Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by country standards

  • Organic regulations/standards by region
    • Europe
      • Germany
        • Bioland
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Animal breeding, longevity - DE Bioland 2005
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Longevity has to be taken into account for breeding purposes and especially in the case of animals for milk production. Only animal breeds appropriate to the animal husbandry systems practised in organic farming should be used. Breeding should not be based on the purchase of animals from conventional origin and breeding and breeding animals (to be purchased) should not originate from embryo transfer. (Bioland production standards, 4.7 Animal breeding, 4.7.1 General; Bioland production standards, 4.7 Animal breeding, 4.7.2 Origin of animals for breeding -purposes
The BIOLAND standard has further requirements to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to longevity as a breeding aim and the suitability of the animals to organic farming systems. However the adaptation to the environment is to be considered. There are no details within the EU Standards about the use of conventional animals / animals originating from embryo transfer in breeding programmes. To enhance the breeding of animals appropriate to organic farming and increase independency from conventional strains.
Animal fodder, cattle - DE Bioland 2005
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During the summer cattle must be fed fresh green fodder. Calves should preferably be fed with BIOLAND certified milk during the first 3 months. The feeding of dried grass cobs should be avoided. (Bioland production standards, 4.5.2 Cattle feeding)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The feeding of fresh green fodder is not required by the EU Regulation 2092/91 and it does not refer to grass cobs. To provide the animals with feed which is appropriate to the species, to ensure BIOLAND quality throughout the whole production chain and to reduce the consumption of energy.
Animal fodder, feed additives - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Feed additives are allowed if listed in the corresponding appendix (10.4.6.). The amount of copper and zinc is limited. The use of certain substances requires approval of BIOLAND and some can only be used for specific purposes. (Bioland production standards, 4.4.4 Feed additives; Bioland production standards, 10.4.6 Permitted single fodder and additives as feed additives in feeding animals)
The provisions are very similar but in some cases more detailed, i.e. the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the amount of copper and zinc and preservatives do not require specific approval. Avoiding contamination with copper and zinc in outdoor runs and manure.
Animal fodder, general requirements, poultry - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Hens must be able to take in part of the feed ration (grains) from the litter, the ration must contain roughage and calcareous feed components. Feed for fattening poultry must consist of at least 65% grains. Waterfowl should be given part of the feed ration in a moist form. (Bioland production standards, 4.5.5 Poultry feeding)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly require grains to be taken up from the litter or a certain percentage of grains to be fed, calcareous feed components or moist feed for waterfowl. However there is the general requirement that the feed shall meet the nutritional and physiological needs of the animals. To provide feed appropriate to the species.
Animal fodder, origin - DE Bioland 2005
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50% of the feed for one animal species has to be produced on the same farm. The rest can be bought in, preferably from other BIOLAND certified farms. In case of small stock sizes of poultry, pigs and horses (less than 1000 laying hens or the respective figure of other poultry categories, less than 30 sows, less than 60 fattening pigs places or less than 10 horses) 100 % of the fodder can be purchased. If unavailable other organic feeding stuffs and certain conventional feeding stuffs can be used after approval. Ready mixed feed components and mineral feed components can only be purchased from BIOLAND certified, respectively BIOLAND approved companies. Conventional feeding stuffs can only make up 5% of the diet of pigs (not all kind of pig production), 10% for laying hens, 15% for pullets, 15% for fattening poultry and only until an age of 10 weeks, 5% for sheep and 10% for deer. The daily intake of conventional feeding stuffs is limited to 25%. Only a few conventional feeding stuffs are admitted (hay, grass silage, leguminous plants, cereals and mill residue products, oil-bearing seeds, oil cakes, oil expellers, fodder beets, potato protein (only for pigs and poultry), gluten of maize (only poultry), winter grazing on extensively managed areas(only for sheep). Some more conventional feeding stuffs can be used during the conversion period, as long as the animal products are marketed without reference to organic agriculture. Conventional grassland harvest from the own farm can be fed to all kind of animals within the percentages allowed according to the EU Regulation and without specific approval. Animal feed must be of a good quality, feeding stuffs from third world countries, feeding stuffs of animal origin (except for milk) and extraction groats are excluded. (Bioland production standards, 4.4 Animal Density and Purchase of Additional Feedstuffs, 4.4.1 General; Bioland production standards, 10.4 Temporary regulations for purchased feed from non-organic origin; Bioland production standards, 10.4.1 - 10.4.5; Bioland production standards, 4.4.3 Quality of purchased feed; Bioland production standards, 4.4.2 Feed from land in conversion)
The BIOLAND standard contains further restrictions. Less conventional feeding stuffs are admitted and the respective percentages are lower. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 ruminants can be fed with up to 5% conventional feeding stuffs listed in the Annex II C and pigs and poultry can be given up to 15% until the end of 2007. After that the percentage will decline (10% until the end of 2009, 5% until the end of 2011). If animal products are not to be marketed with reference to organic farming within 5 years of the beginning of the conversion period, more types of conventional feeding stuffs (but still less than in the EU Regulation) and the same percentages as indicated in the EU Regulation are admissible. The stipulation to have 50% feed produced on the same farm is restricted in the EU Regulation to herbivores and it can be produced by another organic farm as a cooperation partner.Bioland excludes feeding stuff originating from developping countries, EU doesn't specifiy the origin. The animal density is mainly oriented on the basis of the provision of feed by the business/farm itself. The purchase of fodder is subject to most stringent quality standards in order to minimise the load placed on the operational cycle of the business by pollutants. Bioland production standards, 4.4 Animal Density and Purchase of Additional Feedstuffs, 4.4.1 General; Bioland production standards, 4.4 Animal Density and Purchase of Additional Feedstuffs, 4.4.3 Quality of purchased feed; The provisions refer to the ecological principle of recyling of nutrients and mutual benefit among the different production units of a farm. Furthermore contamination with objectionable substances (i.e. solubles used for extraction processes)must be avoided.
Aquaculture, fresh water fish production - DE Bioland 2005
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The specific rules for aquaculture are regulated to the type and management of fish production systems, water quality, stocking density, feeding, handling of fish, health, reproduction and breeding, bought in stock and conversion. (Bioland production standards, 4.11. Fresh Water Fish Production)
Bioland has detailed standards for aquaculture, whereas aquaculture is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide rules for any type of organic animal production, practised in the area controlled by BIOLAND.
