Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by EU regulation

  • EC Council Regulation No. 2092/91
    • Annex I. Principles of organic production and processing
      • B.Livestock and livestock products - Annex I B
        • Conversion - Annex I B2
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Conversion and labelling, animal products - DE Naturland Standards 2005 Animal products can only be marketed with reference to Naturland if the respective conversion period for the animal species has been complied with AND the farm has been in conversion for at least 12 months. (NL standards on production Part A.I.9. Labelling and marketing) The NATURLAND standard requires the farm to undertake at least a 12 month conversion period before marketing NATURLAND organic animal products, regardless of the (shorter) conversion period for certain animal products. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 these animal products (eggs, milk, pullets, pork, mutton and goat meat) can be marketed as organic after complying with the provisions of the regulation during at least the conversion periods of the animal species, which are identical to the specific periods mentioned by NATURLAND. A minimum conversion period of the farm (land) is not mentioned. This is required because of the stipulation to use animal feeding stuffs produced on the same farm in the diet.
Conversion of land, livestock production - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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A conversion period of at least 2 full calendar years is required. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period is possible)
BIO SUISSE requires a conversion period of 2 years for pastures, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 permits a reduction of the conversion period for pastures down to 6 months for non-herbivore species if no disallowed substances have been applied to the respective plots This rule contributes to consumer confidence and makes inspection easier.
Conversion of land, livestock production - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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A conversion period of 4 years is required; crops may be sold with 'DEMETER' denomination in the fourth year of conformity with DEMETER standards. As soon as all plots with fodder production have completed the conversion period, also animal husbandry is considered as DEMETER. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period is possible). In case of a certified production according Bio Suisse Standards, DEMETER approval may occur in the second year of conformity with DEMETER Standards.
DEMETER requires a minimal conversion period of 4 years for pastures, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 permits a reduction of the conversion period for pastures down to 6 months for non-herbivore species if no disallowed substances have been applied to the respective plots. Essential agricultural knowledge and skills in the biodynamic mehod are important prerequisitites for successfull farming. To acquire this knowledge and to gain credibility in the consumers eyes, DEMETER strictly defines the beginning of conversion as starting with the first inspection and requires a four year conversion period.
Conversion of land, livestock production - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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A conversion period of at least 2 full calendar years is required. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period is possible)
The Swiss Ordinance requires a conversion period of 2 years for pastures, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 permits a reduction of the conversion period for pastures down to 6 months for non-herbivore species if no disallowed substances have been applied to the respective plots. This rule is contributing to maintain consumer confidence.
Conversion of land, livestock production - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005
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The competent authority may reduce the conversion periods in the certain cases a) pasture, open-air runs and exercise areas used by non-herbivore species; b) for bovine, equine, ovine and caprine coming from extensive husbandry during an implementation period established by the competent authority or dairy herds converted for the first time; c) if there is simultaneous conversion of livestock and land used only for feeding within the same unit, the conversion period for both livestock, pasture and/or land used for animal feed, may be reduced to two years only in the case where the existing livestock and their offspring are fed mainly with products from the unit.
The rules for conversion are comparable with the EU Regulation 2092/91. Codex Alimentarius requires as well at least 2 years conversion period except for non-herbivores. For the latter, the competent authorities may decide upon the reduction of the conversion period, in the EU this iso one year for pasturages, open air runds and exercised areas, which can be reduced to 6 months, when the land concerned has not, in the recent past, received treatments with non-allowed products. Codex Alimentarius does not limit this to 6 months. The possibility for a certain regional flexibility on national level should be given.
Conversion of land, livestock production - UK Compendium 2005 As a derogation from the principle that all farmland and livestock enterprises must undergo the full conversion period, this may be reduced to 1 year for areas used for non-herbivorous livestock under certain conditions. These conditions are that the land in question has received no prohibited inputs for a year before the start of the conversion period and that authorisation is obtained from the inspection body. UK Compendium states that areas used for non-herbivorous livestock may have a reduced conversion period of 1 year only if they have received no prohibited inputs for at least 1 year before the start of the conversion period. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows a reduced conversion period of 1 year for any land used for non-herbivore livestock, and it allows this conversion period to be further reduced to 6 months if prohibited inputs have been absent for 1 year. UK Compendium aims to reduce the health risk to the consumer that might result from contamination of organic products with prohibited substances. This helps to verify the organic status of livestock products. It continues the historically more restrictive UK standards on organic livestock conversion periods. The amendment was requested by UK inspection bodies.
