragraph 2.14.3).
This is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Production places where both organic and conventional products are processed shall not be able to market the production place itself as organic as it can confuse consumers.
Labelling claims, shops and supermarkets - SE KRAV 2006
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There are requirements for how a shop or a supermarket can call themselves KRAV authorised. They shall contribute to increased availability of organic products through having a wide range certified products and have a well informed staff. The range of products shall reflect what is available on the market and the objective is that the consumer shall be able to choose organic alternatives from all product groups. The standard also covers repacking of products at the shop or supermarket. (KRAV standards chapter 15).
Standards for shops and supermarkets are not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. To authorise shops for handling of organic products and for promotion of organic production will increase the knowledge about organic agriculture and the availability of products. With well trained personnel it also increases the security that organic products are handled in the right way and not commingled with other products.
Land management, mulches and plastic - SE KRAV 2006
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Floating mulches, plastic for covering soil and plants and silage plastic should not be made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Used materials should be taken away from the land or place it has been used (KRAV standards paragraph 4.7.5).
This is not regulated in EU Regulation 2092/91. PVC has huge environmental effects and all use should be reduced to a minimum. Plastic and mulches should be handled so that they do not cause environmental problems and are not polluting the farm or soil.
Land management, nutrients, leaching - SE KRAV 2006
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To prevent leaking of nutrients into water a permanent, unfertilized, overgrown buffer zone of 3 metres should be left beside watercourses, wetlands and lakes that are water-bearing the year round. In winter a cover of vegetation is encouraged. Catch crops should be grown when possible. Animal manure should be handled so that nutrient losses are minimised (KRAV-standards paragraph 3.1.9 and 4.1.4).
Prevention of leakage of nutrients is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91 except that the use of input should not result in contamination of the environment (article 7). The leakage of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus is one of the biggest environmental problems in agriculture in Sweden.
Livestock housing, darkness, poultry - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards require that both hens and chickens should have at least 8 hours a day without artificial light (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.19).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 8.4.4 also requires that laying hens shall have at least 8 hours without artificial light. However, these KRAV standards also apply to chikens. The KRAV standards cover both hens and chickens, the EU Regulation 2092/91 only covers laying hens. There are conventional systems for chicken rearing which use 24 hours of light to get the animals to eat more and as such grow faster.
Livestock housing, daylight - SE KRAV 2006
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Animals should have adequate access to daylight. The area for letting in daylight should be at least 5% of the floor area (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.18).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 8.1.1 states that the building must permit plentiful natural ventilation and light to enter, but the KRAV standards are more specific. The KRAV standards are more specific and easier to verify.
Livestock housing, general requirements, pigs - SE KRAV 2006
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The natural behaviour patterns of pigs should be provided for. They shall have the possibility for rooting and food searching behaviour on fallow land, forest or woodland. In the winter this should be in deep litter. Pigs should have access to a mud bath or a water bath in the summer. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1)
Annex 1, paragraph 8.3.8 states that there shall be exercise areas which must permit rooting. Different substrates can be used for that. Mud baths or water baths are not covered by EU Regulation 2092/91. The KRAV standards require that during the non frozen period pigs are out on land, in winter they can be kept in an exercise area. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows pigs to be kept in an exercise area the year around. There is a qualitative difference to root in substrate or in real soil. The pigs can also be used for uprooting leys etc. Pigs cannot sweat and need water or mud baths to regulate temperature. This is an animal welfare issue.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - SE KRAV 2006
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Hens shall have dust baths. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1).
This is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Dust bathing is one of the basic needs for hens. It is a way to get rid of parasites. All hens should have the possibility to dust bath, this is an animal welfare issue.
Livestock housing, grazing period - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards have specific standards on when animals can be kept inside even if the general provision is that animals should be outside whenever it is possible to keep them outside. Animals can be kept indoors in case of mating, insemination, giving birth, illness, insect attacks, and extreme weather conditions or before slaughter. Calves may be kept inside during the period of milk feeding. Sows may be kept indoors for maximum a month for mating/insemination, if kept inside for more then a week they shall have access to an outdoor run. Bulls are not allowed to keep inside if they are not going to be sent for slaughter in the near future. The producer shall document all animals kept indoors. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.4).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify when and for how long animals can be kept inside during the grazing period. In Annex 1 paragraph 8.3.1 states that mammals shall be outside whenever the physiological condition of the animal, the weather conditions and the state of the ground permit. In paragraph 8.3.4 it is a derogation to keep cattle, pigs and sheep for meat production inside during the final fattening stage, which can be maximum one fifth of the lifetime and not over three months. KRAV have more specific standards on when and how animals can be kept inside during the grazing period, the EU Regulation is much more general. From experience it is known there is always a risk that some animals are kept inside for too long time. KRAV standards disallow keeping animals inside during the final fattening stage. It is so important that animals are outside in the summer that this is seen as more important, it should also be possible to manage the animals outside even if coming closer to slaughter.
