Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by EU regulation

  • EC Council Regulation No. 2092/91
    • Annex I. Principles of organic production and processing
      • A.Plant and plant products
        • Special plant production standards - not in EC Reg
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Biodiversity, viticulture - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Every vintner (wine producer) is obliged to plant and tend reasonably a part of its vineyard area an ecological niche. Efforts should be made for the niche to become at least one percent of the vineyard area. The ecological niches must, in order to interrupt the mono-culture, be distributed throughout the area. The situation of the surroundings and communal measures for nature conservation have to be considered. (Bioland production standards, 5.6.4 Ecological Niches)
The BIOLAND standard is broader. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require ecological niches to be created. In order to increase biodiversity in a monocultural cropping system.
Contamination, buffer zones - SE KRAV 2006
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When chemical pesticides or chemical fertilisers are used on neighbouring land to organic farmland actions should be taken to minimise the risk of contamination. This can be an agreement with the neighbour about a buffer zone, establishing an own buffer zone or planting a windbreak. On a not fully converted organic farm there should be an internal buffer zone for land where chemical pesticides are used (KRAV standards paragraph 4.2.3 and 4.2.4).
In EU 2092/91 there are general requirements for reducing the risk of contamination but the KRAV standards are more specific. The risk for contamination from drift is an important issue. The risk varies depending on the neighbours farming activities. The establishment of a specified internal buffer zone in a not fully converted organic farm is necessary for both reducing drift and also to clearly separate organic and conventional farming.
Contamination, buffer zones, conventional agriculture, herbs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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If the growing area of herb production borders on a field that is cultivated conventionally, there must be a distance of at least 5 metres between fields (exception: threshed herbs). Bordering on conventional fields should be avoided if possible. Protective hedgerows are recommended.
While the Bio Austria General Standard requires minmal buffer zones the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have an explicit restriction for the distance to conventional fields. The main reason is to avoid residues of pesticides and to create high consumer confidence.
Contamination, buffer zones, highways, herbs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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Locations of herb production near densely populated areas (cities) are to be avoided. The distance to highly used roads (highways, high-speed road, major streets [Bundesstrassen] must be at least 50 metres. Protective hedgerows are generally recommended in such cases.
The Bio Austria General Standard details buffer strips while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have a restriction for the distance to highly used roads. The main reason is to avoid residues of exhaust fumes (see “herb production with distance to conventional fields”) and to create high consumer confidence.
Contamination, processing, herbs - AT Austria General Standards 2006
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The Bio Austria General Standard has, in addition to the requirements of distance to roads and conventional fields, requirements for a fast preparation of fresh material, a fast and careful drying (normally not higher than 40 °C). The drying room should be a separate unit. The room may not contain any materials contaminated with harmful substances (e.g. treated particle board). It is forbidden to use direct heating with fuel oil, gas, coal, or wood, or dehydration through chemical additives. A batch record of drying temperatures is to be kept, which is to be made available during the annual inspection. The storage space must be protected from light, dry and as cool as possible. A humidity level of 60% and a temperature of 19 °C are recommended. Drugs must be inspected regularly and the storage areas kept clean. Storage areas are to be kept separate from processing areas. (BA-Rules chapter 4.2.2, 4.2.4, 4.2.5, 4.2.7, 4.2.8)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have such specific requirements for preparation, drying and processing of herbs, while the Bio Austria General Standard is quite detailed. The main reason is to reach high quality products and to create high consumer confidence through a very fresh preparation/processing and a drying with care and to avoid environmental pollutants.
Fertilizers, origin, orchards - Demeter International 2005
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In orchards that have no animals of their own, the amount of outside organic fertiliser that may be imported is limited to 1.2 manure unit/ha of orchard area. The total amount of fertiliser used may not exceed the equivalent of 90kg N/ha of orchard area. (DI production standards, 3.5.2. Manures and soil husbandry)
The DI standard is defining a fertilizer limit for orchards in particular. There is no such provision in the EU Regulation 2092/91. The limit is given to provide good fruit quality and for nutritional aspects as well.
Greenhouse production, fertilizer, origin - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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In general, only top dressings of organic origin can be used. If such fertilizing substances are not available, or the compilation or quality is not satisfactory, it is permitted to use fertilization substances which comply with EU Regulation 2092/91.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The requirements to the origin of top dressings should be defined.