Beekeeping, feed - DE Bioland 2005
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Any surpluses from the winter feed must be removed from the hives before the start of the collecting period. During the season only BIOLAND honey can be used as feed for the colonies. BIOLAND certified feed components must be used. If these are not available, feeding stuffs of organic origin can be used. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.5 Feeding Bees)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more detailed by requiring surplus feed to be removed. This is not required by the corresponding EU Regulation 2092/91, however there is a requirement for feeding to be stopped at least 15 days before the beginning of the next flow of nectar or honey dew. The preference of feeding stuffs of BIOLAND quality is not regulated by the EU Regulation. In order to avoid adulteration of the honey to be harvested with remaining feed made from sugar.
Beekeeping, harvesting honey - DE Bioland 2005
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Only mature honey can be extracted from the hive. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.3 Honey, 4.10.3.1 Harvest)
The BIOLAND standard is more precise. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly require only mature honey to be extracted. However there is a general requirement of an adequate harvest of bee products. In order to ensure the high quality of the honey and to avoid problems arising as a consequence of i.e. a high water content of the honey.
Beekeeping, harvesting pollen - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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This chapter regulates in detail the collection of BIOLAND pollen. There are detailed provisions concerning the character, placement and cleaning of facilities for pollen, the extraction and the handling of the harvested pollen. Among others: It is important, that enough pollen for the bee's own supply is left in the hive and that bees are not injured while stripping off the pollen. The pollen has to be protected from negative impacts caused by climatic influences or inappropriate handling and processing (i.e. temperature of drying air). It must be stored in a cool, dark and dry place. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.4 Pollen, 4.10.4.1 Pollen trap; Bioland production standards, 4.10.4.2 Processing; Bioland production standards, 4.10.4.3 Packing and storage)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the harvesting of pollen in detail. There is only the general requirement of adequate handling of bee products during harvest, processing and storage and to leave an extensive quantity of pollen in the hives at the end of the season. To avoid major disturbances of the colonies and to respect their integrity. To guarantee BIOLAND pollen to be a high quality product.
Beekeeping, hive construction - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The hives must be constructed using mainly natural materials and substances. Harmful types of glue, painting or varnish is prohibited. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.2 Hives)
The BIOLAND standard is similar but more precise in explicitly excluding the use of chemical synthetic substances for the construction of bee hives. To avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Beekeeping, hive treatment - DE Bioland 2005
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The interior of the bee hives can only be treated with beeswax, propolis, plant oils or heat. For hygienic treatment heat, acetic acid, BT preparations (Bacillus thuringiensis) can be used. In case of acute infection caustic soda and organic acids can be used with subsequent neutralisaion with organic acids. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.2 Hives)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. Less products can be used for cleaning and disinfection of bee hives. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the products listed in Annex II B can be used to protect the hives from pest. Substances allowed for cleaning and desinfection are listed in Annex II E: Potassum and sodium soap, Water and steam, Milk of lime, Lime, Quicklime, Sodium hypochlorite (e.g. as liquid bleach), Caustic soda, Caustic potash, Hydrogen peroxide, Natural essences of plants, Citric, peracetic acid, formic, lactic, oxalic and acetic acid, Alcohol, Formaldehyde, Sodium carbonate. To avoid contamination of bee products with objectionable substances.
Beekeeping, natural colonies - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Colonies must have the opportunity to construct natural combs. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.3 Wax and Honeycombs)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require the natural construction of combs. To enable the bees to carry out their natural behaviour.
Beekeeping, origin of bees - DE Bioland 2005
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In general only bees of BIOLAND certified origin can be brought in. In case of unavailability, bees from other certified organic operations can be purchased. Conventional queens and swarms can be brought in annually in a quantity of up to 10% of the existing stock. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.9 Purchase of Additional Bees)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more precise by requiring the preference of BIOLAND origin for bees to be brought in, which is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. The provisions concerning bees from conventional origin to be brought in are identical with the EU Regulation. To ensure BIOLAND quality throughout the whole production chain.
Beekeeping, origin of wax - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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New foundations must be made from BIOLAND certified wax, generated from naturally built honeycombs or caps. It must be free from residues of prohibited insecticides. Wax must not have had contact with other chemicals. If no BIOLAND certified wax is available to exchange the wax during the conversion period, residue-free wax of conventional origin (from natural combs and caps) can be used. The use of plastic foundations is prohibited. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.3 Wax and Honeycombs; Bioland production standards, 4.10.5 Conversion)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the handling of wax after harvest. Plastic foundations are not mentioned. The EU Regulation does not regulate the use of wax of BIOLAND certification. To ensure the wax to be free from contamination with harmful substances. A continuous renewal of wax is required in order to avoid the accumulation of residues in the hive.
Beekeeping, preparation of honey - DE Bioland 2005
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Honey may not be heated to more than 40°C. If possible, the honey should be filled into containers before its first consolidation. Honey must be stored in a cool, dark and dry place and it must not be filtered with pressure. Containers used for selling honey must be returnable. Any containers used must be made of material legally permitted for foodstuffs. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.3.2 Processing)
The BIOLAND standard is more precise. In the EU Regulation 2092/91 there is only the general requirement of an adequate handling of bee products during extraction, storage and processing. There is no regulation on the containers for honey. In order to ensure the high quality of BIOLAND certified honey, to avoid contamination caused by the containers and to enhance direct recycling of containers.
Beekeeping, repellent/calming synthetic chemicals - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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No chemical synthetic materials may be used to calm or drive away the bees. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.4 Calming and Driving away Bees)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more precise. The prohibition of chemical synthetic repellents in the EU Regulation 2092/91 is limited to the purpose honey extraction. In order to minimise disturbance to the bees.
Beekeeping, reproduction - DE Bioland 2005
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Natural reproduction methods are to be preferred and the swarming instinct has to be considered. Artificial insemination is only allowed in specific cases and after approval has been given by BIOLAND. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.8 Bee breeding)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The corresponding EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to breeding methods for bees. The preference of natural reproduction methods is a principle of the BIOLAND Association. The objective of the breeding is the keeping of varroa-tolerant bees in a manner suited to the ecological conditions. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.8 Bee breeding)
Beekeeping, siting of apiaries - DE Bioland 2005
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The siting of the apiaries must ensure that considerable contamination with objectionable substances is not to be expected. In case of suspicion, the bee products must be analysed and consequences must be taken. The colonies may not be placed on a conventionally farmed field. Specific approval by BIOLAND is required if colonies shall be placed outside the area, controlled by BIOLAND (Germany, South Tyrol). For harvesting honey from agricultural crops, organically cultivated crops are to be preferred. Nectar and pollen must not be intentionally collected from intensively managed conventional orchards. Pollen cannot be harvested from crops that have been treated with agrochemicals while flowering. Bee products harvested from areas, that have been declared as unsuitable for organic apiculture cannot be marketed with reference to the organic production method. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2 Keeping of the Bees, 4.10.2.1 Location of the Bee Colonies)
The BIOLAND standard is similar to the corresponding EU Regulation 2092/91. It is more precise in excluding the use of certain conventionally farmed crops for the collection of pollen and nectar (intensively farmed orchards and crops, that have been sprayed while flowering). To avoid contamination of bee products with objectionable substances, but at the same time enabling organic apiculture in Germany.