Livestock management, general requirements, deer - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards have several standards for deer. The environment should be natural and contain plants and food that deer prefer. There should be protection in the enclosure by trees or forest. Handling of deer should be done so that stress is minimised. All deer should be able to feed at the feeding station at the same time. The feed should 100% KRAV –certified, 30% of the daily intake can be concentrate. Deer kids should suckle until natural weaning. Deer should only be slaughtered in the enclosure or adjacent to the enclosure (KRAV standards, several paragraphs in chapter 5).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have any specific standards for deer. Deer are in several ways quite different to other ruminants. It is important that they are treated in the best way.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - SE KRAV 2006
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The only mutilations allowed are castration and dehorning. Castration of calves has to be done before they are 8 weeks old. Calves should be anaesthetised during castration. Castration of pigs should be done before they are 7 days old. Dehorning of calves through burning is allowed before the age of 8 weeks. Dehorning of older animals can be done on a case by case basis for animal welfare reasons (KRAV standards paragraph 5.5.3 and 5.5.4).
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows mutilations for reasons of safety, improvment of health, welfare and hygiene, but not in a systematic manner. Mutilations must be carried out at the most appropriate age by qualified personnel and any suffering to the animals must be reduced to a minimum. Castrations are allowed if the above requirements are fulfilled. The KRAV standards allow fewer types of mutilations and have more precise time limits and requirements. If mutilations are only done at young age the risk for side effects is less. Ringing of bulls is not seen as a mutilation. Ringing of sows is not permitted by Swedish law.
Manure fertilizers, origin - SE KRAV 2006
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Manure from beef cattle in slatted floor boxes, conventional pig production, battery hens and caged fur animals are not permitted as fertilizers. There are exceptions for pig production with less then 50 animals a year and when the animals are kept in big boxes with straw bedding. There is also an exception for producers with beef cattle in slatted floors or conventional pig production which can use the manure from the conventional animals if they at the same time start to convert the animal husbandry to organic (KRAV standards paragraph 4.3.3).
In the EU Regulation 2092/91 the use of manure from ‘factory farming’ is not allowed. The KRAV standards are stricter than the Swedish interpretation of ‘factory farming’ in the EU Regulation. If the KRAV standards are stricter than the other countries it is not possible to assess the interpretations as the interpretations are not official.
Milk for offspings - SE KRAV 2006
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Calves, lambs and kids should be allowed to suckle for at least the full colostrum period and then get their own kind of animals unprocessed KRAV-certified milk. Organic milk from other species can be used for motherless animals. If that is not possible unprocessed conventional milk can be used. In emergencies milk powder can be used, but if this is more then 30% of the daily feed intake a 12 month conversion time is required. The producer has to document all use of milk from other species, conventional milk and milk substitutes. Calves which do not suckle should be given the opportunity to suck in a natural position through an artificial teat (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.16 – 5.3.18).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 4.5 states that the feeding of young mammals must be based on natural milk, preferably maternal milk, though there are no requirements that animals should suckle. The KRAV standards require organic milk, in the normal case from the own species. The first days of suckling are important as the offspring gets the mothers micro flora together with the milk. That gives a protection against diseases. The requirement that calves shall suckle in a natural position even if hand reared is based on research showing that the milk ends up in the right stomach when suckling from above instead of drinking from a bucket below.
Nutrients, potted plants - SE KRAV 2006
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Half of the nutrients for potted plants and in greenhouses shall come from the soil (KRAV standards paragraph 4.7.4).
This is not regulated in EU Regulation 2092/91. It is the soil that should be fertilized and not the plants. This makes it impossible to grow in substrates with low biological activity.
Origin of livestock, general requirements - SE KRAV 2006
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KRAV standards state that animal husbandry should if possible be integrated animal production i.e. mother and off spring should be at the same unit. If animals are brought in they should preferably come from one other farm, the maximum is three farms per year. Pigs from different stocks or ages should not be mixed. Brought in pigs should be separated from other pigs at the farm for three weeks (KRAV standards paragraph 5.1.11 and 5.1.12)
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have restrictions on from where or the number of farms from which animals are brought in. Importing animals on to a farm brings associated risk for introducing disease, therefore buying in animals and the number of farms is restricted in the KRAV standards. Transporting animals and changing conditions always stresses animals.