Greenhouse production, CO2 - NO Governmental regulation 2005
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The supply of CO2 is allowed, provided the gas is a sideproduct of other production (e.g. gas powered heaters).
EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The use of CO2 should be limited as a sideproduct from other inputs for ecological reasons.
Greenhouse production, contamination, reducing - Norwegian Governmental Regulation 2005
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Organic greenhouse production shall take place in houses or departments which are completely separate from conventional production. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority can give approval for the cultivation of different varieties, organic and conventional in the same house or department, if, in the conventional production no non-permitted substances can come into contact with the organic production.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area.
Greenhouse production, conversion - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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There is a two year conversion period before sowing or planting for soil beds which previously have been used for conventional cultivation.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area, the conversion time is defined similarly to the EU Regulation. EU 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area.
Greenhouse production, conversion, growth medium - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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There no conversion period for soil beds when there has been a complete change of conventional soil and the new soil and fertilizer is organic.
EEC 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. EEC 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. Soil beds with organic soil should not demand any conversion time.
Greenhouse production, fertilization - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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The upper limit of 170 kg total nitrogen per haa and year does not apply to greenhouse production where this takes place in pots and tubs.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. In pot and tub production the limit of 170 kg total nitrogen is too low for the needs of the plants.
Greenhouse production, fertilizer, origin - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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When fertilizing soil beds and tubs where the growth medium is not changed before sowing or planting, 50% of the total nitrogen should come from organic production. The additional part of the total nitrogen must comply with EU Regulation 2092/91.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as a specific area. EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The requirements to the origin of fertilizers should be defined.
Greenhouse production, growth medium/substrate - NO Govermental Regulation 2005
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When mixing new growth medium to the soil beds, tubs, pots and benches a minimum of 50% of the total nitrogen shall come from organic production. Additional ingredients and nutritional content must comply with the EU Regulation 2092/91. Organic soil can be used, and the nutritional content of the soil can be included as organic.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. There is a need to specify conditions for the origin of nutritional content when adding growth medium in soil beds, tubs, pots and benches.
Greenhouse production, heating - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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During the winter (December to February) cultivated areas under glass and plastic may be only be kept free from frost (resp. being heated up to 10 °C / 50 °F), with the exception of young plants and plants in pots and the use of heat from renewable energy sources or waste heat (for example from biogas production). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.1.7.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have a restriction for the use of energy resources. Reduced use of non-renewable resources is an important measure for sustainability of agriculture.
Greenhouse production, heating - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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Heating of green houses is prohibited during the winter. The greenhouse can be kept frost free: however, heating should not exceed 5°C between the months of Decemer and 1st of March.
BIO SUISSE restricts the heating of green houses, due to the environmental aspects of energy saving. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover green house production as a specific area, and therefore has no such restrictions. Prohibiting heating of greenhouses during the winter saves non-renewable resources.
Greenhouse production, heating - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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Artificial heating in greenhous production is allowed.
EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The possibility of heating is a condition for greenhouse production in Norway.
Greenhouse production, lighting - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The use of artificial light in cultivated areas under glass and plastic is forbidden. An exception is the use of artificial light for young plants. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.1.7.3)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not restriction the use of artificial light. Contribution to the reduction of energy use (limiting intensification)
Greenhouse production, lighting - NO Governmental regulation 2005
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Production shall be based on natural lighting. The exclusive use of artificial light is only permitted during limited periods of the growing period.
EU regulation does not cover green house production as specific area. The use of artificial light - however maybe necessary in periods - should be limited for ecological reasons.
Greenhouse production, lighting, ornamental plants - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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Assimilation lighting is only permitted in seedling nurseries. (NL standards on production, Part B.V.Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees, 7.2.Assimilation lighting)
The NATURLAND standard has a broader scope. This aspect is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Restricting assimilation lighting saves energy.
Greenhouse production, plants, origin - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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If small plants are bought-in for further cultivation in greenhouse production, these shall also be produced in accordance with the national organic rules for growth medium and the nutrition.
EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area; there are no specific rules for the cultivation of small plants/seedlings. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The whole chain of production must be organic, also when the production is based on bought-in small plants.