Conversion of land, livestock production - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Production of organic pigs or poultry may be started on land in the second year of conversion if it has received no prohibited inputs for at least 2 years (i.e. for 1 year before the start of conversion). The livestock concerned must have been fed no genetically modified feed for 12 months before the start of conversion. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.3.10, 13.1.2 and 20.2.2. Soil Association standards contain further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards state that areas used for production of organic pigs and poultry, with Soil Association permission, during the second year of conversion must not have received prohibited inputs for at least 2 years, and no genetically modified feed must have been fed to the livestock during the same period. EU Regulation places no such restriction on previous inputs or feeds. It allows a 1-year conversion period for any land used for organic, non herbivorous livestock, and further allows the conversion period to be reduced to 6 months if prohibited inputs have been absent for 1 year. In this case, the Soil Association is complying with the requirements of the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 2.1.2, except that UK Compendium does not include the prohibition regarding the previous feeding with genetically modified feeds. Soil Association standards' restriction on previous prohibited inputs is intended to reduce the perceivable health risk to the consumer that might result from contamination of organic livestock products with residues of prohibited inputs. In addition, the prohibition on previous genetically modified feeds is partly a precautionary measure to avoid the unpredictable consequences of unproven technology.
Conversion period - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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The conversion period lasts 2 years, starting on January 1st. The Swiss Ordinance foresees the start for conversion only for January 1st of each calendar year and the application for conversion must be deposited by August 31st of the previous year (hereafter, no application of disallowed substances is allowed anymore). From Januray 1st of the first year of conversion, Swiss farms are allowed to market their produce with the claim 'in conversion to organic farming'
The Swiss Ordinance accepts a shorter conversion period for perennial crops than the EU Regulation 2092/91, which applies a zero year which leads to a total of 36 months in perennials and 24 months in annual crops. For reasons of credibility in the consumers eyes, the Swiss Ordinance strictly defines the beginning of conversion starting with the first year of inspection on the spot.
Conversion period - DE Naturland 2005
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The conversion of a farm with all its farming units must be concluded at the latest five years after beginning the conversion period for the first of the units. (NL standards on production A.I.8.Approval)
The NATURLAND standard has additional requirements. There is no upward limit for the duration of the conversion period in the EU Regulation 2092/91. In order to make the whole farm conversion easier while considering the individual situation of a farm (i.e. economic viability, running contracts, crop rotation) it should not be necessary to convert the whole farm at once. However, as parallel production is not allowed, there must be a time limit in order to ensure the whole farm conversion and safeguard the integrity of the organic farm.
Conversion period - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005 IFOAM standards require in general a period of at least 36 months for conversion. Depending on the previous land use, the conversion period can be reduced to 12 months. EU Regulation 2092/91 states that the minimum conversion period must be between 2 and 3 years: Generally a period of at least two years before sowing is required, or in the case of grassland at least two years before being used as an organic feedstuff, or in the case of perennial crops (excluding grassland) at least three years before the first harvest. IFOAM states at least 12 months prior to the start of the production cycle and in the case of perennials (excluding pastures and meadows) a period of at least 18 months prior to harvest However, where certain conditions are met the EU can make the minimum time 12 months. So in this respect there is some equivalency between both sets of standards. No justification was given.
Conversion period, CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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A conversion period of at least 2 full calendar years is required. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period possible)
BIO SUISSE accepts a shorter conversion period for perennial crops than the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU applies a zero year which leads to a total of 36 months in perennials and 24 months in annual crops. BIO SUISSE however foresees the start for conversion only for January 1st of each calendar year and the application for conversion must be deposited by August 31st of the previous year (hereafter, no application of disallowed substances is allowed anymore). From Januray 1st of the first year of conversion, BIO SUISSE farms are allowed to market their produce under the claim 'in conversion' BIO SUISSE standards were in force before EU Regulation was created. BIO SUISSE does not allow a reduction of the conversion period in any cases.