Packaging material - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards states that environmentally packaging material shall be preferred, minimal use of packaging materials should be strived for. KRAVs goal is to hase out PVC and other clorine based plastics. (Standard 2.12.13)
The environmental aspect of packaging material is not covered by EU Regulation 2092/91. To fulfill consumers demand for environmentally adapted production not only in the field or processing but also in other areas.
Packaging material, recycled - SE KRAV 2006
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KRAV certified products can only be stored in recycled packages and wrappings which have been used for conventional products if it is well cleaned. There should be no risk of any contamination. (KRAV standards paragraph 2.12.7 and 2.12.8).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 there are general statements about contamination of organic products but nothing specific on packaging material. In practise there are a lot of containers and packaging material which have been used for conventional products which are then used in organic production. The recycling of packaging materials fits well with the principles of organic agriculture relating to resource use, but there is also a risk for contamination which has to be handled.
Plant and livestock production, inputs certification - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards cover certification of inputs in organic production. The areas covered are – animal management agents – plant protection agents – plant growth stimulants – soil conditioning agents – fertilizers – sowing and potting soil – pesticide and disinfection agents in storage areas The standards are based on the relevant standards for plant production and animal husbandry with additions and clarifications. Only products which contain 100% organic ingredients can be called organic all other certified inputs can be labelled with a special logo which stating “approved for organic production”. (KRAV standards chapter 12).
Certification of inputs is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. The certification of inputs is a help to organic farmers to easily find which inputs that are allowed or not. The producer of inputs can also more easily communicate that a product fulfils the KRAV standards. Interestingly many consumer products are also certified to this system showing that consumer does not only want organic food but also potting soil and nutrients for flowers.
Plant protection, carriers and wetting agents - SE KRAV Standards 2006
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The KRAV standards requires that carriers and wetting agents used in plant protection products are examined and accepted by KRAV (4.4.4). There are simple criteria in the standard and also a reference to the IFOAM Basic Standards criteria for evaluation of these additives. (KRAV Standards Article 4.4.4. In appendix 4, 12 accepted carriers and wetting agents are listed.)
This is an additional requirement compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation does not have any specific requirements on carriers or wetting agents. For the organic farmer it is important to have a knowledge about all substances used on the farmland. It is known that some of the carriers and wetting agents also have biological effects.
Plant protection, copper - SE KRAV 2006
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Copper can be used for plant protection but only in the amounts which are allowed by the standards for heavy metals, 0,5 kg per ha per year (KRAV standards paragraph 4.4.2).
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg of copper per ha per year from 2006 and the use will be further restricted in the coming years. In Sweden copper has not been used in organic farming. Copper is a heavy metal with environmental effects. Wine is not grown in Sweden.
Processing inputs - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards accept 28 additives for food processing (KRAV standards appendix 7).
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 47 additives for food processing. Among these are sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. The KRAV standards allow fewer additives. Nitrates are not allowed for meat products. The number of processing aids allowed is about the same for the KRAV standards and the EU Regulation. Many consumers are interested in organic food because fewer additives are used.
Processing inputs - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards base the acceptance of additives and processing aids for food processing on own criteria plus the elaborate criteria for evaluation of additives to the criteria in the IFOAM Basic Standards for evaluation of inputs, additives and processing aids (KRAV standards paragraph 9.2.2).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 there are no criteria for the evaluation of additives and processing aids. The assessment of additives and processing aids can be very difficult, good criteria can then be of great help. The criteria for evaluation of inputs in the IFOAM Basic Standards are elaborate.
Processing inputs, packaging - SE KRAV 2006
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Substances that come in contact with food like cheese wax should not be treated with preservatives (such as anti-fungal agents), pest control substances, and synthetic or natural colouring agents (KRAV standards paragraph 9.2.3).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 there are general statements about contamination of organic products but nothing specific on preservatives in substances used in close contact with food like cheese wax. This area is probably intended to be covered by EU Regulation 2092/91 but it is not clearly stated. It is important to as clearly as possible state what is allowed or not.
Processing, feed and seeds - SE KRAV 2006
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Only processes allowed for food processing can be used for processing of feed and seed. Allowed processes are mechanical, physical, biological and enzymatic processes. Water, ethanol and fats are allowed as solvents for extraction. Smoking and precipitation is also allowed (KRAV standards paragraph 2.12.5, 5.3.8 and 9.2.4).
