Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by country standards

  • Organic regulations/standards by region
    • Europe
      • Austria
        • Bio Austria General Standard
Go back to overview Go to complete documents for this section
Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Bio Austria has the following restrictions of the products of annex II C and D.: Annex II C 1 Feed materials from plant origin: Following species as grains or kernels and/or by-products are not allowed 1.1. rice, millet, sorghum; 1.2. cotton, sesame, palm, olives, vegetable oils; 1.3. chickpeas, ervil, broad beans vetches; 1.4. potato, sweet potato, manioc. 1.5. All products of annex II C 1.5. are not allowed. 1.6. As forages and roughages only the following conventional feeds are permitted: o alfalfa grass meal, clover grass meal, grass meal o only after procurement of additional fields, as the harvest of newly acquired acreage: alfalfa, clover, green forage, hay, silage, grain straw as green forage and roughage. 1.7. Molasses is allowed as binding agent only; all other products are not allowed. 2 Only the following feed material from animal origin are permitted: 2.1. Curd and sour milk are allowed only from organic origin. 2.2. All products of annex II C 2.2. (products of aquaculture) are not allowed. 2.3. Eggs and egg products for use as poultry feed are allowed only from organic origin. In Annex II D the following products are not allowed: 1.3. Enzymes 3.1. Cereal flour and molasses
The list of admitted fodder from conventionl sources is more restricted by Bio Austria General Standard when compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91 annex II C. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence . There is a historical point too. The list of conventional feed in the Austrian Codex Alimentarius was very short in the past before 1999. Therefore it should also be continued in the future. Some products are not relevant in Austria (f. e. seed of cotton or palm kernels).
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed, pigs - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006 Organic farms which deliver products to a Bio Austria Market Project have to fulfill further pig feeding restrictions in addition to the general rules. Conventional feed components are forbidden except for the following for which products of organic Austrian origin have limited availability: sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewers yeast and molasses (only as binding agent). The BA Special Market Rules 2006 contain further restrictions with regard to the permitted amount of some feed as they allow only sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewers yeast and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EU Regulation 2092/91. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence. Another reason is the minimise the risks of GMO contamination.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, ruminants - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Roughage must comprise at least 60 % of the daily ration for ruminants. Calves are to be offered structured roughage from the second week of age.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows in special cases for at least 3 months a reduction to 50 % roughage and the offer of roughage to calves is not regulated. The Bio Austria General Standard requires a higher ratio of roughage in the daily supply and considers all ruminants including calves. Ruminants need structured roughage for a species-appropriated function of the digestion. To develop a good ruminant stomach it is important to give calves roughage very early. It is a measure against intensification too.
Aquaculture, general requirements - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Bio Austria General Standard deals with two types of habitats: The habitat for carps rules the production in stagnant and warmer stretches of water. The habitat for trout rules the production of predatory fish in cold running stretches of water, high in oxygen oxygen content but lacking in nutrients. Until aquatic production is ruled by the EU Regulation 2092/91 the rules for different animals are valid for the aquatic production by analogy if practicable. The basis is: The fish production in ponds tries to achieve closed cycles of materials and healthy ecological systems. Therefore methods and techniques are used which infinitely maintain the fertility of fish and stretch of water, use renewable resources, prevent pollution of the environment, support the natural cycles in water and do not disturb any other processes of the food chain. The natural behaviour and needs of the fish are the basis for structuring and assessing the conditions of fish keeping. The Bio AUSTRIA General Standard for fish is the same as that of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus and therefore it is valid for all organic fish farms in Austria. It contains detailed rules for water quality, cultivation, stock and keeping, therapy and hygiene, fish multiplying, origin and dissemination, feed and feed buying, fish protection, conversion and control. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.17)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover rules for fish production. In the case of fish production EU Regulation does not give legal rules and it is therefore necessary to give minimum standards to this part of animal husbandry.