Conversion period, land for livestock production - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
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IFOAM requires a conversion period of at least 12 months prior to pastures, meadows and products harvested therefrom being considered organic. Landless animal husbandry systems are prohibited. (5.1.)
IFOAM requires 12 months of conversion for pastures, whereas according to EU Regulation 2092/91 a reduction down to 6 months conversion period is possible for pastures and meadows. In the context that a converson period enables the establishment of an organic management system IFOAM requires the longer conversion period than EU for pastures.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005 For brought-in livestock not coming from organic farm operations special conversion periods apply, if these animals or products thereof are sold as certified organic. BIO SUISSE standard is identical with EU Regulation 2092/91 except for the transition period for poultry for meat production. Whereas BIO SUISSE requires only 56 days for fattening poultry, EU requires that poultry is reared 10 weeks according the standard before being sold as organic. The deviation is due to the fact, that poultry becomes too heavy when reared longer than 56 days and then does not meet Swiss market demands for broilers .
Conversion, livestock and animal products - DE Bioland 2005
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Animals of conventional origin have to be kept in compliance with these standards during the respective conversion period, before animal products can be sold with reference to BIOLAND / organic farming. For the different types of animals specific minimum periods apply in addition to at least 12 months of conversion of the respective land area for feed production. An alternative is the combined conversion of feed production area and livestock, which will last at least 24 months. Cattle, that has been born on conventional farms and reared with feeding stuffs, that are not permitted, can never be sold using the BIOLAND trademark. (Bioland production standards, 9.2.4 Use of Trade Mark for Animal Products, 9.2.4.1 Product related Conversion; Bioland production standards, 9.2.4 Use of Trade Mark for Animal Products, 9.2.4.2 Simultaneous Conversion of the Total Business)
The BIOLAND provisions contain further requirements in the case of single type conversion, because they require the animal specific conversion period in addition to the first year of conversion for the feed production area. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the minimum conversion periods for the animals (which are the same in both regulations) can apply regardless of the conversion of the land, if the animals can be fed according to the regulation from the beginning of the conversion period. The use of the BIOLAND trademark is not regulated. In order to be able to feed the animals with at least 50% of home grown feed which is no longer conventional feed.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006
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Conversion of all animals shall be started within 4 years after the beginning of the conversion according to the Danish Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Section 2.1: Conversion to organic agricultural production. However, according to 'section 4.1.8 animals for own use within the limits of non-commercial animal production (see attached file) are allowed as long as there is no organic production of the same animal species on the farm. The number and type of animals must be rapported to the Plantdirectorate. The manure from the non-commercial animals is considered organic, when used on own farm.
According to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Agricultural Production, October 2006 it is generally required that all animals are converted and the conversion of them shall start within 4 years after the entering into conversion of the farm except for non-commercial animal production for own use. According to EU Regilation 2092/91 Annex IB, Article 1.6 rearing of conventional livestock may be allowed on an organic holding provided they are of a different species than the organic animals, and they are reared on units where the buildings and parcels are clearly separated from the buildings and parcels where the organic animals are reared. Organic farming is a land based activity with a holistic approach. It is not logic to convert one kind of animal production and not the other. Besides, the requirement reduces the risk of fraud. However, for non-commercial animal production where only few animals are kept for own use it may be reasonable to set less strict rules.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - FR Regulation 2000
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When the first animal on the farm starts its conversion period, the farmer has 8 years to get all his animals certified organic (except for species which are not regulated by the French organic regulation).
French regulation requires that ultimately all animals on the farm be organic, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 accepts the presence of non organic livestock provided they are reared on units where the buildings and parcels are clearly separated from the organic units and different species are involved. Presence of organically and conventionally managed livestock on the same farm is not consistent (why let cows range freelly and not poultry, for example) and a source of potential fraud. But each farmer needs time to adapt his farm system and so eight years are given to satisfy this obligation.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - IFOAM Basic Standards 2005
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5.2 Length of Conversion Period Where existing animals on a farm are converted to organic they should undergo a one-time minimum conversion period at least according to the following schedule: Production Conversion period · meat: 12 months · dairy: 90 days · eggs: 42 days
With the expeption that EU Regulation 2092/91 requires six months in the case of animals for milk production (and IFOAM only 90 days) , the timeframes for conversion periods for animal products are equivalent. No justification was available.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - SE KRAV 2006
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For certified products; meat, wool and hides the animals have to be raised according to the KRAV standards 2 months before the calculated birth of ruminants and 1 month for pigs. Animals present on the farm at conversion can be certified after 1 year. This also applies to conventional animals bought in later for breeding, milk or egg production (KRAV standards paragraph 5.1.5).
