Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by EU regulation

  • EC Council Regulation No. 2092/91
    • Annex I. Principles of organic production and processing
      • A.Plant and plant products
        • Fertilizing - Annex I A2
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Conversion, application of biodynamic preparations - Demeter International 2005
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Manures and composts must be treated with the biodynamic preparations. A prerequisite for the certification of the farm as "In Conversion to demeter" (Biodyn) after 12 months of farming to these standards is at least one application of the spraying preparations (cow-horn manure and the horn silica), and the spreading of prepared manures on all areas of the enterprise. (DI production standards, 4. Biodynamic Preparations)
The DI standard has additional requirements than the EU Regulation 2092/91. There is no requirement about the preparation or application of the biodynamic preparations in the EU Regulation. It is stated however, that these preparations can be used for the activation of compost. The use of the biodynamic preparations in the manure and compost is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method.
Conversion, crop rotation - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Fields starting organic conversion, which have grown a nutrient exploiting crop in the previous two years, such as cereals in the previous 2 years, must start the conversion with a fertility building phase of the crop rotation. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.2.5.) Soil Association standards are more detailed and have additional requirments than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association Standards require that fields entering organic conversion, which have grown nutrient exploiting crops must start the first rotation of their organic conversion with a fertility building phase. EU Regulation does not contain this requirement, but only a requirement for a multi-annual rotation, including legumes green manures or deep-rooting plants, as the primary means to maintain or increase fertility. This Soil Association requirement enforces best agro-ecological practice at the start of organic conversion. It reduces any possibility that a producer might try to produce a nutrient exploiting crop by applying nutrient inputs to land with low nutrient levels entering conversion. Thus, this rule functions both as a guide for the producer and as a safeguard against poor practice in in-conversion crop production.
Crop rotation - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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Any crop rotation must maintain long-term soil fertility and guarantee prosperous growth. The rotation must minimise the loss of nutrients by erosion or effluent water. A rate of 20% leguminous or soil building crops are required by BIO SUISSE and winter cover of at least 50% of arable land area. Cereals/grain legumes 67%, wheat and others not more than 50% to the rotation. Leguminous soil buildung crops must cover at least 25% of the share in the rotation. A break of at least one vegetation cycle is required before a crop of the same family shall be planted again.
Whereas BIO SUISSE regulates the crop rotation requirements in detail, the EU Regulation 2092/91 is more general in this area. A balanced and sophisticated crop rotation is crucial to maintain long term soil fertility, to enhance natural nitrogen level and humus accumulation. Therefore clear requirements are necessary to support this aim.
Crop rotation - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Crop rotation is mentioned in a general way in the preamble of the standard. Since all farms must have their own animal husbandry, rotation must include fodder and roughage production for these animals. However: all DEMETER farms have to comply with the Bio Suisse standards of crop rotation.
EU Regulation 2092/91 in general requires the rotation of green manures or deep-rooting plants in an appropriate multi-annual rotation programme with no minimal rates for specific soil enhancing crops. DEMETER farms are forced into a very diverse crop rotation scheme since they must produce fodder for their own animal husbandry. Since own fodder production and own animal husbandry is required, the crop rotation must be balanced with leguminous crops as well as other fodder crops in order to keep the farm self-sufficient in its fodder supply.
Crop rotation - Demeter International 2005
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Sustainable soil fertility requires sufficient legumes and a high proportion of leaf crops in the rotation. (DI production standards, 3. Arable plant production)
The DI standard is slightly more precise in the aspect of how to design an adequate crop rotation. The prerequisite for good development of leaves, flowers and fruit/seeds is a vital living soil that allows good root penetration. The design of this growing area is of greater importance for the health of the plant than are individual plant husbandry measures.
Crop rotation - Italian Organic Standards 2005
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The operator should adopt a rotation plan. The rotation should include crops belonging to different species, and should include at least an annual or perennial legume. The certification body may not authorize the growing of the same crop, in the same field, for more than two consecutive years (3 consecutive cycles for horticultural cultivations).
Compared with EU Regulation 2092/91 there are more detailed rules for crop rotation and specific requirements to avoid monoculture. Rotation is the base of soil fertility and therefore of organic agriculture. For this reason the IOS defines detailed guidelines for crop rotation.
Crop rotation - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 To satisfy nitrogen needs of the farm at least a 20% share of legume crops (as a main crop) should be grown on arable land. Catch crops should be grown on at least 20% of arable land acreage. (3.2.4) The EU Regulation 2092/91 demands the cultivation of legumes, green manures or deep-rooting plants in an appropriate multi-annual rotation programme, but does not specify minimal shares as the PL Ecoland standards do. One of the basic methods of soil conservation is properly designed crop rotation system.
Crop rotation - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Soil Association standards require that, where a crop rotation is possible, it must use a sequence where the fertility building and fertility depleting crops maintain a balance, it must include crops with various root systems, it must include a legume crop, and it must leave enough time between crops with similar pest and disease risks. Where the rotation is not to this standard and relies on inputs, the farmer must show that the rotation is improving, is reducing the inputs, and is making maximum use of legumes and green manures. At least 3 seasons must be allowed between outdoor crops of alliums, brassicas or potatoes, but successional crops in the same year are allowed. With permission, two crops of the same family may be grown in successional years followed by a 6-year break. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 5.1.10-5.1.13.)
Soil Association require: where a crop rotation is possible, it must follow a number of specified rules regarding the types of crop and their sequence in the rotation. EU Regulations 2092/91 requires that the soil fertility and biological activity must be maintained by a multi-annual rotation including legumes, green manures or deep-rooting plants, but the requirements for the rotation are no more detailed than that. The Soil Association standards on crop rotations are intended to ensure that the rotation will be an effective means of maintaining soil fertility and of controlling pests and diseases without the need for recourse to excessive or restricted inputs. The crop rotation specifications are intended to achieve maximum environmental benefits and minimum risks of environmental pollution or harm to biodiversity. The standards anticipate some of the most likely ways that rotations may be compromised by poor practice, and they include requirements and restrictions that aim to prevent these problems.
Crop rotation, legumes - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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The minimum share of legumes in the crop rotation is 20% (with exemptions). (NL standards on production, Part B.I. Plant production 7.)