Greenhouse production, rotation/monoculture - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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Monoculture greenhouse production is only permitted when the recycling of organic material within the operation is ensured, thus requiring the use of undercropping, intercropping and crop rotation whenever possible.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. There was a need to specifiy this area as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production.
Greenhouse production, steam sterilisation - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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Thermal steam sterilisation of soil in a greenhouse requires approval from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority.
EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover green house production as specific area. Thermal sterilisation should be restricted for ecological reasons, and it is therefore required an approval from the authorities.
Land management, mulches and plastic - SE KRAV 2006
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Floating mulches, plastic for covering soil and plants and silage plastic should not be made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Used materials should be taken away from the land or place it has been used (KRAV standards paragraph 4.7.5).
This is not regulated in EU Regulation 2092/91. PVC has huge environmental effects and all use should be reduced to a minimum. Plastic and mulches should be handled so that they do not cause environmental problems and are not polluting the farm or soil.
Land management, nutrients, leaching - SE KRAV 2006
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To prevent leaking of nutrients into water a permanent, unfertilized, overgrown buffer zone of 3 metres should be left beside watercourses, wetlands and lakes that are water-bearing the year round. In winter a cover of vegetation is encouraged. Catch crops should be grown when possible. Animal manure should be handled so that nutrient losses are minimised (KRAV-standards paragraph 3.1.9 and 4.1.4).
Prevention of leakage of nutrients is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91 except that the use of input should not result in contamination of the environment (article 7). The leakage of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus is one of the biggest environmental problems in agriculture in Sweden.
Livestock management, perennial cropping systems - Demeter International 2004
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Farms with intensive vegetable production or perennial crops should keep animals on the farm or at least cooperate with another biodynamic farm to set up a fertilising programme based on animal manure. (DI production standards 3.4.Market gardens, field vegetables, hops and other perennial crops)
The DI standard requires that animals are being reared on farms with intensive horticulture production or perennial cropping systems; where as in the EU Regulation 2092/91 no such requirement is stated. The fertilizing programme should be based on animals kept on the farm in order to promote the development of the farm as an individual living organism by using the own animal manure. Animal husbandry, with the accompanying fodder production is an important part of the agricultural enterprise. With respect to the development of the enterprise, the farm organism cannot do without livestock. This applies to the ruminant in particular. The fodder plants and the well-balanced manure that comes into being because of cattle, contribute considerably through the enlivening of the soil, to the long term flourishing of a farm. The harmonious co-operation of mankind with the three kingdoms of nature can lead to a living, ensouled farm organism.
Nutrients, potted plants - SE KRAV 2006
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Half of the nutrients for potted plants and in greenhouses shall come from the soil (KRAV standards paragraph 4.7.4).
This is not regulated in EU Regulation 2092/91. It is the soil that should be fertilized and not the plants. This makes it impossible to grow in substrates with low biological activity.
Plant and livestock production, inputs certification - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards cover certification of inputs in organic production. The areas covered are – animal management agents – plant protection agents – plant growth stimulants – soil conditioning agents – fertilizers – sowing and potting soil – pesticide and disinfection agents in storage areas The standards are based on the relevant standards for plant production and animal husbandry with additions and clarifications. Only products which contain 100% organic ingredients can be called organic all other certified inputs can be labelled with a special logo which stating “approved for organic production”. (KRAV standards chapter 12).
Certification of inputs is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. The certification of inputs is a help to organic farmers to easily find which inputs that are allowed or not. The producer of inputs can also more easily communicate that a product fulfils the KRAV standards. Interestingly many consumer products are also certified to this system showing that consumer does not only want organic food but also potting soil and nutrients for flowers.
Plant material, origin, ornamental plants - DE Naturland 2005
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Seedlings have to be from own production or purchased from NATURLAND certified farms or equivalent. In case of proven non-availability they can be purchased from conventional sources. If the seedlings were vegetatively generated, the plants can be offered as a NATURLAND in conversion product. If the seedling was generatively obtained, the plant can be offered as a NATURLAND in conversion product after one year at the earliest. In both cases the plants can be fully certified NATURLAND products after two years. (NL standards on production, Part B.V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees, 3. Seedlings)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. There are no specific provisions for the production of ornamental plants in the EU Regulation 2092/91, consequently the general provisions for the use of plant propagation material apply. In case of unavailability of organic material and after approval untreated plant propagation material from conventional origin can be used and the plants can be sold as organic without any further conversion period. In order to ensure NATURLAND quality throughout the whole production chain, seedlings from NATURLAND farms should be used. Considering, however, the low stage of market development this is unlikely to be possible and there must be a possibility to use conventional material.