In EU 2092/91 conventional animals can be brought in to the operation and there is no requirement of organic management before birth. The conversion time is 12 months for beef, 6 months for sheep, goat and pigs for meat. For milk production it is 6 weeks, 10 weeks for poultry for meat and 6 weeks for egg-production. The overall goal is to only bring in organic animals but as this is not possible conversion times are needed. At initial conversion there are animals on the farm, to keep consumer trust and handle competition between farmers there is a need for strict conversion times.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - SI Rules 2003
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SI Rules (Art. 13) state that the conversion period for land used in livestock production can be reduced, in the case that only livestock production on the agricultural holding is being converted; to one year for pastures, open air runs and exercise areas used by non-herbivore species, and to six months when the land concerned has been in compliance with the provisions of these Rules for at least two years prior, and when all other facilities are also in compliance with the requirements of the Rules (Art. 19.). Organic agricultural products or organic foodstuffs of animal origin must originate from animals that have been reared on an organic agricultural holding in accordance with these Rules for at least two months in the case of calves, and two thirds of their lifetime in the case of fish.
SI Rules 2003 (Art. 19) foresee the reduction of the conversion period under the same conditions as EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I B (2.1.2.), but limits this to the case where only livestock part of the production unit is being converted. It also specifies the length of organic rearing for selling the products as organic in the case of calves and fish, whereas EU Regulation does not. SI Rules also do not mention any derogations related to a transitional period until 31.12.2003 as the EU Regulation does in Annex I B (2.2.1. and 2.2.2.). Regarding transition periods: SI Rules were amended in 2003 so the transitional period 31.12.2003 was not an issue.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - UK Compendium 2005 During the conversion period, livestock, except poultry, reared for organic meat must be reared from birth as organic. If their offspring are to be used as organic meat animals, breeding ewes, female goats and sows must be managed as organic from mating. Breeding cattle must be managed as organic for at least 12 weeks before the birth of offspring to be reared for organic meat. There are other periods specified for other classes of livestock to be managed as organic if their products are to be sold as organic. UK Compendium specifies that, for offspring to be sold as organic meat, the breeding female must be in organic management after mating for small ruminants and pigs, for at least 12 weeks before birth for cattle, and all these offspring must be reared as organic from birth. EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that organic management must be for at least 12 months or three quarters of lifetime, whichever is longer, for bovines and equidae reared for meat, and six months for small ruminants and pigs. EU Regulation makes no mention here of the management of breeding females after mating. For milk production, UK Compendium requires that cattle must be in organic management for 9 months before the milk can be sold as organic, with organic feed management for at least 6 months. EU Regulation requires 6 months organic management for all milk producing animals. The UK Compendium livestock conversion rule aims to eliminate any possible consumer health risks that might arise from non-organic livestock management by ensuring that organic meat animals have been in organic management since birth, and even during their gestation. UK Compendium makes no mention of equidae because this is a class of livestock rarely used for food in UK. The amendment was requested by UK inspection bodies.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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There are a number of minimum conversion periods and detailed conditions regarding organic conversion of different classes of livestock: all mammalian livestock reared for organic meat must be managed as organic from birth; Permission for buying in non-organic chicks or pullets (with a plan detailing where organic young birds will be obtained in future). Soil Association standards additionally require that non-organic bought-in laying poultry must not have been caged nor had beak mutilations, and after 31st December 2005, they must have been reared to Soil Association veterinary and feed standards. In the following ways, the Soil Association complies with the standards set out in the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 2.2.1. Soil Association rules specify that, for offspring to be sold as organic meat, the breeding female must be in organic management after mating for small ruminants and pigs, and for at least 12 weeks before birth for cattle. For milk production it is required that cattle must be in organic management for 9 months before the milk can be sold as organic, with organic feed management for at least 6 months. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 11.1.1, 11.1.2, 12.1.1-12.1.6, 13.1.3, 14.2.1-14.2.3, 20.3.1, 20.3.2, and 20.4.2-20.4.4.)