In the EU Regulation 2092/91 legumes are required in the crop rotation as a measure to maintain and increase the soil fertility. A minimum share is not indicated like it is in Naturland The incorporation of legumes in the crop rotation is a vital element to ensure the long-term fertility of the soil.
Cropping systems, prohibited - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Even cropping systems that do not rely on rotations must still comply with the methods of nutrient supply, weed, pest and disease control set out in the rules for crop establishment and growth, and they must not rely on outside inputs. Continuous arable rotations are prohibited. (Soil Association Organic Standards, Sections 4.6-4.11 and Paragraphs 5.1.14 and 5.1.15.)
Soil Association standards are more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards prohibit any cropping systems that rely strongly on outside inputs for nutrient supply, weed, pest and disease control, and any that are based on continuous arable rotations. EU Regulation does not include these specific prohibitions. The Soil Association standards are partly intended to prohibit hydroponic crop production, while allowing flexibility for other sustainable cropping systems. Hydroponic cropping systems rely on high levels of nutrient and energy input and are therefore considered unsustainable. The prohibitions on continuous arable rotations and on systems relying on outside inputs enhance the enforceability of the positive requirements for diverse, multi-annual rotation.
Fertilization, GMO derivatives - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 It is prohibited to use any nutrient input for organic crop production that contains genetically modified organisms (GMO) or their derivatives. This includes manure produced by livestock fed or grazed on genetically modified material within the previous 3 months. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 3.6.7. Soil Association standards prohibits the use of manure produced by livestock fed or grazed on genetically modified material within the previous 3 months. EU Regulation 2092/91 has no clear restriction. The Soil Association standards aim to minimise the risk of contamination of organic crops with genetically modified plant material by prohibiting the use of any genetically modified crop nutrient inputs. Genetically modified organisms are prohibited from use in organic farming because of the unpredictable nature of the technology, and the risks to health and the environment.
Fertilization, biodynamic prepaparations - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Specific bio-dynamic preparations enhance soil fertility and the health of crops. These preparations are defined as field sprays (cow-horn manure, horn silica) and compost preparations (camomile, oak bark, dandelion, yarrow, stinging nettle, valerian). The full effect can only be expected when all the preparations (compost and spray preparations) are used in composted manures and as crop sprays at least once throughout the year.
Specific bio-dynamic preparations help to regulate cosmic and earth-bound forces. They soil fertility and contribute to improve the nutritional quality of the crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 gives standards for fertilization requirements but does not extend the definition of fertility to aspects of superior life forces. Bio-dynamic farming includes the aspect of earthbound and cosmic forces, which can be regulated with the support of specific bio-dynamic preparations. Only the combination of manuring and application of bio-dynamic field sprays would lead to increased fertility of soil and to a (holistic) nutrional quality of the crops.
Fertilization, biodynamic preparations - Demeter International 2005
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The biodynamic preparations should be made on the farm itself and applied regularly in manures and compost and on the whole farm area. (DI production standards, 1. Principles; DI production standards, 4. Biodynamic Preparations)
There is no requirement about the preparation or application of the biodynamic preparations in the EU Regulation 2092/91. It is stated however, that these preparations can be used for the activation of compost. The use of the biodynamic preparations is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method. The fabrication of the preparations on the farm itself and with ingredients collected from the farm will strengthen the development of an individuality of the farm organism and help the consciousness and understanding of the connections in nature by the farmer.
Fertilization, biodynamic preparations, cosmic rhythms - Demeter International 2005
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The Biodynamic method has largely to do with the forming of living interactions, where the correct timing of measures which affect living processes plays an important role. To this belongs in particular also the conscientious and regular use of the Biodynamic preparations, and the consideration of cosmic rhythms in plant production and animal husbandry. (DI production standards, 1.principles)
There is no requirement to consider cosmic rhythms or to use the biodynamic preparations in order to individually develop the "farm organism" in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Each farm shall be developped into a "living organism" and has to be worked out in an individual way. The consideration of cosmic rhythms and the application of the biodynamic preparations are important measures to help the "farm organism" to develop. These measures have been laid down in the "Agricultural Course" of Rudolf Steiner, which is the basis of the biodynamic method.
Fertilization, general requirements - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Composted farm yard manure (preferably from own animal husbandry) with specific bio-dynamic preparations (plant extract additives) enhances soil fertility and the soil quality. Farms should have their own animal husbandry. Only in exceptional cases fare arms without animal husbandry accepted (e.g. fruit orchards, horticulture).
Manure applied should preferably originate from own animal husbandry and must be composted with specific bio-dynamic preparates. An exception from the DEMETER certification is required if no animals are reared on the farm. The EU Regulation 2092/91 makes no preferences for the origin of the nutrients applied, but only requires that farm yard manure has to be from extensive husbandry. Enlivening the soil and the maintenance and development of soil fertility are basic objectives of the bio-dynamic method. The greatest influence in this regard (besides sound soil tillage and crop rotation) is the careful use of composted and prepared manures from ruminants, in particular from cows.
Fertilization, general requirements - US NOP 2002
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The producer must manage crop nutrients and soil fertility through rotations, cover crops, and the application of plant and animal materials. The producer must manage plant and animal materials to maintain or improve soil organic matter content avoiding contamination. Approved fertilizers: (1) Raw animal manure (subject to further restrictions) (2) Composted plant and animal materials (3) Uncomposted plant materials (4) A crop nutrient or soil amendment included on the national list of synthetic substances allowed for use in organic crop production (6) A mined substance of low solubility (7) A mined substance of high solubility, provided that the substance is used in compliance with the conditions established on the national list of nonsynthetic materials prohibited for crop production. (Article § 205.203 and § 205.205)
There are only differences regarding manure and compost (see these sections) compared with EU Regulation 2092/91. A producer of an organic crop must manage soil fertility, including tillage and cultivation practices, in a manner that maintains or improves the physical, chemical, and biological condition of the soil and minimises soil erosion.
Fertilization, intensity - Nature et Progrès Standards 2001
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The organic nitrogen input from external sources (composted manure or fish fertilizer) is limited to 40 kg per ha and per year.
Nature et Progrès standards limit the organic nitrogen import to 40 kg per ha and per year, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 limits it to 170 kg per ha and per year. The fertility and the biological activity of the soil must be maintained or increased, in the first instance, by cultivation of legumes, green manures or deep-rooting plants in an appropriate multi-annual rotation programme. Too much nitrogen in soil causes water pollution and crop diseases.