Plant processing inputs, hops - DE Bioland 2005
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The use of sulphur for conservation is prohibited in drying and processing. (Bioland production standards, 5.7 Hop Cultivation, 5.7.5 Preparation)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specifically regulate the drying and processing of hops. Sulphur for drying hops is explicitely excluded. The standard setting body did not give a justification.
Plant processing, viticulture - Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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When the production of wine is made from organically grown grapes resource and energy intensive procedures are to be avoided. Organic waste resulting from wine production must be recycled and returned to the soil. Waste water should not cause environmental pollution. The Bio Austria General Standard allows 3 oenological practices and describes positive lists for treating agents for must, wine and also for cleaning and disinfection. In addition there are rules for packaging and labelling.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover the processing of vine. In case of wine of organic grapes there is a lack of legal rules. The declaration of wine needs to describe the oenological practices. This creates transparency and ensures consumer confidence.
Plant processing, viticulture - Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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When wine is produced from organically grown grapes, resource and energy intensive procedures are to be avoided. Organic waste resulting from wine production must be recycled and returned to the soil. Waste water must not cause environmental pollution. The Bio Austria General Standard allows 3 oenological practices and describes positive lists for treating agents for must, wine and also for cleaning and disinfection. In addition there are rules for packaging and labelling.
The Bio Austria General Standard is detailed concerning wine processing, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover wine processing. n case of wine of organic grapes there is a lack of legal rules within the EU Regulation. The declaration of wine needs to describe the oenological practices. This creates transparency and ensures consumer confidence.
Plant processing, viticulture - SP CCCPAE Cataluña standards and CPAEN Navarra standards 2001
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The CCPAE standards contains one article (17.12) for wine processing, permitting the use of ammonium sulphate (100 mg/l), tartaric acid (E 334) cristalizad from natural origin, maximal 1 g/litre for white wines and 0,5 g/litro for red wines. In those standards its also allowed to use anhidric sulphur (dióxide of Sulphur (E 220), Na metabisulphite (E 223) & Potasium metabisulphite (E 224) by 3 differents methods. The total quantity of SO2 in mg/litre allowed is 100, depending on the type of wine. Arabic gom (E 414) is allowed for the stabilization of the wine The organic standards for wine proceesing from the Council for Organic Production from Navarra (CPAEN), covering similar points as the CCPAE organic grape production and organic wine proceesing standards. The organic standards (28 pages) for wine production and organic wine processing from the Council for Organic Production from Navarra (CPAEN) is covering similar points as the CCPAE organic wine processing standards adding also some standards for viticulture production.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 has not regulated the processing of wine products yet. There are minor differences within CCPAE (see Cuaderno de Normas) and CPAEN organic wine processing Standards. Standards for processing of products that are not yet within the scope of the current EU Regulation, must correspond as much as possible with the processing standards in the EU Regulation. Rules for wine contribute to transparency and consumer trust.
Plant production, chicory - Demeter International 2005
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Chicory roots should be forced in soil. (DI production standards, 3.4.2. Manures, soils and potting mixes)
There is no such explicit requirement within the EU Regulation 2092/91. Best development of nutritional aspects when the plants are in contact with soil.
Plant production, containers, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Containers for potted plants must preferably be made of decomposable materials. Otherwise, they must be reusable and recyclable. The use of PVC containers is prohibited. (BIOLAND standards 5.8.6., 5.8.7 Containers for Cultures)
The BIOLAND standards has a broader scope, this aspect is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. In order to cope with the ecological principle of organic agriculture (protection of the environment, avoiding rubbish production, preference of renewable resources).
Plant production, containers, ornamental plants - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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Decomposable materials for planting pots are preferable. The use of PVC is not allowed. (NL standards on production, Part B.V.Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees, 5. Plant pots)
The NATURLAND standard has a broader broader. This aspect is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. This refers to the ecological principle of organic agriculture, where organic materials should be recycled.