Beekeeping, veterinary treatment - DE Bioland 2005
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Chemical synthetic medication is prohibited. To control the varroa mite organic acids (lactic acid, formic acid, oxalic acid) can be used in the time span between the last harvest and January the 15th of the following year (applicable to productive colonies). Oxidation of metals that can provoke contamination with residues is to be avoided. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.6 Bee Health)
The BIOLAND standard is more precise. Less products can be used for veterinary treatments of bees and the treatment of productive colonies against varroa is restricted to the winter period. Furthermore the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to residues of metal oxidation. In order to avoid contamination of bee products caused by veterinary treatment, and to enhance an adequate handling of bee colonies, that will contribute to strong and healthy colonies, avoid health problems and assist the development of varroa tolerance.
Biodiversity, viticulture - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Every vintner (wine producer) is obliged to plant and tend reasonably a part of its vineyard area an ecological niche. Efforts should be made for the niche to become at least one percent of the vineyard area. The ecological niches must, in order to interrupt the mono-culture, be distributed throughout the area. The situation of the surroundings and communal measures for nature conservation have to be considered. (Bioland production standards, 5.6.4 Ecological Niches)
The BIOLAND standard is broader. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require ecological niches to be created. In order to increase biodiversity in a monocultural cropping system.
Collection of wild plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Wild grown plants collected for human consumption can be labelled with the BIOLAND trademark and the indicated as from wild collection, when; the area of collection has not been contaminated, is clearly defined, registered and (in general) situated in a region that is attended by BIOLAND, and the extraction of the plants does not negatively affect the local ecosystem. BIOLAND certified products from wild collection must be clearly labelled as such. (Bioland production standards, 3.10 Wild Collection)
The BIOLAND provisions are more specific and require the collection area to be free from the direct influence of any sources of pollution. BIOLAND labelling requirements are also more detailed than under EU Regulation 2092/91 where there is no specific provision for the labelling of organic products collected from wild collection. To ensure the innocuousness and high quality of BIOLAND products. To increase transparency for the consumer.
Conservation, soil, water and air - DE Bioland 2005
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Water resources are not to be used excessively. It is not permissible to burn used plastic (e.g. foils and fleeces) in the fields. (Bioland production standards, 3.9 Air, Soil and Water Protection)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate the use of water resources and the burning of plastic while BIOLAND standards contain restrictions in these areas. In order to protect the natural resources and avoid negative impacts on the environment.
Contamination, buffer zones, medicinal plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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As a result of the special significance of medicinal plants, the location is especially relevant. The minimum distance to roads should be 50 m and to field paths 5 m if no suitable protective planting has been made. (Bioland production standards, 5.2.3 Selection of Location)
The BIOLAND standard has additional restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91, which requires the clear separation of the organic production facilities from any other production unit, but it does not indicate specific distances to roads. To ensure the innocuousness and high quality of BIOLAND certified herbs / medicinal crops.
Contamination, preventing, contaminated areas - DE Bioland 2005
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Areas that are contaminated with harmful substances from the environment or from previous use of the area cannot be used for the production of BIOLAND food products (Bioland article 3.2 Location and 7.10 Contamination tests).
The BIOLAND standard has an specific provision, which is not in the EU Regulation 2092/91, regarding the handling of contaminated areas, but there is just a general statement about the possibility for the authorities to prolonge the conversion period for certain areas taking into account the prior use. To guarantee the innocuousness of BIOLAND products.
Conversion, beekeeping - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The minimum conversion period for beekeeping is 12 months. Conversion must be completed at the latest after five years (exceptions are possible). Bee products can only be labelled with the BIOLAND trademark after the conversion has been completed. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.5 Conversion)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require the conversion period to be completed after a maximum of time. However, as parallel management of organic and conventional beekeeping is not allowed, honey cannot be labelled as organic before the conversion of all the hives is completed. To safeguard the credibility of BIOLAND certified organic beekeeping.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - DE Bioland 2005
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Animals of conventional origin have to be kept in compliance with these standards during the respective conversion period, before animal products can be sold with reference to BIOLAND / organic farming. For the different types of animals specific minimum periods apply in addition to at least 12 months of conversion of the respective land area for feed production. An alternative is the combined conversion of feed production area and livestock, which will last at least 24 months. Cattle, that has been born on conventional farms and reared with feeding stuffs, that are not permitted, can never be sold using the BIOLAND trademark. (Bioland production standards, 9.2.4 Use of Trade Mark for Animal Products, 9.2.4.1 Product related Conversion; Bioland production standards, 9.2.4 Use of Trade Mark for Animal Products, 9.2.4.2 Simultaneous Conversion of the Total Business)
The BIOLAND provisions contain further requirements in the case of single type conversion, because they require the animal specific conversion period in addition to the first year of conversion for the feed production area. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the minimum conversion periods for the animals (which are the same in both regulations) can apply regardless of the conversion of the land, if the animals can be fed according to the regulation from the beginning of the conversion period. The use of the BIOLAND trademark is not regulated. In order to be able to feed the animals with at least 50% of home grown feed which is no longer conventional feed.
Crop varieties - DE Bioland 2005
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Species and varieties for BIOLAND plant production should be of high nutritional quality, resistant to diseases and adapted to the location. For agricultural production, typical local varieties have preference to hybrid varieties (applicable for arable cropping only). (Bioland production standards, 3.6 Seeds, Seedlings and Plant Materials, 3.6.1 Basic Principles)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation only requires the choice of appropriate species and varieties to control diseases, pests and weed pressure. 'Appropriate' is not further specified and preferation of non-hybrid types is not mentioned. In order to enable the farms own self-supply with seeds and the development of locally adapted types of seeds (arable cropping).