Beekeeping, general requirements - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Bio AUSTRIA General Standard for bee-keeping is basically the requirement of the EU Regulation 2092/91 including some more detailed points: hive protection, management of colonies, building and storing of honey combs, wax processing, processing of extracted honey, honey storing and analysing, bees health. Additionally to the followings of the standard there must be made a wax analysis (mixed sample of hives medium walls and wax stocks) of residues of inadmissible Varroa- and wax moth-pesticides. • Honey must not be kept in containers made of synthetic substances (instead of stainless steel), because even food proved synthetic substances seem to emit softening agents which are supposed to be absorbed by honey changing the scent of it. • The residues must not be more than 0.5 mg/kg wax per active substance which corresponds to the provable limit. • In general there are big residue problems (the average values of wax are between 1.7 mg and 6 mg Apistan/kg, other chemicals can have much higher values). • Thymol (against Varroa) is not permitted because the residues in honey change the scent of it. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.18)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it provides analysis of wax for Varroa and wax moth control substances which are forbidden in organic agriculture. Residues may not exceed 0.5 mg/kg wax per substance. Further rules are specifications to the EU Regulation 2092/91 for bee keeping. Principle of care/precaution. No justification was provided by the standard-setting organisation.
Contamination, buffer zones, conventional agriculture, herbs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
If the growing area of herb production borders on a field that is cultivated conventionally, there must be a distance of at least 5 metres between fields (exception: threshed herbs). Bordering on conventional fields should be avoided if possible. Protective hedgerows are recommended.
While the Bio Austria General Standard requires minmal buffer zones the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have an explicit restriction for the distance to conventional fields. The main reason is to avoid residues of pesticides and to create high consumer confidence.
Contamination, buffer zones, highways, herbs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Locations of herb production near densely populated areas (cities) are to be avoided. The distance to highly used roads (highways, high-speed road, major streets [Bundesstrassen] must be at least 50 metres. Protective hedgerows are generally recommended in such cases.
The Bio Austria General Standard details buffer strips while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have a restriction for the distance to highly used roads. The main reason is to avoid residues of exhaust fumes (see “herb production with distance to conventional fields”) and to create high consumer confidence.
Contamination, chlorinated hydrocarbons - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
For vegetables, fruits and grain there are limits for residues of chlorinated hydrocarbons. In principle the limit is 0.01 mg/kg, and in exception lindane 0.02 mg/kg. (This rule is an order of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus A 8 and therefore valid for vegetables of all organic farms in Austria, not only Bio Austria farms). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.6, 5.1.3)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have specific limits for residues in organic crops or produce in general, especially not for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Consumer protection.
Contamination, processing, herbs - AT Austria General Standards 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Bio Austria General Standard has, in addition to the requirements of distance to roads and conventional fields, requirements for a fast preparation of fresh material, a fast and careful drying (normally not higher than 40 °C). The drying room should be a separate unit. The room may not contain any materials contaminated with harmful substances (e.g. treated particle board). It is forbidden to use direct heating with fuel oil, gas, coal, or wood, or dehydration through chemical additives. A batch record of drying temperatures is to be kept, which is to be made available during the annual inspection. The storage space must be protected from light, dry and as cool as possible. A humidity level of 60% and a temperature of 19 °C are recommended. Drugs must be inspected regularly and the storage areas kept clean. Storage areas are to be kept separate from processing areas. (BA-Rules chapter 4.2.2, 4.2.4, 4.2.5, 4.2.7, 4.2.8)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have such specific requirements for preparation, drying and processing of herbs, while the Bio Austria General Standard is quite detailed. The main reason is to reach high quality products and to create high consumer confidence through a very fresh preparation/processing and a drying with care and to avoid environmental pollutants.
Fertilization, intensity - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In arable farming and grassland the total amount of N in organic fertilizers from organic origin is limited to 170 kg/ha (this rule is not valid for special cultures as like vegetables, drug plant and spices [without spices for threshing], orchards, vineyards and hope). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.1.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard requires a limit of 170 kg N/ha for the whole organic manure and not only for farmyard manure. Quality and environmental reasons.
Fertilization, intensity, nitrogen - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In arable farming and grassland the total amount of N in organic fertilizers from organic origin is limited to 170 kg/ha (this rule is not valid for special cultures such as vegetables, drug plants and spices [without spices for threshing], orchards, vineyards and hope).