Plant production, environment, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Areas where potted plants are stored must not be sealed except for the purpose of rain water collection. (Bioland production standards, 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.2 Surface Sealing)
The BIOLAND standard has additional requierements for potting plants. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the sealing of soil. In order to cope with the ecological principle of organic agriculture.
Plant production, environment, ornamental plants - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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Areas where potted plants are arrayed for storage and sale should not be sealed. (NL standards on production, Part B.V.Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees, 6. Sealing of the soil)
The NATURLAND standard has a broader scope. This aspect is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. This aspect refers to the ecological principle of organic agriculture. Wherever soil is sealed the natural water cycle is interrupted and disturbed.
Plant production, green cover, orchards - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In orchards, planting with a mixture appropriate to the location is required throughout the year (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.3.3). In areas with extreme summer dryness the land planting period must be at least 10 months. The plantings must not be ploughed under from the beginning of September until the end of March. Mulch cuttings have to be made in such a way that beneficial organisms are protected (for example no cutting at the edges or alternate cutting).
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have requirements for land planting in orchards. Green coverage reduces erosion problems.
Plant production, green cover, vineyards - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The vineyard must be land-planted throughout the year, in order to provide a habitat for diverse flora and fauna. Species-rich mixtures should be sown. Land planting may be interrupted for up to 2 months for soil preparation, for winter furrowing of heavy soils, loosening of the soil, new sowing, summer drought and in new plantings. No land planting is necessary directly under the vines. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.4.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have specific requirements for land planting in vineyards. Green coverage reduces erosion.
Plant production, location, hops - DE Bioland 2005
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Organic hop plantation next to conventional plantations must be provided with protective planting at the latest within 5 years after the beginning of the conversion period. Newly created hop cultivation is only allowed on bordering or isolated areas. The minimum distance to conventional plantations must be 10 m. Otherwise hop harvested from the outer rows cannot be marketed with reference to organic agriculture. The creation of areas of ecological compensation are required for hop cultivation in specific areas. (Bioland production standards, 5.7 Hop Cultivation, 5.7.1 Location and Area)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. In the EU Regulation there is a general requirement of a clear separation of the organic production unit from any other production unit, however distances to conventional plantantions are not defined. Furthermore under BIOLAND standards in case of suspicion of contamination a product cannot be marketed with reference to organic agriculture unless it has been proven that the suspicion was wrong. Bioland is explicitely requiring an ecological compensation with diversified areas, whereas the EU Regulation has not such a specific requirement. In order to avoid contamination with objectionable substances. In order to cope with the ecological principle of organic agriculture.
Plant production, no special standards - US NOP 2002 NOP does not have any provisions for special plant production. NOP does not have any provisions for special plant production. The EU 2092/91 specifies for some plant protection products that they may only be used for special crops such as perennial crops, fruit trees, wines, olive trees and tropical crops. The US does not have such restrictions for plant protection products. The NOP intends to provide standards for categories where the Act provides the authority to promulgate standards. NOP announced its intend to publish for comments certification standards for apiculture, mushrooms, greenhouses and aquatic animals. These standards will build upon the existing final rule and will address only the unique requirements necessary to certify these specialized operations.
Plant production, support stakes, hops - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Wooden constructions to support hop cultivation may only be made from wood of native species and can only be treated with environmentally friendly substances. (Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.2 Support Material)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91does not refer to the characteristics of supporting material for perennial crops. In order not to contribute to the destruction of tropical forests and comply with the holistic approach of organic agriculture as well as to avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Plant production, support stakes, orchards - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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The use of tropical and subtropical timber for support stakes in orchards is prohibited. (NL standards on production, Part B.VI. Fruit cultivation 3.)
The NATURLAND standard has additional requirements with regards to the use of tropical timber, which is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. This refers to the holistic approach and the ecological principle of organic farming.
Plant production, support stakes, origin - Demeter International 2004
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In northern climates no tropical or sub tropical woods are allowed for use as support stakes to reduce environmental impact. The tropical grasses, bamboo and tonkin, may be used. (DI production standards, 3.5.4. support stakes)
The DI standard has a broader scope; the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate this aspect. In order to reduce environmental impact within the tropics.