Soil Association standards mean all mammalian livestock reared for organic meat must be managed as organic from birth. EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that organic management must be for at least 12 months or three quarters of lifetime, whichever is longer, for bovines and equidae, and six months for small ruminants and pigs. Permission for buying in non-organic chicks or pullets is conditional whereas EU Regulation do not include such a condition. Furthermore EU Regulation make no mention of the management of breeding females. EU Regulation requires 6 months organic management for all milk-producing animals (and not 9 months as Soil Association). The Soil Association livestock conversion rules aim to eliminate any consumer health risks from non-organic management by ensuring that mammals reared for organic meat have been in organic management since birth, and even during their gestation. It is also an animal welfare issue. In order to prevent organic producers from providing a market for industry sectors in which birds are mistreated, the standards aim to ensure that the market demand for organic young birds will grow and thus support growth of the organic chick and pullet production sectors.
Conversion, retroactive approval - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005:
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A conversion period of at least 2 full calendar years is required. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period possible).
Whereas BIO SUISSE requires a two years conversion period beginning in the first year of inspection by an official inspection body, EU Regulation 2092/91 offers the possibility for retrospective approval in cases, where previous management methods are proved to be in compliance with the Regulation (approval as 'organic' after 6 months of first inspection for pastures or immediate approval for other plots if last conventional practice happened more than 3 years ago). The inflexibility in the conversion period is thought to increase consumer credibility. The Bio Suisse standards in this case comply with the Swiss government regulation.
Conversion, retroactive approval - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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A conversion period of 4 full calendar years is required; crops may be sold with 'DEMETER' denomination in the fourth year of conformity with DEMETER standards. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period possible). In case of a certified production according Bio Suisse Standards, DEMETER approval may occur in the second year of conformity with DEMETER Standards.
Whereas DEMETER requires a 36 months conversion period beginning with the first year of inspection by an official inspection body, EU Regulation 2092/91 offers the possibility for retrospective approval in cases where previous management methods are proven to be in compliance with the regulation. Essential agricultural knowledge and skills in the biodynamic method are important prerequisitites for successfull farming. To acquire this knowledge and to gain credibility for the method in the consumers eyes, DEMETER strictly defines the beginning of conversion as starting with the first year of inspection.
Conversion, retroactive approval - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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The conversion period lasts 2 years, starting on the first of January.
With the exception for sprouts and mushroom production the Swiss Ordinance does not allow a shortening of the conversion period: While the EU Regulation 2092/91 offers the possibility for retrospective approval in cases, where previous management methods are proved to be in compliance with the Regulation (approval as 'organic' after 6 months of first inspection for pastures or immediate approval for other plots if last conventional measure happened more than 3 years ago). For reasons of credibility in the consumers eyes, the Swiss Ordinance strictly defines the beginning of conversion starting with the first year of inspection on the spot.
Conversion, simultaneous conversion of livestock and land - UK Compendium 2005 A complete production unit, including livestock enterprises, may be simultaneously converted to organic status in 24 months. However, cattle reared for organic meat must have been born to cattle managed organically for at least 12 weeks before calving, other livestock for meat must be the offspring of organically managed female stock, and livestock for organic meat must be fed mostly on products of the unit. Fully organic livestock may be bought or sold from the unit, but their products may not be sold as organic until completion of the latest 24-month conversion period among production units where they have been present. The UK Compendium adds an additional subsection stating that fully organic livestock may be bought and sold from a converting livestock unit, but that their products may be sold as organic only after 24 months from the latest conversion start-date of the units where they have been present. UK Compendium specifies again here, as in Paragraph 2.2.1, that for offspring to be sold as organic meat after simultaneous conversion, the breeding female must be in organic management after mating for small ruminants and pigs, for at least 12 weeks before birth for cattle, and all these offspring must be reared as organic from birth. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not contain this specification. The UK Compendium rule ensures some flexibility in the purchase or sale of organic livestock for the in-conversion holding, without compromising the organic status of livestock products. This additional subsection is a qualification to the statement that the derogation applies only to existing animals. UK Compendium's rule repeats its conversion rule on how animals for meat may be sold as organic, to eliminate possible consumer health risks for organic consumers from non-organic livestock management.