Fertilization, negative effects - DE Bioland 2005
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The application of fertilizers must not negatively affect either the quality of the product or the environment. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.5 Production of Quality and Environmental Compatibility)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not consider the product quality which can be influenced by fertilising. However it does require measures to avoid contamination of the soil. To guarantee the production of high quality food. To avoid negative impacts on the environment.
Fertilizers, origin - DE Bioland 2005
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The commercial fertilizers and manures bought in from other farms and listed under 10.1. may be used in addition to the farms own fertilizing programme. Manures from conventional farms, free from polluting substances, must be composted before use. Liquid and semi-liquid conventional manure, conventional manure from pig and poultry farming, meal from blood and bones, sewage sludge as well as synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and highly soluble phosphates (among others) are prohibited. Composted household wastes from community collection and peat substitutes require approval by BIOLAND. The use of liquid and fresh manure in herb cultivation is restricted. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.2 Permissible External Fertilizers; Bioland production standards, 3.5.3 Non-permissible Fertilizers; Bioland production standards, 3.5.6 Sewage Sludge and Compost; Bioland production standards, 5 Horticulture and Permanent Crops; Bioland production standards, 5.2.4 Fertilizing Bioland production standards, 10 Appendix)
The BIOLAND has less products on the list of allowed fertilisers in the Annex than the corresponding annex of the EU Regulation 2092/91, and conventional manures must be composted before use. Manures from conventional farms, free from polluting substances must be composted before use. Liquid and semi-liquid conventional manure, conventional manure from pig and poultry farming, meal from blood and bones, sewage sludge as well as synthetic nitrogen fertilisers and highly soluble phosphates (among others) are prohibited. To avoid contamination with harmful substances and to strengthen the farms own fertilising programme. Fertilizing is to be designed in conformity with the location and the crops involved in such a way that the quality of the products (physiological nutritional value, taste, imperishability) may not be detrimentally affected in particular by the amount of nitrogenous fertiliser. In regard to the type, the amount and the time of applying fertilizer, care must be taken to avoid placing loads on the soil and the water (e.g. through heavy metals and nitrates) (Bioland production standards, 3.5.5 Production of Quality and Environmental Compatibility) The objective of fertilisation is to achieve harmonic nutrition of the plants by means of a soil full of life. Organic material from the business itself forms the basis of fertilization. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.1 Basic Principles)
Free range conditions, access to water - DE Bioland 2005
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Water fowl have to have access at all times to running streams, ponds or lakes (only if hygienic conditions and water protection acts permit it) or to a durable water surface that is replaced regularly by fresh water. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.5. Poultry, 4.2.5.3 Poultry for fattening, 4.2.5.3.4 Water surfaces)
The BIOLAND standard is simliar to the EU Regulation 2092/91, however according to EU Regulation this requirement can be suspended with a derogation until 2010. To enable the animals to execute their natural behaviour.
Full farm conversion - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The farm has to be converted completely. In exceptional cases the conversion can be realised step by step, but must be completed at the latest after 5 years. (Bioland production standards, 9.2.2 Conversion of Total Business; Bioland production standards, 9.2.5 Conversion Deadlines)
The BIOLAND standard has the additional restriction of whole farm conversion, where according to the EU Regulation 2092/91 single but clearly separated farming units can be converted to organic farming. BIOLAND has maximum time limit to complete the conversion period, wereas the EU regulation has no time indication.. In order to increase credibility of organic farming, to minimise risks of contamination or fraud. To consider specific circumstances of single farms, that impede the whole farm conversion in one step.
Greenhouse production, heating - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Heating of greenhouses should be limited to a reasonable degree. Greenhouses should be well insulated. Foils and fleeces used for covered production should be recycled. (Bioland production standards, 5.1.4 Crop production under Glass and Foil; Bioland production standards, 5.4.5 Use of Energy (for mushroom production)
The BIOLAND standard restrict the heating of greenhouses. Neither the heating of greenhouses nor the handling of covering material is regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. In order to reduce energy consumption and waste products.
Harvesting and processing - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The high nutritional quality of the products should be considered and preserved while harvesting and processing the products. (Bioland production standards, 5.1.6 Harvesting and Preparation; Bioland production standards, 5.2.5 Preparation (herb cultivation)
The scope of the BIOLAND standards have requirements to preserve nutritional quality of produce at harvesting and processing. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the nutritional quality of the products. To preserve and ensure the high quality of BIOLAND agricultural products throughout the whole production chain.
Honey, quality - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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BIOLAND honey for consumption must fulfil specific quality criteria concerning the content of water (max. 18%, resp. 21.5% for heathland honey), HMF (max. 10 mg/kg), and invertase (min. 10 units, resp. 7 for acacia and linden honey). Furthermore it must be free from residues from medical treatment. BIOLAND standards (Bioland production standards, 4.10.3.3. Measurable Quality Criteria of the Honey)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailled. There are no measurable quality criteria for organic honey indicated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. To ensure BIOLAND honey to be a high quality product. In Germany the quality is regulated by the german honey regulation which indicates a higher permissible water content, a lower content of HMF and a minimum of 65% of invert sugar.
Labelling claims, honey - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Containers with honey to be sold to the consumer must show the following text: As a result of the large radius of flight of the bees it cannot be expected that in all cases they will fly over only or mainly organically farmed areas (or in a similar form). (Bioland production standards, 4.10.3.4 Declaration)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailled. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require an explanation of organic honey to be published on the label. To increase transparency for the consumer.
Livestock housing, area, cattle - DE Bioland 2005
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Cattle should be kept in housing systems that allow permanent free movement. There should be enough space so that all animals can eat or rest at the same time. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.2. Keeping cattle, 4.2.2.1.1 Non-penned cowsheds)
The BIOLAND standard is similar but more detailed. In the EU Regulation 2092/91 there is a general requirement that livestock housing must meet the livestock's biological and ethological needs and that livestock must have easy access to feeding and watering. Furthermore the stocking density in buildings shall provide for the comfort and well being of the animals. To enable natural behaviour appropriate to the species in livestock housing.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - DE Bioland 2005
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With the exception of stock sizes of less than 100 animals and mobile housing systems, an outdoor climate area of at least one third of the total minimum housing area is mandatory for fattening chicken and turkey. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.5. Poultry, 4.2.5.3 Poultry for fattening, 4.2.5.3.2. Exterior climate area)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require an outdoor climate area. According to the EU Regulation poultry must have access to an open air run whenever this is allowed by the climatic conditions, and at least during 3/4 of their lifetime. The animals must have the opportunity to execute their natural behaviour.