Fertilization, intensity - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In arable farming and grassland the total amount of N in organic fertilizers from organic origin is limited to 170 kg/ha (this rule is not valid for special cultures as like vegetables, drug plant and spices [without spices for threshing], orchards, vineyards and hope). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.1.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard requires a limit of 170 kg N/ha for the whole organic manure and not only for farmyard manure. Quality and environmental reasons.
Fertilization, intensity - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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The maximum amount of nitrogen that may be supplied by manures fertilizer, averaged over the crop rotation, may not exceed the amount that would be produced by those animals which the farm could support from its own fodder production (max. 2.0-2.5 LSU equivalents/ha based on the total area of the farm or less). The use of commercial organic manures is limited to this level as well.
Individual limits are set by DEMETER standards for each crop are applied for the use of fertilizers: both nitrogen and phosphorus are limited, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 in general sets a limit for nitrogen only ( 170kgN/ha and year farm yard manures). The production of fodder and crops should be in balance with the animals kept on the farm and their production of manure. In order to keep this balance and to avoid excessive use of fertilizers DEMETER limits the use of nutrients to the effective need by the crops.
Fertilization, intensity - Demeter International 2005
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The total amount of nitrogen fertilizer that may be used on the farm is related to the farms own capacity to produce animal manure. It must not exceed 1.4 manure units/ha (equivalent to 112 kg N/ha and 98 kg P2O5/ha). Market gardens with a high nitrogen export are allowed to use up to 170 kg N/ha after approval. (DI production standards, 3.2.1. Amount of manure)
According to the DI standards the nitrogen input allowed in general is lower than the one allowed by the EU Regulation 2092/91 (170 kg N/ha). The farm production should be based on the individual (natural and cultural) conditions of the site. It should not depend on the input of nutrients from elsewhere. This aspect refers to the principle of a circular flow economic system of organic farming and to the biodynamic principle of the individuality of a farm.
Fertilization, intensity - SE KRAV 2006
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KRAV can request that a farmer has a plant nutrient equation done for the whole farm and all inputs used (KRAV standards paragraph 4.1.6).
Plant nutrient equation or balances are not covered in EU 2092/91. To use manure and other inputs in an effective and responsible way is important in organic production. For farms where there is a risk for overuse of inputs and risks to the environment, a nutrient balance can be requested. This is also a educational tool for the farmer.
Fertilization, intensity and import - CH Regulation 2005
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The source of brought-in manures is restricted by the positive list of admitted fertilizers in organic farming. For export of manure from the own operation of more than 1 LSU/year, a contract must exist with the farm receiving this manure. This farm must be managed according ecological principles and can not exceed adequate nutrient limits as set by the legislation.
Import of farm yard manure and compost can only occur if a contract exists with the exporting farm and nutrient needs of crops are not exceeded (evidence must be provided by calculation). The EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the nutrient input of farm yard manures to 170kgN/ha; while neither of the farms (the exporting farm and the receiving farm) may exceed this limit. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced nor applied.
Fertilization, intensity, nitrogen - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In arable farming and grassland the total amount of N in organic fertilizers from organic origin is limited to 170 kg/ha (this rule is not valid for special cultures such as vegetables, drug plants and spices [without spices for threshing], orchards, vineyards and hope).
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU \Regulation 2092/91 annex I as it requires a limit of 170 kg N/ha for the whole organic manure and not only for farmyard manure. Quality and environmental reasons
Fertilization, intensity, vegetables - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In connection with the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus A 8 maximum levels of nitrate for vegetables are defined. (BA-Rules chapter 4.1.8)
The Bio Austria General Standard contains a further restriction than EU Regulation 2092/91, which does not have a restriction of the nitrate level in vegetables. Consumer protection.
Fertilization, negative effects - DE Bioland 2005
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The application of fertilizers must not negatively affect either the quality of the product or the environment. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.5 Production of Quality and Environmental Compatibility)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not consider the product quality which can be influenced by fertilising. However it does require measures to avoid contamination of the soil. To guarantee the production of high quality food. To avoid negative impacts on the environment.
Fertilization, substrates, heavy metals - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Best practice recommendations are explained regarding heavy metal in soil. Maximum permitted levels of heavy metals are specified for topsoil and manure. Soil Association standards explain that soil heavy metal concentrations need to be maintained at healthy levels and that nutrient inputs should not increase concentrations above acceptable levels. This is followed by a table specifying the maximum permitted levels of heavy metals (in total dry matter) for soils and manures. These include zinc, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.9.2.)
Soil Association standards contain recommendations and restrictions on heavy metal levels for topsoil and manure, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only mentions heavy metal levels for household wastes and phosphate fertilizers. High levels of heavy metals in soil can be toxic to crop plants, and can be taken up by crops and cause health problems to people. High levels of heavy metals in manures can lead to accumulation in the soil to which they are applied. This could lead to longer-term problems for crop yields and safety. Soil Association restrictions on heavy metal in soils and manures are intended to minimise these associated risks.
Fertilization, substrates, microbial recolonisation - Demeter International 2004
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After steam sterilisation of growing substrates the recolonisation by microbes should be guided using the biodynamic preparations. (DI production standards, 3.4.2. Manures, soils and potting mixes; DI production standards, 3.4.5.Production under glass and plastics; DI production standards, 3. Arable and Plant production)
The DI standard contains further requirements. There is no requirement or recommendation regarding microbial recolonisation of steamed growing substrates. The use of biodynamic preparations is not required by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To enliven the soil is one of the basic principles of biodynamic agriculture. To fertilize means to enliven the soil.
Fertilizer, intensity and import - Demeter International 2005
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The import of commercial organic manures is limited to the amount, that could be supplied by compost, green manure and stable manure and must not exceed 0,5 manure units/ ha (40 kg N/ha). This is not applicable to perennial crops. (DI production standards, 3.2.1.Amount of manure)
The DI standard is limiting the amount of commercial organic manures brought in. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specifically limit the amount of commercial organic manures brought in, it only limits the total amount of farm yard manure that can be applied. The production should be based on the individual (natural and cultural) conditions of the site. It should not depend on the input of nutrients from elsewhere. This aspect refers to the principle of a circular flow economic system of organic farming and to the biodynamic principle of the individuality of a farm.