Conversion, simultaneous conversion, trading livestock - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Livestock complying with requirements of simultaneous conversion may be bought or sold by a farm in simultaneous conversion. They may be traded only once before finishing, except with special Soil Association permission, and their products may not be sold as organic until all buying and selling units have completed conversion. All relevant records and documentation must be kept at the farm, and transfer documents and trading schedules must be sent with traded livestock. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.5.6. Soil Association standards contain rules that are not specified in EU Regulation 2092/91. The Soil Association standards state that fully organic or in-conversion livestock may be traded from a livestock unit in simultaneous conversion, being bought or sold only once unless permission is sought, but that their products may be sold as organic only after the completion of conversion periods at all the units where they have been present. In this case, Soil Association standards comply with UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 2.3.1, except the Soil Association standards add the requirement for their permission to buy or sell an animal more than once on a unit in conversion. The EU Regulation on simultaneous conversion refers only to existing animals and does not include rules on the trading of livestock on holdings in simultaneous conversion. The Soil Association standards seek to allow flexibility for the producer, regarding the purchase or sale of livestock for the holding in simultaneous conversion, without compromising the genuine organic status of livestock products. The EU Regulation specification of existing animals could be interpreted to mean only animals already present on the holding, possibly implying that the derogation may not apply to brought-in animals that are already in-conversion or organic. The Soil Association's liberal interpretation of EU Regulation should be read in the context of the detailed UK rules on conversion periods for livestock.
Full farm conversion - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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Conversion of the entire holding is a prerequisite for the certification as an organic farm of Bio Austria. Beekeeping and fish farming are the only exceptions, and may be practiced conventionally.
The Bio Austria has the additional requirement to convert the whole farm and not just the production unit, as defined in EU Regulation 2092/91 as littlest unit to convert (annex I B 1.5 ff) and Annex III A.1. §. 3 which defines the requirements for certification of the production unit, which can farmed by the same company/farm. Therefore it is not necessary based on the EU Regulation to convert the whole farm. The main reason is to create high consumer confidence (exclusion of fraud and mistakes).
Full farm conversion - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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BIO SUISSE requires organic certification of the whole farm with all the enterprises, including arable land, perennial crops and animal production.
BIO SUISSE standards contain an additional restriction not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. BIO SUISSE standards do not allow non-organic and organic enterprises to be operated by the same manager with the exception of the stepped conversion of wine, fruit or ornamental plants production enterprises, whereas the EU Regulation does allow organic and non-organic enterprises on the same farm. The prohibition of organic and non-organic split production avoids potential problems with the consumer credibility of organic farming and minimises the danger of fraud. The BIO SUISSE standards in this respect comply with the Swiss government regulation.
Full farm conversion - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Full farm conversion of the whole operation to organic is required by DEMETER and is applied for arable land, perennial crops and animal husbandry all the same. The farmer has to attend a training on bio-dynamic farming and must prove knowledge on bio-dynamic farming.
DEMETER standards do not allow a split production of DEMETER and conventional production areas within the same farm or by the same manager, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does allow split production within the farm by the same manager. Furthermore, DEMETER requires the farmers to attend a training on bio-dynamic farming, whereas EU Regulation does not rule the question of capacity building among organic farmers. The personal committment required from a farm manager towards bio-dynamic farming does not comply with the thought of having conventional areas within the same operation.
Full farm conversion - DE Naturland 2005
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A Naturland producer contract implies the obligation to convert and apply the standards on all areas of a farm, managed under the responsibility of one farm manager. (NL standards on production 2005: Part A.I.2.Producer contract)
The NATURLAND standard requires conversion of the whole farm whreas the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the conversion of separated farm units. Whole farm conversion is required in order to reduce the danger of contamination or fraud and to safeguard organic integrity.
Full farm conversion - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006
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Conversion of the whole farm including own and leased areas, buildings and animals shall be started within 4 years after the beginning of the conversion according to DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, 2006, Section 2.1: Conversion to organic agricultural production.