Livestock housing, bedding material - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Straw which is used as bedding material in animal housing should preferably be grown on the farm itself or come from another organic farm. If conventional straw is used, it should not come from an intensive farming system. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.1 General, 4.2.1.3 Movement and Rest Area)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require animal bedding matieral to be of organic origin. To avoid contamination of the animal manure with residues from agrochemicals. Animals usually will eat part of the litter.
Livestock housing, ecological aspects - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Ecological aspects have to be considered in the construction and maintenance of livestock housing. Materials and substances harmful to health or the environment should not be used and native materials must be preferred. The use of non-renewable energy should be reduced. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.1 General, 4.2.1.6 Construction and Maintenance of Livestock Buildings)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailled. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the ecological aspects of the construction of livestock housing To cope with the ecological principle of organic farming and avoid contamination.
Livestock housing, flooring - DE Bioland 2005
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The main part of the area for moving and resting in animal housing for mammals must be a solid floor. Slatted floors must be in an excellent condition and the perforation must be appropriate to the size of the animals. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.1 General, 4.2.1.3 Movement and Rest Area)
The BIOLAND standard is similar but more precise. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires more than 50% of the floor to have a solid and unslatted surface, but it does not explicitly refer to any further characterisitics of the perforated elements. However, there is a general requirement that animal housing must meet the livestock's biological and ethological needs. To avoid injury to the animals and to consider the needs of every single type of animal (species, size, age?) in the construction of animal housing.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Housing systems for laying hens can be floor systems or aviaries with access to open air run (exceptions are possible). Detailed instructions are given about the characteristics of the area (indoors and outdoors), that can be taken into account for calculating the total area, accessible to the hens (including exterior climate area, the scratching area, open air run, covered with vegetation). In aviaries the stocking density is restricted to 12 hens/m² floor space. Details are given concerning the size of the windows, the design of the feeding and watering equipment, the handling of excrements, the perch rods, the nests, the openings. Possibility of dust bathing is mandatory. Housing systems with more than 200 hens must have an exterior climate area of a determined minimum size, which is permanently accessible to the hens. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.5.1. Laying hens, 4.2.5.1.1.-4.2.5.1.3; Bioland production standards, 9.4. Commencement of Validity and Transitional Arrangements)
The provisions of the BIOLAND standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Bioland requires a permanently accessible outdoor climate area and the limitation of the maximum stocking density in aviaries in relation to the ground area of the building. The EU Regulation does not indicate as many details concerning the housing system, but in addition to the specific indications for poultry (Annex I B, 8.4.) there is the general requirement, that housing systems must be appropriate to the species and account for the biological and ethological needs of the animals (Annex I B, 8.1., 8.2.) In order to ensure that BIOLAND certified laying hens are kept in accordance with the specific needs and natural behaviour of the species.
Livestock housing, rearing, calves - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Calves should stay with their mothers at least for the first day of their life. After 7 days or for the latest after 5 weeks they must be kept in groups. Cattle of less than one year must not be tethered. (Bioland production standard, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.2 Keeping cattle, 4.2.2.3 Calves)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require calves to stay with their mothers, but the keeping of calves older than 10 days in single boxes is not allowed. Tethering of calves is not explicitly prohibited under the EU Regulation. To enable natural behaviour appropriate to the species in livestock housing.
Livestock housing, rearing, poultry - DE Bioland 2005
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The specific instructions for housing systems used for pullet rearing are concerning the maximum stocking density in relation to the stage of development of the animals (age / weight), the size of the scratching area, the characteristics of perching facilities and size of openings. Daylight is mandatory as well as a permanent accessible outdoor climate area for stocks of more than 200 animals or if the open air run covered with vegetation is less than 2.5m²/animal. If possible 1 cock shall be kept together with 100 hens. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.5 Poultry, 4.2.5.2. Young hens 4.2.5.2.1 - 4.2.5.2.3; Bioland production standards, 4.3 Dealing with animals, 4.3.2 Measures in the business)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not indicate specific instructions for rearing pullets at the moment. Consequently the general instructions concerning poultry housing apply. Specific rules are currently under development. In order to ensure the system to meet the specific needs of the animals, it must be adapted and appropriate to the animals stage of development. Consequently specific indications are needed. Chickens must have the opportunity to practice, at an early stage of development, the elements of natural behaviour in order to learn it. Disturbances in the behaviour of laying hens, which can lead to severe problems, should be avoided. Robustness and a natural immunisation against microorganisms present on the farm should be supported by providing outdoor access at an early stage of development.
Livestock management, external responsibility, horses - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Horses on the farm, that are not under the responsibility of the farm manager, can be fed or treated with substances that are not in line with the standards, as long as these are not contaminating the farm in any way. The horse manure should be handled as animal manure from external sources. (Bioland production standards, 4.5.6 Horse feeding)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 conventional livestock from extensive husbandry can be kept on organic pastures for a limited period of time each year, without indicating details about the harmlessness of feed and treatment and the handling of manure. To avoid contamination with objectionable substances, i.e. GMO.
Livestock management, general requirements, deer - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The specific BIOLAND standards for deer regulate the following aspects: mandatory permanent pasture, minimum area size , characteristics of outdoor enclosures, minimum group size, stocking density, purchase of animals and conventional feeding stuffs. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.7 Keeping of Fallow-deer and Red Deer; Bioland production standards, 4.8.2 Possible permits for conventional purchase of animals, 4.8.2.5 Fallow-Deer and Red Deer; Bioland production standards, 10.4 Temporary regulations for purchased feed from non-organic origin, 10.4.4 Fallow and red deer)
Bioland has specific standards for deer husbandry. This is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide standards for all types of animal production, practised in the regions inspected and certified by BIOLAND.