Fertilizers, certification rules - Nature et Progres standards 2002
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There are rules for certification of organic fertilizers with regard to allowed raw material and level of application. Nature et Progrès standards also include environnemental management in the production units and maximum information for users.
Nature et Progrès standards include further details than EU Regulation 2092/91. It is necessary to certify fertilizers according to organic farming requirements (allowed raw materials) and to monitor their pollutant content as well as the environmental impact.
Fertilizers, origin - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The amount of N-input of conventional farmyard manure to cultures of arable farming and grassland is restricted. The difference between the N-amount of farmyard manure of the own farm to the amount of 170 kg [N/ha, a] has to be reduced to: a) 25 % in the case of soluble (fast effective) organic fertilisers b) 70 % in the case of slow-release organic fertilisers (relation of C:N ? 25:1). A prerequisite in arable farming is a minimum of 20 % legumes in the main crop rotation Only the following organic fertilisers are allowed for grassland: farmyard manure, composted or fermented household waste and composted or fermented mixture of vegetable matter.
The Bio Austria General Standard limits the amount of conventional farmyard manures to be brought in: soluble (fast effective) fertilizers more than slow soluble one. The EU Regulation 2092/91 only requires a limit of the amount of organic manure (170 kg N/ha, a). Quality and environmental reasons.
Fertilizers, origin - DE Bioland 2005
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The commercial fertilizers and manures bought in from other farms and listed under 10.1. may be used in addition to the farms own fertilizing programme. Manures from conventional farms, free from polluting substances, must be composted before use. Liquid and semi-liquid conventional manure, conventional manure from pig and poultry farming, meal from blood and bones, sewage sludge as well as synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and highly soluble phosphates (among others) are prohibited. Composted household wastes from community collection and peat substitutes require approval by BIOLAND. The use of liquid and fresh manure in herb cultivation is restricted. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.2 Permissible External Fertilizers; Bioland production standards, 3.5.3 Non-permissible Fertilizers; Bioland production standards, 3.5.6 Sewage Sludge and Compost; Bioland production standards, 5 Horticulture and Permanent Crops; Bioland production standards, 5.2.4 Fertilizing Bioland production standards, 10 Appendix)
The BIOLAND has less products on the list of allowed fertilisers in the Annex than the corresponding annex of the EU Regulation 2092/91, and conventional manures must be composted before use. Manures from conventional farms, free from polluting substances must be composted before use. Liquid and semi-liquid conventional manure, conventional manure from pig and poultry farming, meal from blood and bones, sewage sludge as well as synthetic nitrogen fertilisers and highly soluble phosphates (among others) are prohibited. To avoid contamination with harmful substances and to strengthen the farms own fertilising programme. Fertilizing is to be designed in conformity with the location and the crops involved in such a way that the quality of the products (physiological nutritional value, taste, imperishability) may not be detrimentally affected in particular by the amount of nitrogenous fertiliser. In regard to the type, the amount and the time of applying fertilizer, care must be taken to avoid placing loads on the soil and the water (e.g. through heavy metals and nitrates) (Bioland production standards, 3.5.5 Production of Quality and Environmental Compatibility) The objective of fertilisation is to achieve harmonic nutrition of the plants by means of a soil full of life. Organic material from the business itself forms the basis of fertilization. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.1 Basic Principles)
Fertilizers, origin - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Soil Association permission is required to use non-organic animal manure or plant waste, which must be used only as a complement to the soil fertility management. Permission will be granted only if information is provided about the material and why it is needed. The types of non-organic agricultural and food by-products that may be used are subject to detailed, specified restrictions, regarding the stocking densities and husbandry systems, as well as the stacking or composting of the material. These include straw, farmyard manure, stable manure, poultry manure (from certain production systems with specified maximum stocking densities for each), straw-based pig manure, food processing by-products, plant wastes and by-products, as well as non-organic slurry, mushroom composts and worm composts from the systems specified. Dirty water from non-organic systems may be applied to in-conversion land. In addition, the Soil Association standards specify that non-organic slurry must have been aerated, pig and poultry manure must have been properly composted, stacked for 12 months, or stacked for 6 months and turned twice, and other non-organic livestock manure and plant waste must have been stacked for half the above-mentioned times or properly composted. Soil Association may request a soil or manure analysis to check the heavy metal levels. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.7.5-4.7.7 and 4.7.17.)
Soil Association standards specify that only certain types of manure and plant wastes from non-organic production or processing systems may be permitted to complement soil fertility management. EU Regulation 2092/91 specifies "need recognised by the inspection body". The Soil Association standards aim to avoid providing an organic farming demand for manure products of livestock systems where the animal welfare is compromised by lack of bedding, or by excessive stocking densities or movement restrictions. Soil Association standards try to avoid potential organic consumer health problems by requiring composting or stacking time for the degradation of residues of prohibited inputs or veterinary medicines before application of non-organic manure and plant wastes to organic crops. Consumer health and long-term soil fertility concerns are the reasons why analysis may be required for heavy metal levels.
Fertilizers, origin, orchards - Demeter International 2005
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In orchards that have no animals of their own, the amount of outside organic fertiliser that may be imported is limited to 1.2 manure unit/ha of orchard area. The total amount of fertiliser used may not exceed the equivalent of 90kg N/ha of orchard area. (DI production standards, 3.5.2. Manures and soil husbandry)
The DI standard is defining a fertilizer limit for orchards in particular. There is no such provision in the EU Regulation 2092/91. The limit is given to provide good fruit quality and for nutritional aspects as well.
Fertilizers, substrates - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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Fertilization should enhance microorganism and soil activity . The use of synthetic chemical nitrogen fertilizers is forbidden. Dried farm yard manure is in general prohibited.
In general the list of fertilizers is comparable with the EU Regulation. Some fertilizers of the EU Regulation 2092/91 list are not listed in the BIO SUISSE standards. Easily soluble nutrients in general do not support the natural balance of nutrient release in the soil; therefore Bio Suisse does not support such kind of fertilizers.
Fertilizers, substrates - CH Demeter Standards 2005 Fertility should be enhanced by own farmyard manure. If not available only a limited amount of bought in manure is allowed according to DEMETER standards and it should be of bio-dynamic or organic origin. DEMETER standards provide a shorter list of admitted fertilizers. Guano is not allowed according DEMETER standards nor are animal corps preparates (except horn). The distance for the transport of farmyard manure is restricted. Peat can only be used for seedling production and only to a very limited ratio. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows a broader range of fertilizers. There are ecological reasons to exclued Guano, to restrict the use of peat and to limit the transport of farmyard manure.