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU \Regulation 2092/91 annex I as it requires a limit of 170 kg N/ha for the whole organic manure and not only for farmyard manure. Quality and environmental reasons
Fertilization, intensity, vegetables - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In connection with the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus A 8 maximum levels of nitrate for vegetables are defined. (BA-Rules chapter 4.1.8)
The Bio Austria General Standard contains a further restriction than EU Regulation 2092/91, which does not have a restriction of the nitrate level in vegetables. Consumer protection.
Fertilizers, admitted - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In principle slurry from biogas production has to come from substances of organic farming. A deviation is possible for production units where the approval for building was given before 31.12.2004. The general restrictions for the use of products of annex II are valid (3, 4 and 5). The deviation is valid until the end of 2010, if there are substrates used which are for sure delivered by the Bio Austria farm to the biogas co-production. Substrates of conventional farming may only enter a biogas co-production, if they are allowed according to the restricted Bio Austria list of bought fertilisers (see “restrictions in the positive list of fertiliser input”).
The Bio Austria General Standard restricts the use of slurry and biogas; only slurry and biogas gained from fermented substances of organic farming can be used, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows all products as basis for fermentation. The main reason is to create high consumer confidence.
Fertilizers, origin - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The amount of N-input of conventional farmyard manure to cultures of arable farming and grassland is restricted. The difference between the N-amount of farmyard manure of the own farm to the amount of 170 kg [N/ha, a] has to be reduced to: a) 25 % in the case of soluble (fast effective) organic fertilisers b) 70 % in the case of slow-release organic fertilisers (relation of C:N ? 25:1). A prerequisite in arable farming is a minimum of 20 % legumes in the main crop rotation Only the following organic fertilisers are allowed for grassland: farmyard manure, composted or fermented household waste and composted or fermented mixture of vegetable matter.
The Bio Austria General Standard limits the amount of conventional farmyard manures to be brought in: soluble (fast effective) fertilizers more than slow soluble one. The EU Regulation 2092/91 only requires a limit of the amount of organic manure (170 kg N/ha, a). Quality and environmental reasons.
Fertilizers, restrictions - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The following fertilisers are not allowed by Bio Austria: blood meal, hoof meal, bone meal, fish meal, meat meal, feather and 'chiquette' meal the by-product of starch-production from conventional potatoes (Kartoffelrestfruchtwasser). the special basic slag 'Thomas phosphate'. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.3, 2.1.5)
The Bio Austria General Standard contains further restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it does not just limit the total amount of organic manures of conventional farms to be brought in. It also does not allow to use some products which are listed in the EU Regulation 2092/91 annex II A. Products or by-products were restricted during the BSE crisis. This restrictions were prolonged (not absolutely necessary). (principle of care/precaution). The by-product of starch-production from potatoes is readily soluble almost like readily soluble conventional fertilizers. The taste of this product (Kartoffelrestfruchtwasser) is not desired too. The special basic slag Thomas phosphate is a by-product of steel. For the production resources of recycling of old metal inclusive nickel and chromium are used. Therefore the residues of these heavy metals in the fertilizer can be high.
Free range conditions, access - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Interpretation of EU Regulation 2092/91 for the climate of Austria: All animals must have access to pasture or at least an open-air exercise yard on at least 180 days a year, distributed throughout the year. Cattle kept in tethering systems must have outdoor access either 180 days distributed throughout the year or, in addition to the ANI (TGI), at least once a week. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.9, 3.10.5, 3.11.3, 3.11.4, 3.12.7, 3.13.2, 3.14.3, 3.15.3)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it is a specification for orientation which has to be fulfilled. Just specification for orientation; definition of an absolutely minimum requirement under unfavourable circumstances.
Free range conditions, access, poultry - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Outdoor access areas for laying hens must be within a radius of 150 m of the poultry barn. This regulation applies to all barns built since 23 April, 2001. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.13.2)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91, which defines the amount of the area but not the shape of the outdoor access. The shape is very important for adequate use of the outdoor access. Principle of animal welfare and health; protection of the environment, commitment to consumer expectations Studies performed in different European countries have shown that laying hens mainly use the area the immediately around the hen house. Areas beyond 150m are hardly used at all. As hens do not distribute themselves evenly throughout the hen run more distant areas would mean an increase of stocking density. This would lead in the remaining part to an increase of nutrients and increase the risk of infections.