Livestock management, general requirements, rabbits - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The specific standards for BIOLAND rabbits regulate the following aspects: Maximum group size, characteristics of stable and roaming area, feeding and purchase of animals. (Bioland production standards, Keeping rabbits 4.2.8.; Bioland production standards, 4.5.7 Rabbit feeding; Bioland production standards, 4.8. Additional purchase of animals, 4.8.2.6 Rabbits)
Bioland has specific standards for rabbits husbandry. This is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide standards for all types of animal production, practised in the regions inspected and certified by BIOLAND.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Appropriate and careful handling of the animals and regular care is required. Horns cannot be removed by means of cauterising. Tail-docking for cattle and pigs, prophylactic cutting of pigs`teeth, nose rings or clamps and trimming of beaks is prohibited. Further physical operations may not be realised systematically. Hens during the laying pause must have at least 5 hours of daylight. (Bioland production standards, 4.3 Dealing with animals, 4.3.1 General; Bioland production standards, 4.3.2 Measures in the business)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the majority of the above mentioned physical operations, under the condition that they are not executed systematically, but some of the operations can be admitted for reasons of health, animal welfare, safety or hygiene and they must be carried out in an appropriate way. Nothing is mentioned within the EU Regulation about hens during the laying pause. Good care is essential for the well-being of the animals. Physical operations must be avoided wherever possible and this is why many operations commonly applied in conventional animal husbandry are prohibitted. The animals must be able to execute their natural behaviour (i.e.: digging into the earth is an important element of the natural behaviour of pigs, which is made impossible by the application of nose rings).
Livestock management, tethering - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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When animals are tethered (exceptions can be approved by BIOLAND for a limited period of time), they must be able to stand up, lie down, eat and clean themselves in accordance with their natural behaviour appropriate to the species. Electrical cow trainers are prohibited.
The BIOLAND standard is similar but slightly more detailed. The EU Regulation does not explicitly refer to the characterics of tethering devices, nor prohibit the use of electrical cow trainers. However, it requires that tethering is executed in line with animal welfare requirements with comfortably littered areas, as well as individual management and regular exercise. Cow trainers are not mentioned. To enable natural behaviour appropriate to the species in livestock housing.
Manure fertilizers, general principles - DE Bioland 2005
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The basis of fertilization is the spreading of the farms own manure to support soil life and increase the humus content. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.1 Basic Principles)
The BIOLAND standard requires own manure basis for each farm, while there is no recommendation in the EU Regulation 2092/91 to have own manure as a basis of fertilization. The aim is to ensure the recycling of organic matter on the farm and build up a sustainable system to maintain and increase soil fertility.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - DE Bioland 2005
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The application of fertilisers in agricultural production is restricted to 112 kg N/ha/year, being equivalent to 1,4 dung units/ha/year. A maximum of 0.5 DU/ha/year may be imported from outside the farm. Other numbers are indicated for specific production systems such as vegetable production in greenhouses (up to 330 kg nitrogen), orchards (up to 90 kg N), viticulture (150 kg N in three years but not more than 70 kg N in one year), hop cultivation (70 kg N), tree nurseries (90 kg N). In operations without animal husbandry the nitrogen supply must come from legume cropping, but the quantities needed in addition can be brought in in the form of other allowed nitrogen fertilisers. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.4 Quantity Limitation; Bioland production standards, 5 Horticulture and Permanent Crops; Bioland production standards, 5.1 Vegetable production, 5.1. Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.5. Fruit growing, 5.5.2 Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.6 Viticulture, 5.6.1 Soil Care, Greening and Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.4 Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.1 Fertilising and Soil Care
The BIOLAND standard is setting precise upper limits for nitrogen input in different cropping systems . The amount of farm yard manure allowed by the EU Regulation 2092/91 is restricted to 170 kg N/ha and year without stating a general restriction for other types of commercial fertilizers or specific production systems. Fertilising is to be designed in conformity with the location and the crops involved in such a way that the quality of the products (physiological nutritional value, taste, imperishability) may not be detrimentally affected in particular by the amount of nitrogenous fertiliser. In regard to the type, the amount and the time of application of fertiliser, care must be taken to avoid placing loads on the soil and the water (e.g. through heavy metals and nitrates).
Manure fertilizers, stocking rate - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The maximum stocking density for animals is limited to the equivalent of 1.4 animal unit/ha, which corresponds to 112 kgN/ha and 98 kg P2O5/ha. (Bioland production standards, 4.4 Animal Density and Purchase of Additional Feedstuffs, 4.4.1 General; Bioland production standards, 10.3 Calculation of Animal Stock per Hectare)
The BIOLAND standard is more restrictive. The maximum animal stocking density per ha is lower in terms of kg N/ha than that allowed by the EU Regulation 2092/91 (170 kg N/ha). However both numbers are interpreted to be equivalent of two cows by the EU Regulation as well as by the BIOLAND Association. In fact the stocking density for cattle is the same, but it is lower for laying hens (140 instead of 230 animals/ha), broilers (280 instead of 580 animals/ha) and fattening pigs (10 instead of 14 animals/ha). The animal production must be adapted to the conditions of the site (capacitiy to produce animal feed and to use animal manure on the land).
Mushroom production, innoculum - DE Bioland standards 2005
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Mushroom brood (Inoculum) must come from BIOLAND certified companies with preference, or at least from other certified organic origin. Cereals for the production of brood must be of BIOLAND or at least organic origin. (Bioland production standards, 5.4.4 Mushroom brood)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate the sources or quality of inoculum. To ensure BIOLAND / organic qualtiy throughout the whole production chain.
Mushroom production, protective measures - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Substrate can only be disinfected using thermal processes. For the disinfection of equipment only alcohol or acetic acid can be used. The application of pyrethrum is not allowed in mushroom production. (Bioland production standards, 5.4.3 Disinfection and Plant Protection)
The BIOLAND standard has additional requirements than the EU Regulation 2092/91 which does not explicitly refer to the disinfection of substrate. Pyrethrum can be used against pests. The regulation regarding substances for cleaning and disinfection only refers to animal production facilities and equipment. To avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Mushroom production, substrate - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Substrates must consist of materials from BIOLAND certified farms or at least certified organic origin. Substrates other than of BIOLAND origin can only be used after approval by BIOLAND. Organic animal manure to be used as substrate component requires organic bedding material. In the case of conventional wood, the origin must be traceable and if needed an analysis completed to show its harmlessness. Peat is admissible as top layer. Mineral substrate components can be used, if listed in the corresponding annex (10.1.4.). (Bioland production standards, 5.4 Mushroom Production 5.4.1 Basic Principles; Bioland production standards, 5.4.2 Substrate; Bioland production standards, 10.1.4 Mineral Complementing Fertilisers)
The BIOLAND standard is more demanding. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 up to 25% of the substrate can consist of certain types of conventional animal manure, if these are not available in organic quality. This is not allowed according to the BIOLAND standards. To ensure BIOLAND / organic quality throughout the whole production chain and to avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Origin of livestock, general requirements - DE Bioland 2005
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Animals have to be preferentially brought in from BIOLAND certified farms or from other organic farms. If organic animals are not available, in certain cases conventional animals can be brought in after approval by BIOLAND. These animals have to pass the conversion period, before animal products can be offered with reference to organic farming and the BIOLAND trademark is used. Cattle, that have been born on conventional farms and reared with feeding stuffs, that are not permitted, can never be sold using the BIOLAND trademark. Young laying hens can only be brought into farms with more than 100 laying hens, if they have been reared in accordance with the BIOLAND provisions for pullet rearing. Conventional laying hens of up to 18 weeks can be brought into smaller units after approval. (Bioland production standards, 4.8 Additional Purchase of Animals, 4.8.1 Principles; Bioland production standards, 4.8.2 Possible permits for conventional purchase of animals, 4.8.2.1 - 4.8.2.6; Bioland production standards, 9.2.4 Use of Trade Mark for Animal Products, 9.2.4.1 Product related Conversion)
The BIOLAND standard is similar, but more restrictive in the case of young laying hens. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 laying hens of conventional origin of up to 18 weeks of life can be brought in if organic hens are not available. According to Bioland this is only possible after approval and for farms with more than 100 laying hens only if they have been reared according to specific pullet rearing provisions. To ensure the BIOLAND standards to be complied with troughout the whole production chain.