Fertilizers, substrates - DE Naturland Standards 2005 The substances that can be used as fertilizers on NATURLAND farms are regulated by a positive list in the appendix 1 and by certain restrictions mentioned in the corresponding chapter (B I). Explicitly excluded from use are synthetic chemical nitrogen fertilizers, Chile saltpeter and urea, composted waste (other than green compost), faecal and sewage sludge, liquid and semi-liquid manure from conventional origin as well as conventional chicken manure. Conventional manure as well as any semi-liquid manure must be treated before application. Environmental pollution must be avoided. Mineral and trace element fertilizers that are not easily soluble (see appendix 1. 1.5) can be used after consulting an adviser and is related to the results of soil analyses, deficiency symptoms of the crop and the nutrient balance of the whole farm. Bought in fertilizers and soil conditioners can be applied if listed in the corresponding appendix 1 and the indicated conditions of use are complied with. (NL standards on production: Part B.I.Plant production, 1.Humus management and fertilization; Appendix 1.) The NATURLAND standard is similar but in some cases has additional restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91: conventional chicken manure, conventional liquid or semi-liquid manure, bone and blood meal as well as composted community household wastes are not allowed to be used. Fertilization shall primarily support the accumulation of humus complexes in the soil. As a consequence, highly concentrated and easily soluble nitrogen fertilisers are not acceptable. The risk of contamination with objectionable substances from conventional animal farming, community wastes etc. must be reduced.
Fertilizers, substrates - Demeter International 2005
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The fertilizers which can be brought into a biodynamic farm are regulated in the chapter 3.2.2. and by a positive list in the appendix 4. Certain products (such as synthetic nitrogen sources, Chilean Nitrate, water soluble phosphate fertilizers, pure potassium salts and potassium salts with a chloride content exceeding 3%, municipal composts, sewage sludge, animal manure from intensive animal husbandry systems) are explicitly excluded from use. Others (such as natural phosphate rock, ground basic slag, potassium magnesium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, sulphur, trace elements) can only be applied if the necessity has been demonstrated and after approval. Animal manure should be prepared with the biodynamic preparations. The use of brought in fertilizers must be precisely documented. (DI production standards, 3.2.2. Brought in manures and soils; DI production standards, appendix 4)
The list of allowed fertilizers is shorter in DI standard than the EU Regulation 2092/91, i.e. conventional manure from poultry farming, liquid or semi-liquid conventional manures, meal from blood, meat and bone, pure potassium salts and potassium salts with a chloride content of larger than 3% are totally prohibited. The fertilization shall be done as far as possible with the farms own resources, and therefore the import of fertilizers is restricted. Contamination with harmful substances must be excluded.
Fertilizers, substrates, animal by-products - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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With prior Soil Association permission, a number of soil nutrient supplements are permitted for use to treat severe deficiencies. Among these, animal by-products are subject to particular restrictions. Soil Association standards permit the use of meat, blood, bone, hoof and horn meals, with prior permission, only in compost for use in plant propagation and not on units where there are cattle or sheep. Wool shoddy may be used, with prior permission, only if not in direct contact with the crop. Fish meals and fish emulsions may be used, with prior permission, if they do not contain prohibited substances and only in protected cropping, propagating composts or perennial crops. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.8.10.)
Soil Association standards restrict the use of animal by products. EU Regulation 2092/91 generally permits animal by-products (such as meat, blood, bone, hoof and horn meals, wool shoddy, fish products) for use where the need is recognised by the inspection body. Soil Association standards are particularly cautious regarding the use of animal by-products as soil nutrient supplements partly due to the risk of contamination of crops with agents or vectors of infectious disease, such as BSE infected prions on pasture. "Intense exploitation of fish stocks to produce fish meal has major implications for the integrity of marine ecosystems." (Little and Edwards, 2003). Regular use of fish products for crop nutrition would not be compatible with organic ecological principles. Reference: Little, D.C. and Edwards, P. (2003) Integrated livestock - fish farming systems. URL: >
Fertilizers, substrates, green manure - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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Green manure has to be grown on areas that are not covered by a crop for more than 12 weeks during the vegetation period. (NL standards on production: Part B. III. Market gardening, 1.6 Part B. V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees 1.4)
The NATURLAND requires the growth of green manure on land which lies idle for more than 12 weeks. The EU Regulation 2092/91 more generally recommends the cultivation of green manure among other measures to maintain and increase the soil fertility. To keep the soil covered with vegetation is a vital instrument to maintain and increase the soil fertility.
Fertilizers, substrates, guano - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 It is prohibited to fertilize the soil with fresh blood, guano, Chilean nitrate, urea, or slaked lime or quicklime. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.8.12. Soil Association standards have further restrictions than EU Regulation 2092/91, where for example guano is permitted as fertiliser where the need is recognised by the inspection body. It is prohibited by the Soil Association standards. Guano extraction is unsustainable on a large scale because of habitat damage and limited reserves. Historically, guano was used as a major nitrate source, but nitrogen fixed from the atmosphere should be the main source of nitrate in organic farming.
Fertilizers, substrates, maerl - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association permission is required to use seaweed sources for soil nutrient supplementation, but maerl from Lithothamnium corallioides, Lithothamnium glaciale or Phymatolithon calcareum are prohibited. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.8.5. Soil Association standards prohibit the use of maerl from Lithothamnium corallioides, Lithothamnium glaciale or Phymatolithon calcareum. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include this prohibition, but it allows seaweed products, where the need is recognised by the inspection body, and maerl with no restriction. The seaweed species named as prohibited inputs in the Soil Association standards are endangered species, and the maerl extraction contributes to the threat of their extinction.