It is generally required that the whole farm including land, buildings and animals is converted, and the conversion of all land and animals shall be started within 4 calendar years after entering into conversion according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 Article 6, Annex I A, Article 1 and Annex I B, Article 2 there is no requirement on conversion of the whole farm and therefore also no requirement on how long time the conversion of the whole farm is allowed to take. In the DK Governmental Guidelines there are some derogation possibilities, which are described in Section 2.1 and 2.2, but they will need individual approval by the certification and inspection authority, the Plant Directorate. Organic farming is a land based activity with a holistic approach. It is not logic to convert a piece of land or a special plant or animal production while leaving the rest of the production conventional.
Full farm conversion - Italian Organic Standards 2005
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When the organic operator starts its conversion period, he has 3 years to have his whole farm certified. No parallel production is allowed after this period.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 accepts parallel production and mixed farms under certain restrictions. Parallel production is prohibited in order to avoid potential frauds and unintentional contaminations. However the gradual conversion of farm and productions within a three year conversion plan is allowed. The plan has to be accepted by the certification body.
Full farm conversion - Nature et Progrès Standards 2002 Under Nature et Progres standards, when the farmer starts the conversion period, he has 5 years to get the whole farm certified organic. Nature et Progres standards require that ultimately the whole production of the farm be organic, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 accepts the presence of non-organic productions. Presence of organic and conventional products on the same farm is not consistent and a source of potential fraud or accidental pollution. However, each farmer needs time to adapt his farm system and therefore five years are given to satisfy this obligation.
Full farm conversion - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 Conversion of the entire holding is required for the certification of any EKOLAND organic farm. EKOLAND standards require the whole farm to be converted, and not only the production unit, as defined in the EU Regulation 2092/91. The main reason is to keep the green image of the Association and to assure consumer trust.
Full farm conversion - SI BIODAR 2002
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SI BIODAR standards require a successful whole farm conversion as a condition for the use of BIODAR logo, with the only possible exception of beekeeping.
BIODAR standards do not allow a parallel production of different production branches in the farm, with exception of beekeeping (1.1), whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 does allow a split conventional and organic production by the same manager. Whole farm conversion is a measure to guarantee transparency of organic production to the consumer and minimize fraud or unwanted pollution. Another important reason is the low average size of Slovenian farms that makes a controllable split production hardly possible.
Labelling of animal products, milk - Demeter International 2005
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The labelling of milk is determined by the certification status of the feed: Milk may only be marketed under the label "In Conversion to Demeter" if the dairy cows are fed from areas of the farm, which have this certification level. Demeter certification of the milk is possible as soon as the feed comes from Demeter certified areas. (DI production standards, 5.7.1. Milk, dairy cows and calves; DI production standards, 5.5.1. Brought in feeds and in conversion feeds)
The DI standard is more complex. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate Demeter specific labelling. The label "In conversion to Demeter" is only given to products, that have full organic certification status already. There is no possibility for animal products to be labelled as in conversion according to the EU Regulation. The quality of the feed influences the quality of the animal product.
Labelling of animal products, pigs - Demeter International 2005
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Piglets of conventional origin that are exceptionally brought into a Demeter farm to start a new herd and after approval by the respective organisation, can be labelled as 'In conversion to Demeter' or 'Biodyn' after a conversion period of 6 months. During the conversion period, they must be managed and fed according to the Demeter standards. (DI production standards, 5.7.4. Pigs; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 17)
The DI standard is more complex. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 there is no in conversion labelling for animals and animal products. In both cases piglets can only be brought in for breeding (to start a new herd) and not with the purpose of fattening. According to the EU Regulation those animals could be converted to organic (6 months conversion period). According to Demeter standards they can never reach Demeter status, but can be labelled as "in conversion to Demeter" after the same period. No justification available
Parallel production, grazing, livestock - NL SKAL Standards 2005
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Non-organic livestock are allowed to use the paddocks of organic units for a maximum period of 7 months and must be managed as certified extensively reared livestock, defined in annex II, list a point 3.
SKAL has defined a maximum period of 7 months, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 has not defined this period. see rule Text: Annex I, part B 1.7: By derogation from this principle, livestock not reared in accordance with the provisions of this Regulation can use, for a limited period of time each year, the pasturage of units complying with this regulation, provided that such animals come from extensive husbandry. The rule gives more clarity.