This is not clearly described in EU Regulation 2092/91. Processing of feed and seed are important parts of organic agriculture. It is important to be as clear as possible when writing standards.
Processing, filtering techniques - SE KRAV 2006
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Filtration techniques that lead to chemical changes on a molecular level are only allowed after a special examination by KRAV. Filters that contain asbestos or affect the product negatively are not allowed (KRAV standards paragraph 9.2.3).
Filtration techniques are not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. The KRAV standards are more elaborate on filtration techniques.
Processing, general requirements - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards list which processing methods that are allowed for processing of organic production. Allowed methods are Mechanical and physical processes, – Biological processes such as fermentation and brewing (such as for example using lactic acid cultures and mould cultures), – Enzymatic processes where the effect is to coagulate (such as rennet) or cleaving substances (such as the enzyme amylase), – Extraction. Only water, ethanol or fats may be used as solvents, – Smoking, – Precipitation, Irradiation is not permitted. KRAV does not permit processes that lead to the creation of foreign molecules. (KRAV standards paragraph 9.2.3).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 irradiation is not permitted. Which processes that are allowed are not stated. The KRAV standards are more restrictive when limiting the processes which can be used. The prohibition for not allowing processes that leads to molecules which does not exist in nature is not covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91. For consumers it is probably important that organic products are done with processes which also can happen in nature.
Processing, preservatives, milk - SE KRAV 2006
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When preserving milk only bacteria cultures and acidification substances of plant origin may be used. Chemical feed preservatives including formic, propionic and acetic acid are not allowed (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.28).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I paragraph 4.17 and annex II D1.5 allows the following preservatives for animal feed: E 200 Sorbic acid, E 236 Formic acid, E 260 Acetic acid, E 270 Lactic acid, E 280 Propionic acid, E 330 Citric acid. On organic production as little chemical preservatives as possible should be used.
Selling produce, loose weight - SE KRAV 2006
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Selling produce in loose weight in shops and supermarkets can be done from a KRAV labelled box if the packaging or refilling date is clearly stated. Signs with the KRAV mark shall be placed close to the product panel (KRAV standards paragraph 2.13.14 and 2.3.15).
Sales of organic products in shops and supermarkets are not regulated by EU 2092/91. Many organic products are sold in loose weight and it is important that organic products can compete on equal conditions. There is a wish by consumers to reduce the amount of packaging material. It is not possible to request all shops and supermarkets to be certified for handling of organic products.
Slaughter, general requirements - SE KRAV Standards 2006
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The standards for slaughter of animals are detailed standards on how animals should be transported, kept in the lairage, stunned and slaughtered. Groups of animals are not allowed to be mixed with for them unknown animals. The slaughter of the animals should normally take place on the same day as arrival to the slaughterhouse. The waiting animals should have access to water and for animals kept more than 4 hours access to roughage and bedded lying areas. The movement of animals within the slaughterhouse should be without physical violence and electric pods are not allowed. Animals should be checked individually for successful stunning and bleeding to death should occur without the awareness of unstunned animals. Each animal should be checked to ensure that it is dead. (KRAV Standards Chapter 10).
KRAV standards are more detailed and have additional requirements to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation states that the slaughter must be handled in such a way that stress to the animals is reduced to a minimum. Animal welfare in all parts of an animals life and on the way death is seen to be very important by all stakeholders involved; producers, handlers, traders, supermarkets, NGOs and consumers.
Slaughter, veterinary inspections - SE KRAV 2006
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The results from the veterinary inspections of the animal before and after slaughter should be communicated by the farmer to KRAV (KRAV standards paragraph 5.5.8).
The results of veterinarian inspections are not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. The results of veterinarian inspection gives good evidence as to whether the animals have been treated well, been dirty etc. It is a good tool for the certification body.
Social justice - SE KRAV 2006
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In the KRAV standards operators are requested to have a written policy on social justice, exempted are compamies with less than 10 employees and those who operate under a state system that enforces social laws. Involuntary labour shall not be used. The operators shall provide their employees and contractors equal opportunity and treatement and not act in a discriminatory way. They shall also have the freedom to associate, right to organise and to bargain collectively. Children shall have the possibility to attend basic education (KRAV standards paragraph 2.3.10).
Social justice is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Social justice is an important part of organic agriculture. More and more consumers have concerns about whether the products that they buy are produced under acceptable conditions.