Livestock manure, fertilizers, intensity and import The maximum application of Nitrogen in livestock manure is 140 kg total N per hectare per plan period (August 1 - July 31) and a maximum of 50 % of the Nitrogen (70 kg total N/hectare) may be conventional manure or other fertilizers listed in Annex 1 according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Section 3.4: Fertilisers and soil improvers. According to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Section 3.4: Fertilisers and soil improvers, the maximum application of Nitrogen in livestock manure is 140 kg total-N per hectare per plan period (August 1 - July 31). Maximum 50 % of the Nitrogen (70 kg total N/hectare) may be from conventional manure or other fertilizers in Annex I A. Besides, there are general limits (also for conventional farms) for the application of N to various crops depending on soil type and previous crop. According to the EEC 2092/91 Regulation, Annex I B, Article 7.1 the total amount of manure applied on the agricultural land of a holding may not exceed 170 kg N per hectare per year in accordance with Directive 91/676/EEC. There are no restrictions on the application of conventional manure or other fertilisers mentioned in Annex I A within this limit. The lower limit of 140 kg total N/ha has been set due to environmental concerns and studies showing that the legumes in the rotation, which are not accounted for in the calculation of total N-application, may deliver a considerable contribution to the nitrogen input. The requirement that maximum 50 % of the total N may come from conventional manure is set to reduce the dependency on conventional farming and to reduce the risk of contamination of the soil.
Manure fertilizers, application - FI Luomuliitto Standards for "Leppäkerttu" quality label 2004 It is required that all animal manure used for growing products intended directly for human consumption must be composted. There is no such requirement in the EU Regulation No. 2092/91. Composting of the manure is regarded as important in the eyes of the consumers.
Manure fertilizers, application - FR Nature et Progres Standards 2002
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Farmers have to compost animal manure for three months before using it as fertilizer.
Nature et Progres standards requires the composting of manure whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Using animal manure without composting may result in high levels of nitrogen on the fields that can pollute water stocks or create disorders in plants' growth. Using manure without composting may also contaminate fields with germs and parasites.
Manure fertilizers, application - US NOP 2002
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US requires composting of manure unless it is applied to land used for a crop not intended for human consumption or it is applied 90/120 days prior harvest of a product for human consumption (depending on whether the edible portion has direct contact to the soil or not)
EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that the quantity of manure applied annually may not exceed 170 kg of nitrogen/year/ha; US does not. US sets restrictions on the time between application of raw manure and the harvest of crops for human consumption; this is not addressed by EU. EU requires controlled fermentation and or appropriate dilution of slurry/urine; US sets restrictions only if applied on land used for a crop intended for human consumption. EU sets specific requirements for the capacity of manure storage facilities; US does not. EU requires consideration of the source of manure allowing manure from organic production units and regulating the amount of manure from conventional sources. EU prohibits manure from "factory farms" (but still allows from "extensive husbandry" under certain conditions). US does not address manure source. Raw manure contributes significant benefits to soil nutrient, structure, and biological activity that other soil fertility practices and materials do not provide. The responsibility to use raw manure in a manner that is protective of human health applies to all producers, whether organic or not, who apply such materials. USDA acknowledged the commenters who noted that the OFPA cites food safety concerns relative to manure use and, therefore, that food safety considerations should be reflected in the practice standard for applying raw manure in the final rule.
Manure fertilizers, application, vegetables and herbs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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Farmyard manure as fertilizers may not be applied as top fertilization to plants cultivated as vegetables being used as blossom or leaves or herbs between cultivation and harvest. Only for herbs compost from farmyard manure is allowed during vegetation.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it requires in addition to the limit of 170 kg N/ha a restriction for fertilization with farmyard manure to vegetables during the vegetation period. Quality and hygienic reasons for consumer protection.
Manure fertilizers, composting - US NOP 2002 Provision for compost (§205.203, (2)): Composted plant and animal materials produced through a process that (i) established an initial C:N ratio of between 25:1 and 40:1; and (ii) maintained a temperature of between 131 F and 170 F for 3 days using an in-vessel or static aerated pile system; or (iii) maintained a temperature of between 131F and 170F for 15 days using a windrow composting system, during which period, the materials must be turned a minimum of five times. US requires composting of manure (with three exceptions where application of raw manure is acceptable). US defines 'compost' and sets requirements for composition, time, temperature, and number of times that it must be turned. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include regulations for composting, other than allowing the use of plant-based and other biological preparations. US allows micro-organisms and other biological amendments unless specifically prohibited. An organic producer using a composted material containing manure must comply with the nutrient cycling and soil and water conservation provisions in his or her organic system plan but is not constrained by the restrictions that apply to raw manure. Therefore, producers intending to apply soil amendments will require clear and verifiable criteria to differentiate raw manure from composted material. USDA developed the requirements in the final rule for producing an allowed composted material by integrating standards used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USDAs Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS).
Manure fertilizers, export - CH Regulation 2005
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Export of manure can only occur to farms, which also comply with the maximum level of not more than 2.5 LSU/ha (Livestock units/ha). Purchase contracts for farmyard manure are only possible between holdings which provide the ecological services laid down in the Swiss Ordinance on Direct Payments of 7 December 1998 (ODP).
While the Swiss Ordinance excludes intensive stocking rates by strictly limiting manure exports from the farm, EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the manure used on the own farm to 170kgN/ha: Excessive manure can be exported to organic farms which also comply with the limit of not more than 170kgN/ha. By these means, the goal of closed circles in organic farming of self-sufficiency with fodder and nutrients can be reached.
Manure fertilizers, export - CH Swiss Ordinance 2005
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Export of manure can only occur to farms which also comply with the maximum level of not more than 2.5 LSU/ha (Livestock units/ha). Purchase contracts for farmyard manure are only possible between holdings which provide the ecological services laid down in the Swiss Ordinance on Direct Payments of 7 December 1998 (ODP).