Plant production, support stakes, perennial crops - DE Biolaand Standards 2005
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No tropical woods can be used as supporting material. Tropical or sub-tropical woods may not be used as supporting material. The tropical grasses, bamboo and tonkin are permissible. (Bioland production standards, 5.5.3 Supporting Material; Bioland production standards, 5.6.2 Supporting Material )
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the use of supporting materials in orchards and viticulture. In order not to contribute to the destruction of ecosystems in the tropics. This aspect refers to the holistic and ecological approach of organic farming.
Plant production, use of soil culture - Demeter International 2005
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Soil-less growing techniques are not allowed (DI production standards, 3.4.2. Manures, soils and potting mixes)
Where as Demeter International standards prohibit soil less production, the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not treat the issue of soil-less growing techniques. It is considered that nutritional aspects develop best when the plants are in contact with soil.
Soil management, perennial crops - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In orchards land planting with a planting mixture appropriate to the location is required throughout the most part of the year.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed, since the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have requirements for land planting in orchards. Green coverage is required to reduce erosion problems.
Soil management, perennial crops - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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For perennial crops, the soil must be covered with vegetation all year round.
While BIO SUISSE requires a full vegetative cover of the soil on perennial crops, the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have any specific requirements. Multiple soil tillage and lack of cover crops lead to erosion and loss of organic matter in the soil. Constant vegetation will minimize such unfavourable effects in perennial crops.
Soil management, perennial crops - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Soil of perennial crops must be covered all year round.
While DEMETER requires a full vegetative cover of the soil in perennial crops, EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover this aspect. Multiple soil tillage and lack of cover crops lead to erosion and loss of organic matter in the soil. Constant vegetation will minimize such unfavourable effects in perennial crops and increases the level of organic matter in the soil.
Soil management, perennial crops - DE Bioland 2005
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Vineyards and hop plantations must have undercropping. In dry periods and in new plantations parts of the soil in vineyards can be kept without vegetation for three months. If this period is extended, the soil must be covered with organic material. While establishing an undercropping system, the nitrogen balance must be considered and legume species must be part of the composition. (Bioland production standards, 5.6 Viticulture, 5.6.1 Soil Care, Greening and Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.3 Greening)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require soil coverage for perennial cropping systems as BIOLAND does. There is only the general provision to use legume species and green manure in order to maintain and enhance soil fertility. In order to reduce the problems and disadvantages of the permanent mono-culture (erosion, problems with pests and diseases) in vineyards and to ensure the production of grapes, juice and wine of a high quality. Undercropping and soil cover can contribute to soil conservation and avoid erosion. Additionally habitat for beneficial insects is provided as a contribution to a balanced ecosystem.
Soil management, perennial crops - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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In permanent cropping systems the soil must be covered with vegetation (with exemptions). (NL standards on production: Part B. I.Plant production 1. Humus management and fertilization; Part B. VI. Fruit cultivation, 1. Humus management and fertilization; Part B. VII. Viniculture and wine production 1. Treatment of the soil)
The NATURLAND standard is more specific as there is no such requirement of soil cover in the EU Regulation 2092/91. To keep the soil covered with vegetation is a vital instrument to maintain and increase the soil fertility.
Soil management, perennial crops, viticulture - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In vineyards land planting with a planting mixture (green manure) appropriate to the location is required throughout the most part of the year. Land planting may be interrupted for up to 2 months in special cases.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed, as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have specific requirements for land planting in vineyards. Green coverage is required to reduce erosion.
Sustainability, tropical plantations - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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Sustainability in plantations with tropical crops has to be ensured by the creation of agroforestry systems with extended biodiversity and specific measures to avoid soil erosion. Organic wastes have to be recycled in the agricultural production system and effluents from the wet-processing of coffee have to be purified. (NL standards on production, Part B.VIII. Permanent tropical plantations: 3. Sustainability of the cultivation system 4. Special processing methods
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. The requirements to avoid erosion and enhance biodiversity are not explicitly mentioned within the EU Regulation. Specific requirements of organic tropical cultivation systems are not regulated. This refers to the ecological principle of organic farming. Tropical farming systems are of increased ecological vulnerability.