Parallel production, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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BIOLAND companies for the production of ornamental, herbaceaous and woody plants are only allowed to deal with conventionally produced plants, if the conventional branch generates a minor source of income.Bioland production standards, 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants (5.8.5 Additional Purchase and Trade Goods)
The BIOLAND standards allow producers of ornamental plants only a parallel production with conventional plants, if these constitute the minor share of their income. The EU Regulation 2092/91 permits conversion of single parts of an enterprise or farm as long as units are clearly separated, and therefore permits organic farmers to deal with conventional produce; but no limitation of share of incomes are defined. The reason is transparancy for the consumer, consumers expect organic products on a Bioland farm. Conventional produce can only be tolerated as a supplement in the assortment.
Peat, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The content of peat in substrates may not exceed 80% for seedlings and 50% for trees, herbaceous and ornamental plants. Exceptions are possible for crops, that require a low pH. Purchased composts, peat substitutes and additives must be examined with regard to their environmental compatibility and, in particular, to their pollutant content. (BIOLAND standards 5.8.6., 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.6 Soils and Substrates)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91, where the the use of peat in horticulture is not restricted. Purchased composts must not exceed the contents in heavy metals, laid down in the Annex II A. There is no requirement to examine the environmental compatibility of the components of substrate. To avoid the escessive exploitation of moor lands and to avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Plant processing inputs, hops - DE Bioland 2005
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The use of sulphur for conservation is prohibited in drying and processing. (Bioland production standards, 5.7 Hop Cultivation, 5.7.5 Preparation)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specifically regulate the drying and processing of hops. Sulphur for drying hops is explicitely excluded. The standard setting body did not give a justification.
Plant production, containers, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Containers for potted plants must preferably be made of decomposable materials. Otherwise, they must be reusable and recyclable. The use of PVC containers is prohibited. (BIOLAND standards 5.8.6., 5.8.7 Containers for Cultures)
The BIOLAND standards has a broader scope, this aspect is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. In order to cope with the ecological principle of organic agriculture (protection of the environment, avoiding rubbish production, preference of renewable resources).
Plant production, environment, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Areas where potted plants are stored must not be sealed except for the purpose of rain water collection. (Bioland production standards, 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.2 Surface Sealing)
The BIOLAND standard has additional requierements for potting plants. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the sealing of soil. In order to cope with the ecological principle of organic agriculture.
Plant production, location, hops - DE Bioland 2005
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Organic hop plantation next to conventional plantations must be provided with protective planting at the latest within 5 years after the beginning of the conversion period. Newly created hop cultivation is only allowed on bordering or isolated areas. The minimum distance to conventional plantations must be 10 m. Otherwise hop harvested from the outer rows cannot be marketed with reference to organic agriculture. The creation of areas of ecological compensation are required for hop cultivation in specific areas. (Bioland production standards, 5.7 Hop Cultivation, 5.7.1 Location and Area)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. In the EU Regulation there is a general requirement of a clear separation of the organic production unit from any other production unit, however distances to conventional plantantions are not defined. Furthermore under BIOLAND standards in case of suspicion of contamination a product cannot be marketed with reference to organic agriculture unless it has been proven that the suspicion was wrong. Bioland is explicitely requiring an ecological compensation with diversified areas, whereas the EU Regulation has not such a specific requirement. In order to avoid contamination with objectionable substances. In order to cope with the ecological principle of organic agriculture.
Plant production, support stakes, hops - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Wooden constructions to support hop cultivation may only be made from wood of native species and can only be treated with environmentally friendly substances. (Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.2 Support Material)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91does not refer to the characteristics of supporting material for perennial crops. In order not to contribute to the destruction of tropical forests and comply with the holistic approach of organic agriculture as well as to avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Plant production, support stakes, perennial crops - DE Biolaand Standards 2005
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No tropical woods can be used as supporting material. Tropical or sub-tropical woods may not be used as supporting material. The tropical grasses, bamboo and tonkin are permissible. (Bioland production standards, 5.5.3 Supporting Material; Bioland production standards, 5.6.2 Supporting Material )
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the use of supporting materials in orchards and viticulture. In order not to contribute to the destruction of ecosystems in the tropics. This aspect refers to the holistic and ecological approach of organic farming.