While the Swiss Ordinance excludes intensive stocking rates by strictly limiting manure exports from the farm, EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the manure used on the own farm to 170kgN/ha. If manure is exported, the farm receiving the manure must also not exceed the limit of 170kgN/ha. The Swiss Ordinance intends to keep the stocking rate on each organic operation to an less-intensive level (not more than 2.5 LSU/ha). By these means, the goal of closed circles in organic farming, with self-sufficiency of fodder and nutrients can be reached.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - DE Bioland 2005
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The application of fertilisers in agricultural production is restricted to 112 kg N/ha/year, being equivalent to 1,4 dung units/ha/year. A maximum of 0.5 DU/ha/year may be imported from outside the farm. Other numbers are indicated for specific production systems such as vegetable production in greenhouses (up to 330 kg nitrogen), orchards (up to 90 kg N), viticulture (150 kg N in three years but not more than 70 kg N in one year), hop cultivation (70 kg N), tree nurseries (90 kg N). In operations without animal husbandry the nitrogen supply must come from legume cropping, but the quantities needed in addition can be brought in in the form of other allowed nitrogen fertilisers. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.4 Quantity Limitation; Bioland production standards, 5 Horticulture and Permanent Crops; Bioland production standards, 5.1 Vegetable production, 5.1. Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.5. Fruit growing, 5.5.2 Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.6 Viticulture, 5.6.1 Soil Care, Greening and Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.4 Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.1 Fertilising and Soil Care
The BIOLAND standard is setting precise upper limits for nitrogen input in different cropping systems . The amount of farm yard manure allowed by the EU Regulation 2092/91 is restricted to 170 kg N/ha and year without stating a general restriction for other types of commercial fertilizers or specific production systems. Fertilising is to be designed in conformity with the location and the crops involved in such a way that the quality of the products (physiological nutritional value, taste, imperishability) may not be detrimentally affected in particular by the amount of nitrogenous fertiliser. In regard to the type, the amount and the time of application of fertiliser, care must be taken to avoid placing loads on the soil and the water (e.g. through heavy metals and nitrates).
Manure fertilizers, intensity - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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The use of fertilizers is restricted. The total amount of fertilizers applied may in general not exceed the equivalent of 1.4 du/ha/year (112 kg N and 98 kg P2O5). In accordance with the NATURLAND extension services and related to the results of soil analyses and the specific demand of the crop, more than 110 kg N/ha and year can be applied in greenhouses. For perennials (including orchards), shrubs and christmas trees the limit is 90 kg N/ha/year. In viticulture only 150 kg/N/ha in three years is allowed, while in the latter the amount of one year may not exceed 70 kg N/ha. The amount of bought in fertilizers is limited with 0.5 DU/ha and year (40 kg N). (NL standards on production: Part B.I.Plant production, 1.Humus management and fertilization; Part B.III. Market gardening 1; Part B. V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees 1; Part B. Fruit cultivation 1; Part B. Viniculture and wine production 2; Part B. Permanent tropical plantations 1.)
The NL standard is very differentiated in limiting the amount of manure which can be applied for different types of crop production. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the amount of fertilizer (animal manure) is limited to 170 kg N/ha/year without any explicit limit for the amount of commercial fertilizers bought in. Fertilization shall primarily support the accumulation of humus complexes in the soil. The amount of fertilizer is to assure the activity of the soil in the long run. Over-fertilization shaould be avoided. The organic production is directly linked to the natural conditions and production capacities of the site.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005
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Manure application rates should be at levels that do not contribute to ground and/or surface water contamination. The competent authority may establish maximum application rates for manure or stocking densities. The timing of application and application methods should not increase the potential for run-off into ponds, rivers and streams.
Whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 strictly limits the input of farmyard manure to a maximum level of 170kgN/ha, CODEX Alimentarius Guidelines does not set any limits for the level of nutrient input but leaves this up to the competent authorities. As the Codex Guidelines are a guidance for national regulations it does not make sense to set a maximum limit which would be applicable everywhere in the world.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - NL Skal Standard 2005
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At least 20% of the manure used in organic farming has to be from organic farming. SKAL has set a maximum norm of 135 kg N/ha/ year conventional farmyard manure and a total maximum of 170 kg N/ha/year, 35 kg N/ha/year has to be of organic farming origin.
With regard to the use of farmyard manure SKAL sets lower limits for manure from conventional origin, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 only mentions "Need recognized by the inspection body or inspection authority, Indication of animal species." It is important to set a norm for the maximum amount of conventional farmyard manure, since organic farmers tend to use this a lot, because of the lower price. The Regulation has not defined it specifically, stating that there is not enough organic manure at the moment. There has to be a defined way to ensure that organic manure is used first.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and export - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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The aim is to create the operation as an organism, which is a closed circle of nutrients and crop and fodder production - neither fodder nor fertilisers should be imported or exported. The operation is expected to be balanced in this regard. If at all, manure can only be exported to other organic units complying with the maximum stocking rate. For transporting manure the maximum distance of the Bio Suisse regulation is applied, which requires not more than 20-80km transport distance depending on the kind of manure.
DEMETER is striving for a balanced autonomous operation based on own fodder and fertilizer production (excessive manure does not occur in these operations). EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the farm yard manure used on the own farm to 170kg N/ha, if manure is exported this can be done to another organic unit, not exceeding the limit fo 170kg N/ha and year. The balance between farmyard manure produced on the own farm and the nutrients required by plant production is essential for a sound and sustainable organic production method. The need of manure export does not occur on DEMETER farms - the opposite is more often the case.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and import - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Imported organic farm yard manures may not exceed 50% of the quantity which is needed for the crops on farm. Commercial mineral and organic fertilizers are accepted but restricted according to their quality and origin and should undergo composting.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the import of commercial fertilizers. It only limits the application of farm yard manure to 170kgN/ha. DEMETER does limit this application to the LSU equivalent that could be fed on the farms own fodder basis. DEMETER also limits the distance for transporting farm yard manure. Own animal husbandry is an important factor in a farm organism as definied by DEMETER. The lack of own animals should not be underlined by importing manures: instead own animal husbandry should be established. Furthermore, imported fertilizers can only be applied if used in combination with composted or prepared animal fertilizers.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and import - CH Regulation 2005
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The source of brought-in manures is restricted by the positive list of admitted fertilizers in organic farming. For the export of manure of more than 1 LSU/year, a contract must exist with the farm receiving this manure. This farm must be managed according ecological principles and must not exceed adequate nutrient limits as set by the legislation.
Import of farm yard manure and compost can only occur if a contract exists with the exporting farm and nutrient needs of crops are not exceeded (evidence must be provided by calculation). EU Regulation 2092/91 also requires that farm yard manure is exported to an organic farm and all farms involved in the cooperation must comply with the nutrient limit of max 170kgN/ha. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced nor applied
Manure fertilizers, origin - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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Farm yard manure must originate from organic farms. If not available from organic farms, not more than 50% of the necessary N and P205 may origin from non-organic farms, which are managed according the integrated production standard and additional ecological requirements as defined by Swiss ordinance. However at least 50% of manure produced on the farm must be used on farm. If farm yard manure is sold to other farms, these must be certified organic farms. The distance for transporting manure and slury is restricted to 20 - 80 km depending on the kind of manure.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the export of farm yard manure to other farms as long the limit of 170kgN/ha among organic farms is respected; it only restricts the maximum stocking rate to an equivalent of 170 kg N/ha. No limits for transporting distances for manure to other farms are foreseen in the EU Regulation. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self-sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced.