Standards, restaurants and industrial kitchens - SE KRAV 2006
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The standards for restaurants and industrial kitchens cover the whole or parts of the operations. Restaurants with á la carte menu need to have two approved main courses daily. On a lunch menu there shall at least be one approved course weekly. An approved dish shall have 100% KRAV certified ingredients, if organic ingredients are not available, a conventional ingredient can be used but at least 70% of the dish shall be organic. Only food additives and processing aids allowed by the KRAV standards can be used in a certified main course (includes additives and processing aids in conventional ingredients). Bread, salads, drinks, coffee, tea, ketchup etc shall also be possible to the extent possible. A certified buffet there must be a complete meal of KRAV certified products. A certified breakfast shall contain certified products in several of the type of food served for breakfast (bread, cheese, yoghurt, marmalade, breakfast cereals, fruits, vegetables, eggs etc). A certified café shall have KRAV certified coffee, tea, milk, sugar, fruit drinks, sandwiches, cakes and fruit if these products are served. There is also standards for handling of organic products so that no commingling with conventional products occur or contamination from cleaning. There are also standards for the labelling of dishes and statements about organic ingredients shall be made so consumers are sure which ingredients/ dishes are organic. (KRAV standards chapter 16).
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have any specific standards for restaurants or industrial kitchens. More and more food is consumed outside of homes. There is an interest both by consumers and by restaurants and other industrial kitchens to eat or serve organic food. The KRAV standards are relatively open and are set with the argument to make it possible for several to start to serve organic food. Labelling has to be clear so that consumers are well informed. In the EU there are different interpretations in different Member States if restaurants are covered or not.
Textiles, hides leather and skins, processing, - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards cover standards for textiles, hides leather and skins. The standards covers all kind of products like yarn, fabrics, clothes, cloths, mats, decoration textiles, non-woven products, skins and hides. The whole process from raw material, processing, accessories and labelling are covered. Special focus is put on environmental aspects of wet processing, dying and several other environmental issues. (KRAV standards chapter 13 and 14).
Standards for textiles, hides leather and skins are not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. There is an interest for organic textiles both from producers and consumers. In reality there have few products on the market.
Veterinary treatment, non-medical products - SE KRAV 2006
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The withholding periods for meat, wool and hides are 6 months after treatment with antibiotics and chemotherapeutics is double the legal period but always at least 6 months. For treatments with vitamins, minerals and anaesthetics the withholding period is the double of the legally required. For other substances the withholding period is double the legal but always at least 2 months. The withholding periods for milk and egg is double the legal period. For substances without a set period the withholding period is 48 hours. The KRAV standards also have a list of substances which can be used without any withdrawal period if there is no legal period. These are calcium for milk fever, agents to increase bloodsugar, carbon preparations, natural medicines, injections with vitamins and minerals, all external treatments except parasite treatment or formalin. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.4.8, 5.4.10 and 5.4.11).
EU Regulation 2092/91 states that the withdrawal period after use of allopathic veterinary medicine is double the legal period or if not specified, 48 hours. The KRAV standards have the same withdrawal periods for milk and eggproducts. For meat, wool and hides the withholding periods are longer. There is always a risk for residues after a medicine treatment, for meat, wool and hides it has been seen as possible to prolong the withholding period compared to EU 2091/91 but not for milk and eggs. The list of treatments which are stated to have no withholding periods are substances which are seen to not make any residues or other problems, and they are not classified as allopathic medicines.
Veterinary treatment, parasite control - SE KRAV 2006
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Avermectines are only allowed to be used when other substances are not expected to have the desired effects. Slowly degradable substances as avermectines shall not be used when animals are on natural pastures (KRAV standards paragraph 5.4.7).
The use of avermectines is not regulated separately to any other parasite treatments within EU Regulation 2092/91. Avermectines are used against internal and external parasites but most of the substance is excreted in the animal manure. There it is still toxic to the insects which live in and breakdown the manure. Several species of dung beetles are declining rapidly. When using these kinds of substances, which are the only ones effective to some parasites, best possible practises should be used.
Veterinary treatment, parasite control, withdrawral periods - SE KRAV 2006
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The withholding period for meat, wool and hides are double the legal period but at least 2 months after treatments against parasites with chemical agents. For milk and eggs the withholding period after the same type of treatments is double the legal period and for substances without a set period it is 48 hours. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.4.10).
EU Regulation 2092/91 states that the withdrawal period after use of allopathic veterinary medicine is double the legal period or if not specified, 48 hours. Chemical treatments of parasites are in Sweden not classified as veterinary medicine but as a chemical pesticide. It is unclear if the withdrawal periods of EU Regulation 2092/91 cover chemical pesticides. The withholding periods in the KRAV standards are longer for meat, wool and hides.