Free range conditions, general requirements - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Interpretation of EU Regulation for the climate of Austria: All animals must have access to pasture or at least an open-air exercise yard on at least 180 days a year, distributed throughout the year. Cattle kept in tethering systems must have outside access either 180 days distributed throughout the year or, in addition to the ANI (TGI), at least once a week.
The Bio Austria General Standard specifies minimal requirements for outdoor access therefore is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Just specification for orientation; definition of an absolutely minimum requirement under unfavourable circumstances.
Free range conditions, pigs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
All pigs for mast must always have access to exercise yards.
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 have more requirements with regard to outdoor access. Permanent and daily outdoor access is not required in EU Regulation 2092/91 (annex I B 8.3.8.). There is an exemption in annex I B 8.5.1 for existing buildings before 1999 until the year 2010. This exemption according to 8.5.1 of annex I B cannot be granted. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence. Another reason is that the permanent outdoor access is considered to be better for animal health.
Full farm conversion - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Conversion of the entire holding is a prerequisite for the certification as an organic farm of Bio Austria. Beekeeping and fish farming are the only exceptions, and may be practiced conventionally.
The Bio Austria has the additional requirement to convert the whole farm and not just the production unit, as defined in EU Regulation 2092/91 as littlest unit to convert (annex I B 1.5 ff) and Annex III A.1. §. 3 which defines the requirements for certification of the production unit, which can farmed by the same company/farm. Therefore it is not necessary based on the EU Regulation to convert the whole farm. The main reason is to create high consumer confidence (exclusion of fraud and mistakes).
Greenhouse production, heating - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
During the winter (December to February) cultivated areas under glass and plastic may be only be kept free from frost (resp. being heated up to 10 °C / 50 °F), with the exception of young plants and plants in pots and the use of heat from renewable energy sources or waste heat (for example from biogas production). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.1.7.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have a restriction for the use of energy resources. Reduced use of non-renewable resources is an important measure for sustainability of agriculture.
Greenhouse production, lighting - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The use of artificial light in cultivated areas under glass and plastic is forbidden. An exception is the use of artificial light for young plants. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.1.7.3)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not restriction the use of artificial light. Contribution to the reduction of energy use (limiting intensification)
Livestock housing and free range conditions - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In case of mammals the area of space available for reclining must be equal to at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have explicit requirements for reclining areas of mammals. To contribute to animal welfare.
Livestock housing and free range conditions, poultry - AT Bio Austrial General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In addition to the general rules for animals there are special rules for free-range broilers about stocking density, the litter, the light, outdoor access and pasture. The total allowable number of broilers per farm is 9600. Maximum 35 animals/m2 of barn area are permissible until the end of the 4th week of age, direct and concentrated glare from the sun should be avoided. No low frequency neon lighting is to be used. In newly constructed barns, the distance to the exit/entry pop-holes may not exceed 12 m for chickens. Barn areas that are farther than 12 m from an opening to the outdoor exercise yard are not calculated as barn area. If there are more than one exit opening, each one must be at least 40 cm wide. 4 weeks are necessary for empty outdoor areas between the runs. A covered yard area right beside of the barn must be at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement and has to be spread with litter. This yard must be easily accessible for the broilers (even when there is snow on the ground) and should be protected from wind. It must be available for the animals during daytime (also in winter) without restriction – apart from temperatures below 0° C (danger of frost). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.15)
The Bio Austria General Standard is very detailed while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have such specific requirements for free-range broiler husbandry. Animal welfare and health, protection of the environment. The main reason is to fulfil consumer expectations; integrity of organic farming (husbandry).
Livestock housing, area - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
For mammals the area of space available for reclining must be equal to at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.10.1.4, 3.11.1.4, 3.12.1.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have explicit requirements for reclining areas of mammals. To contribute to animal welfare.
Livestock housing, nesting material, poultry - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The nests of laying hens must be provided with formable natural materials. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.13, 1.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is very detailed, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not say anything about the material of nests. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal integrity. Behavioural priorities of laying hens, littered nests are preferred by laying hens. Litter satisfies behavioural requirements of laying hens by allowing moulding and other behaviours performed during egg laying.