Manure fertilizers, origin - CH Regulation 2005
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The source of brought-in manures is restricted by the positive list of admitted fertilizers in organic farming. For export of manure from the own operation of more than 1 LSU/year, a contract must exist with the farm receiving this manure. This farm must be managed according ecological principles and can not exceed adequate nutrient limits as set by the legislation.
Import of farm yard manure and compost can only occur if a contract exists with the exporting farm and nutrient needs of crops are not exceeded (evidence must be provided by calculation). The EU REgulation 2092/91 limits the nutrient input of farm yard manures to 170kgN/ha in general: this limit applies for the exporting farm as well as for the receiving organic farm. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced nor applied
Peat - CH Demeter 2005
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Peat can constitute only 70% of the substratum for the production of seedlings.
DEMETER restricts the use of peat to seedling production and within substrata to a maximum 70% whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 only lists peat as admitted 'fertilizer' limited to horticulture (market gardening, floriculture, arboriculture, nursery). Peat is a very limited resource which should be used as little as possible to ensure supplies for future generations. Furthermore peat production infringes on natural habitats, which is not in line with the aim for sound production methods of organic farming.
Peat - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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Peat can only be used for growing seedlings and marsh beds. Not more than 70% of peat can be added to substratum for seedlings.
The Swiss Ordinance restricts the use of peat to seedling production and within substrata to maximum 70% whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 only lists peat as admitted 'fertilizer' limited to horticulture (market gardening, floriculture, arboriculture, nursery). Peat is a very limited natural resource which should be used as little as possible to ensure the supply for future generations. Peat production damages natural habitats which is not in line with the sound production methods which organic farming is aiming for.
Peat - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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The components that can be used in soil and substrate preparations are defined by the corresponding annexes. The use of synthetic substrate materials is prohibited. Peat can be used in substrates and may not exceed 80% of the mixture for seedlings and 50% of the mixture for potted plants (with exemptions). The cultivation of crops without using soil or substrate is not allowed. NL standards on production: Part B. III. Market gardening 2. Part B. V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees 2 Appendices 1,2 and 9)
The NATURLAND standard has additional requirments and restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91. The list of components, that can be used is more restricted, i.e. composted community household wastes (appendix 9) are excluded, as well as liquid or semi-liquid manure and chicken manure from conventional origin (appendix 1). In the EU Regulation there is no limit for the amount of peat to be used. Synthetic substrates are not regulated. The cultivation of crops without soil or substrate is not regulated. Protection of the natural peat deposits. The vital soil is an indispensable element of organic farming.
Peat - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Among a number of other prohibited soil inputs, it is prohibited to use peat as a soil conditioner. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.7.10. Soil Association standards have further restrictions than EU Regulation 2092/91 regarding the use of peat as a soil conditioner. Effectively, it may be used only in propogating media. EU Regulation permits peat for use in horticulture (market gardening, floriculture, arboriculture, nursery). Soil Association standard's prohibition on the use of peat as a soil conditioner is intended to reduce the damage to peat bogs. These are important habitats for wildlife, supporting many bird, invertebrate and plant species, some of which depend on peat bogs for their survival. Peat extraction for horticulture has been the main cause of the damage to British peat bogs in the past 50 years. Only 6% of British peat bogs remain undamaged. This damage could be repeated in other countries if its widespread use continues.
Plant protection, crop rotation - UK Soil Association standards 2005 It is permitted to grow crops without the use of a multi-annual rotation in such cropping systems as protected cropping, permanent pasture, perennial crops and wild harvesting, but the cropping system must not rely on external inputs nor involve continuous arable crops. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 5.1.14 and 5.1.15. Soil Association standards contain further detail to the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards set out the circumstances in which it is permitted to practice cropping without a multi-annual rotation. EU Regulation requires a multi-annual rotation for crop production to maintain soil fertility and to control weeds, pests and diseases, but it does not explain clearly those cropping systems that would not require such a rotation. The Soil Association standards are intended to place clear and unambiguous requirements on the producer regarding when it is appropriate to make use of crop rotations and when it is not. For example, it could be harmful to biodiversity and could cause pollution to initiate a cropping rotation on land that had been in permanent pasture.
Soil and potting mixes - Demeter International 2005
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Soils and potting mixes should preferably be generated from the farm itself and must consist of at least 25% prepared composts. Peat can only be used in propagating beds and potting mixes and is limited in quantity (max. 75%). Synthetic soil improving agents are not allowed. (DI standards 3.4.2.Manures, soils and potting mixes)
The use of the biodynamic preparations in the manure and compost is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method. The farm "organism" should strive for independence from outside inputs. Peat is restricted because of nature protection reasons. The use of the biodynamic preparations in the manure and compost is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method. The farm organisms should strive for independence from outside inputs. Peat is restricted because of nature protection reasons.
Soil management, perennial crops - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Soil of perennial crops must be covered all year round.
While DEMETER requires a full vegetative cover of the soil in perennial crops, EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover this aspect. Multiple soil tillage and lack of cover crops lead to erosion and loss of organic matter in the soil. Constant vegetation will minimize such unfavourable effects in perennial crops and increases the level of organic matter in the soil.
Soil management, perennial crops - DE Bioland 2005
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Vineyards and hop plantations must have undercropping. In dry periods and in new plantations parts of the soil in vineyards can be kept without vegetation for three months. If this period is extended, the soil must be covered with organic material. While establishing an undercropping system, the nitrogen balance must be considered and legume species must be part of the composition. (Bioland production standards, 5.6 Viticulture, 5.6.1 Soil Care, Greening and Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.3 Greening)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require soil coverage for perennial cropping systems as BIOLAND does. There is only the general provision to use legume species and green manure in order to maintain and enhance soil fertility. In order to reduce the problems and disadvantages of the permanent mono-culture (erosion, problems with pests and diseases) in vineyards and to ensure the production of grapes, juice and wine of a high quality. Undercropping and soil cover can contribute to soil conservation and avoid erosion. Additionally habitat for beneficial insects is provided as a contribution to a balanced ecosystem.