Plant protection, substances - DE Bioland 2005
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The plant protection agents listed in the corresponding annex 10.2. can only be used, if other agricultural measures to strengthen the health of the cropping system have been unsuccessful. Equipment for the application of plant protection agents must be free from residues of objectionable substances. The use of synthetic pesticides and growth regulators is prohibited. (Bioland production standards, 3.7 Plant Protection 3.7.1 Basic Principles; Bioland production standards, 3.7.2 Permissible Measures; Bioland production standards, 3.7.3 Prohibitions; Bioland production standards, 10.2.1 Biological and Biotechnical Measures; Bioland production standards, 10.2.2 Plant Protection and Care Agents; Bioland production standards, 10.2.2.1 Generally Permissible Agents; Bioland production standards, 10.2.2.2 Agents only Permissible in Horticulture and Permanent Cultures as well as in the mentioned crops)
The BIOLAND standard has further requirements to the EU Regulation 2092/91. There are certain (mainly natural) products on the BIOLAND list of permissible products, that are not mentioned in the EU Regulation.: i.e. stone meal, bentonite, prepared aluminium oxide, "waterglass" (sodium silicate), herb extracts, herb liquid manure and teas (e.g. nettle, horsetail, onion, horse radish, parsley fern), ethyl alcohol, milk and whey products, sodium hydrogen carbonate. These products are not considered as plant protection, but fortifying agents, which can be used in accordance with the EU Regulation 2092/91 in Germany. The following products are excluded or restricted in their use according to the BIOLAND standard, but permitted in the EU Regulation.: bees wax (not considered as plant protection agent in Germany), gelatine, extraction from Nicotina tabacum, rotenon, diammoniumphosphate, metaldehyde, pyrethoids in traps, ethylene and potassium alum, copper preparations with further restrictions (max metallic copper amount 3 kg/ha and year, in hop cultivation max 4 kg/ha and year, in potato cultivation only with permission of the BIOLAND Association. If agents with copper content are used, the copper content of the soil must be continuously monitored by means of soil analysis). In order to avoid negative influences on products as well as on the environment (i.e. by the accumulation of copper in soil), substances considered to be critical and whose beneficial effects can also be caused by other products or methods are prohibited by the BIOLAND Association. Moreover some of the substances (ethylene, potassium alum) are not relevant for plant production in the area certified by BIOLAND.
Plant protection, substances, weed control - DE Bioland 2005
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The application of herbicides is not allowed. (Bioland production standards, 3.8.2 Prohibition of Herbicides)
The BIOLAND standard is more specific with regard to the use of herbicides. There is no explicit prohibition of herbicides in the EU Regulation 2092/91, but as no herbicides are listed in Annex II B, it is not possible to use any until now but might be possible in the future. The BIOLAND Association is generally rejecting the use of herbicides.
Seed and plant material, origin - DE Bioland 2005
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Organic plant propagation material must be used if available. For perennial crops vegetative propagation material from BIOLAND certified origin must be preferred. In case of unavailability and with the approval of BIOLAND, plant propagation material of conventional origin can be used. Conventional seedlings for perennials must pass the conversion period in a separated place before being sold with reference to BIOLAND. After August 2006 only organic plant propagation material shall be used. (Bioland production standards, 3.6.2 Organically Produced Seeds and Plant Materials; Bioland production standards, 3.6.5 Young Plants for Perennial Crops; Bioland production standards, 5.8.4 Seedlings)
The Bioland standard is similar but slightly more restrictive in the requirement to use Bioland material with preference and in expressing the intention not to use conventional material after 2006. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 conventional seeds can be used after approval if no variety of the requested quality is available in a country, according to the national data base. The handling of BIOLAND certified material is not regulated. To ensure organic quality throughout the whole production chain and in order to stimulate the development of the organic seed production sector. The date is derived from the date of revision of the EU seeds regulation. A complete prohibition of conventional seeds after 2006 however is unlikely.
Soil management, artificial mulch - DE Bioland 2005
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A maximum of 5% of the free range area used for growing vegetables may be covered at any one time by mulch foil, mulch fleece or mulch paper. Operators with less than 4 ha of area for vegetables may cover up to 2,000 m2 using the above methods stated. (Bioland production standards, 5.1.5 Use of Technical Mulch Materials)
The BIOLAND standard has a broader scope. The soil cover with mulching material is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. In order to reduce waste.
Soil management, perennial crops - DE Bioland 2005
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Vineyards and hop plantations must have undercropping. In dry periods and in new plantations parts of the soil in vineyards can be kept without vegetation for three months. If this period is extended, the soil must be covered with organic material. While establishing an undercropping system, the nitrogen balance must be considered and legume species must be part of the composition. (Bioland production standards, 5.6 Viticulture, 5.6.1 Soil Care, Greening and Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.3 Greening)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require soil coverage for perennial cropping systems as BIOLAND does. There is only the general provision to use legume species and green manure in order to maintain and enhance soil fertility. In order to reduce the problems and disadvantages of the permanent mono-culture (erosion, problems with pests and diseases) in vineyards and to ensure the production of grapes, juice and wine of a high quality. Undercropping and soil cover can contribute to soil conservation and avoid erosion. Additionally habitat for beneficial insects is provided as a contribution to a balanced ecosystem.
Soil management, steam sterilisation - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Steaming of substrate and superficial steaming of the soil for weed regulation is allowed. Deep steaming (sterilisation) of the soil requires approval by BIOLAND. (Bioland production standards, 5.1.3 Steaming Surfaces and Soil; Bioland production standards, 5.8.3 Plant Health and Regulation of Weeds)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows flame weeding to reduce weed pressure, but does not refer to deep steaming (sterilisation) of the soil. Deep steaming for sterilisation impair soil biodiversity. Therefore it should only be used as a last resort for severe problems.
Transport of livestock, general requirements - DE Bioland 2005
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Short distances for animal transport or transporting carcsses should be preferred. The transport to the slaughter house may not exceed 200 km or 4 hours (exceptions can be admitted by BIOLAND). The animals may not be driven by means of striking instruments or electric devices. Animals must be given sufficient water before and during transport. The animals should not starved for long periods before slaughtering. Specific indications are given for transport of ruminants, pigs and poultry (i.e.: aeration of transport vehicles, milking before transport, separate transport of male and female animals, transporting in the dark) (Bioland production standards, 4.3.3 Transport and slaughter, 4.3.3.1 General; Bioland production standards, 4.3.3 Transport and slaughter, 4.3.3.2 Transport of the animals for slaughter)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 by limiting the distance and duration of transport to the slaughterhouse, and prohibiting the use of any striking instruments. Indications for certain types on animals are not given. According to the EU Regulation stress for the animals has to be avoided during transport, driving animals with electrical devices is prohibited as well as the use of allopathic traquilisers. Within the EU Regulation nothing is mentioned about the distance or duration of transport, but it is stated, that the legal provisions of the member EU states have to be complied with. In order to contribute to the well-being of the animals (the individual needs of the species have to be considered!) and avoid suffering.
Veterinary treatment, general requirements - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Certain substances (active matters, groups of pharmaceuticals, listed in the corresponding chapter 10.5.) that are considered to be harmful or critical and that can be replaced by other less critical substances or treatments are excluded from use even as a medical treatment. (Bioland production standards, 4.6.2 Treatment; Bioland production standards, 10.5 Pharmaceutical Products, the Use of which is Prohibited or Limited in the Keeping of Animals)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed an lists substances not permitted. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not exclude specific substances from use as medical treatment. The use of substances that may have an influence on the quality of the food or the environment shall be excluded or at least restricted.