Livestock housing, rearing, poultry - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In order to avoid problems regarding the behavioural development during acclimatization to the hen house, pullets must be reared at low stocking densities with perches and access to an open range. The rearing system should be as similar as possible to the system used during egg laying. Bio Austria sets special provisions regarding stocking density, structuring of the house and outdoor access to covered outdoor areas (covered yard or wintergardens) and to grassland. Because these rules for pullet rearing are part of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus they are valid for all organic farms in Austria, not only for Bio Austria farms. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.14)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation does not have special rules for pullet rearing. Therefore it is permisable to use conventional pullets if none are available of organic origin. Since 1.1.2006 in the EU conventional producers of pullets for organic farming have to fulfil the requirements of section 4 (feed) and section 5 (disease prevention and veterinary treatment) but not other requirements, especially for husbandry management, housing and free range areas. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal and ecological/organic integrity
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter3.10.3) BA-Rules 2006: The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions: Only appliances with a delivery of max 0.3 joule per impulse may be used. Cow trainers may not be in operation for more than 2 days a week. The cow trainer must be installed along the length of and parallel to the trough. The distance between withers and cow trainer must not be less than 5 cm, meaning that only devices that are adjustable for each individual animal may be used. Cow trainers may only be used for cows (beginning of the first lactation period). The cow trainer must be raised to its maximal height before calving and until 5 days after calving. This is also indicated for several days before the animal comes in heat.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as in the EU Regulation 2092/91 cow trainers are not mentioned. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal integrity and livelihood - equity principle; old systems of barn do not function without a cow trainer (fouling, dirtiness and hygiene).
Livestock management, general requirements, rabbits - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In addition to the general rules for animals there are special rules for rabbits about the stock density, outdoor access and feed to stocks of over 50 fattening rabbits: (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.16) Husbandry conditions Housing area: minimum 0.125 m2 per fattening rabbit from weaning until the end of the 8th week of age = 8 animals per m2. After the end of the 8th week, 0.25 m2 per animal = 4 rabbits per m. Housing height: minimum 60 cm. Housing flooring: litter strewn resting area. Up to 50 % of the housing floor may be perforated. Outside access: paved and easy to clean, partial roofing possible. Minimum outside access area: 0.125 m2 per fattening rabbit. Group husbandry with manageable group sizes (max. 40 animals per group) Feeding The feeding rules are similar to the other BA Standards. Feeding facilities must be arranged in such a manner that even low-ranked animals receive sufficient feed. Branches with bark must be available for gnawing, and must be changed at least every 14 days.
The Bio Austria General Standard is very detailed also for rabbit husbandry, while as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover this area of concern. Because the EU Regulation do not cover legal rules for rabbit husbandry it was considered to be necessary to give minimum standards to this part of animal husbandry.
Manure fertilizers, application, vegetables and herbs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Farmyard manure as fertilizers may not be applied as top fertilization to plants cultivated as vegetables being used as blossom or leaves or herbs between cultivation and harvest. Only for herbs compost from farmyard manure is allowed during vegetation.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it requires in addition to the limit of 170 kg N/ha a restriction for fertilization with farmyard manure to vegetables during the vegetation period. Quality and hygienic reasons for consumer protection.
Peat, seedling production - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Peat is only allowed for the production of seedlings and can only constitute 70 % of the substratum. Peat must not be used as an organic soil supplement. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.5, 4.1.5.1 (4.5.1: mushrooms)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it allows the use of peat only for the production of seedlings and limits the proportion to 70 %. Annex II A of the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the use of peat only to horticulture but does not give more restrictions. Peat is a limited natural resource. Restriction of its use is in line with the approach of sustainability and the protection of natural resources. Reasons: nature conservation.
Plant cultivation, use of soil culture - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Vegetables may only be grown in a soil culture with the exception of chicory and cress. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.1.5) Cultivation on mineral wool, hydroculture, nutrient-film technique and similar procedures are not permitted. Chicory and cress may be sprouted in water.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have this specification. To maintain consumer confidence and organic integrity
Plant processing, viticulture - Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
When wine is produced from organically grown grapes, resource and energy intensive procedures are to be avoided. Organic waste resulting from wine production must be recycled and returned to the soil. Waste water must not cause environmental pollution. The Bio Austria General Standard allows 3 oenological practices and describes positive lists for treating agents for must, wine and also for cleaning and disinfection. In addition there are rules for packaging and labelling.
The Bio Austria General Standard is detailed concerning wine processing, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover wine processing. n case of wine of organic grapes there is a lack of legal rules within the EU Regulation. The declaration of wine needs to describe the oenological practices. This creates transparency and ensures consumer confidence.
Plant processing, viticulture - Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
When the production of wine is made from organically grown grapes resource and energy intensive procedures are to be avoided. Organic waste resulting from wine production must be recycled and returned to the soil. Waste water should not cause environmental pollution. The Bio Austria General Standard allows 3 oenological practices and describes positive lists for treating agents for must, wine and also for cleaning and disinfection. In addition there are rules for packaging and labelling.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover the processing of vine. In case of wine of organic grapes there is a lack of legal rules. The declaration of wine needs to describe the oenological practices. This creates transparency and ensures consumer confidence.
Plant production, green cover, orchards - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In orchards, planting with a mixture appropriate to the location is required throughout the year (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.3.3). In areas with extreme summer dryness the land planting period must be at least 10 months. The plantings must not be ploughed under from the beginning of September until the end of March. Mulch cuttings have to be made in such a way that beneficial organisms are protected (for example no cutting at the edges or alternate cutting).
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have requirements for land planting in orchards. Green coverage reduces erosion problems.
Plant production, green cover, vineyards - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The vineyard must be land-planted throughout the year, in order to provide a habitat for diverse flora and fauna. Species-rich mixtures should be sown. Land planting may be interrupted for up to 2 months for soil preparation, for winter furrowing of heavy soils, loosening of the soil, new sowing, summer drought and in new plantings. No land planting is necessary directly under the vines. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.4.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have specific requirements for land planting in vineyards. Green coverage reduces erosion.
Plant protection, copper - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The annual amount of copper for plant protection is more restricted then in annex II B of EEC-regulation 2092/91. Per year are allowed 2 kg/ha, to fruits 2,5 kg/ha, to vineyard 3 kg/ha and to hope 4 kg/ha. (BA-Rules chapter 2.1.5, 2.3.3, 4.1.7, 4.3.8, 4.4.3, 4.4.7)
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006, but no restrictions are made in terms of different crops. Bio Austria General Standard restricts the amount of copper per ha in relation to different crops (2-4 kg/ha). The Bio Austria General Standard restricts copper application between 2-4 kg per ha in relation to different crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006. No restrictions are made in terms of different crops.
Slury import, from biogas production - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In principle slurry from biogas production has to come from substances of organic farming. A deviation is possible for production units where the approval for building was given before 31.12.2004. The general restrictions for the use of products of annex II are valid (3, 4 and 5). The deviation is valid until the end of 2010, if there are substrates which are provably delivered by the Bio Austria farm to the biogas co-production. Substrates of conventional farming may only enter a biogas co-production, if they are allowed according to the restricted Bio Austria list of brought in fertilisers (see 'restrictions in the positive list of fertiliser input'). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 for biogas fermentation with approval since 2005 as they require to use only substances of organic farming while the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows all products of Annex II A. The main reason is to create high consumer confidence.
Soil management, perennial crops - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In orchards land planting with a planting mixture appropriate to the location is required throughout the most part of the year.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed, since the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have requirements for land planting in orchards. Green coverage is required to reduce erosion problems.
Soil management, perennial crops, viticulture - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In vineyards land planting with a planting mixture (green manure) appropriate to the location is required throughout the most part of the year. Land planting may be interrupted for up to 2 months in special cases.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed, as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have specific requirements for land planting in vineyards. Green coverage is required to reduce erosion.
Veterinary prophylactic treatment, teat dipping - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Prophylactic teat dipping with chemical or synthetic substances is forbidden. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.5.9)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed, as EU Regulation 2092/91 does not mention dipping. However EU does not allow prophylactical treatment with chemically synthesised allopathic vetenary medicinal products. Prophylactic teat dipping with chemical or synthetic substances places selection pressure on the symbiotic flora of the teat, possibly leading to the development of resistant micro-organisms. Residues of these substances can also remain on the teats.