Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by EU regulation

  • EC Council Regulation No. 2092/91
    • Annex I. Principles of organic production and processing
      • B.Livestock and livestock products - Annex I B
        • Animal husbandry, management, transport, identification of livestock products/slaughter - Annex I B6
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Animal breeding, longevity - DE Bioland 2005
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Longevity has to be taken into account for breeding purposes and especially in the case of animals for milk production. Only animal breeds appropriate to the animal husbandry systems practised in organic farming should be used. Breeding should not be based on the purchase of animals from conventional origin and breeding and breeding animals (to be purchased) should not originate from embryo transfer. (Bioland production standards, 4.7 Animal breeding, 4.7.1 General; Bioland production standards, 4.7 Animal breeding, 4.7.2 Origin of animals for breeding -purposes
The BIOLAND standard has further requirements to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to longevity as a breeding aim and the suitability of the animals to organic farming systems. However the adaptation to the environment is to be considered. There are no details within the EU Standards about the use of conventional animals / animals originating from embryo transfer in breeding programmes. To enhance the breeding of animals appropriate to organic farming and increase independency from conventional strains.
Animal breeding, pigs - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006
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Only pigs which are resistant to stress (with proved NN status) may be used for breeding piglets. This must be recorded and proved.
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 are more detailed than the EU Regulation. EU Regulation 2092/91 point 3.1 of annex I B has only a general statement that for intensive livestock breeds with typical diseases or health problems (e.g. stress-syndrome) should be avoided. The main reason for the rule is a better quality assurance to create high confidence by consumers.
Animals breeding, birth - SE KRAV 2006
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Animals shall be given the opportunity to be alone during giving birth and laying eggs. Cows shall be allowed to calve alone and may only in exceptional cases be tethered. Indoor calving shall take place in a calving box. Sows shall farrow alone and farrowing may take place in a farrowing hut or if indoors in a separate space with sufficient freedom and space. There shall be enough nesting material for sows (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1, 5.2.2 and 5.2.3).
Specific conditions for cows and pigs giving birth is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Animal welfare is one of the most important areas of organic production. Conditions in some conventional systems are far from providing animals the possibility of giving birth in a more natural and undisturbed way. Therefore it is important to clearly express this in organic standards.
Livestock and animal products, traceability - SP CRAE MAPA/CAAE Standards 2001
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The Spanish organisations CRAE MAPA/CAAE 2001 have special traceability standards for animal and meat products. CRAE-MAPA and also CAAE Andalucia have specific organic standards, outlined in a 5 page document. They contain requirements in 7 areas: a) identification of the animals on the farm (6 articles); b) transport of slaughtered animals; c) identification of slaughtered animal pieces in the slaughter house (7 articles); d) the identification of slaughtered animal pieces in the slaughter house room for cutting animal in small parts. A specific register should contain the following data: (8.1) date of entrance of the animal to the slaughter house; 8.2) number or authentification code for the living animal; (8.3) origin of the animal, identified by the record number of cattle operation (nº operator); (8.4) number of transport identification accompanying animals; 8.5) date of slaughtering; (8.6) number of seal or seals of each animal parts obtained; (8.7) destination of each part of the animal (nº of registered operator, in/or another region or place and (if it is the case) names of the slaughter houses.
CRAE-MAPA and CAAE organic regulation is more detailed on traceability measures compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. To reduce the risk of mistakes or fraud. Organic production and processing should be at the forefront of traceability issues.
Livestock housing, ecological aspects - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Ecological aspects have to be considered in the construction and maintenance of livestock housing. Materials and substances harmful to health or the environment should not be used and native materials must be preferred. The use of non-renewable energy should be reduced. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.1 General, 4.2.1.6 Construction and Maintenance of Livestock Buildings)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailled. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the ecological aspects of the construction of livestock housing To cope with the ecological principle of organic farming and avoid contamination.
Livestock housing, general requirements, pigs - SE KRAV 2006
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The natural behaviour patterns of pigs should be provided for. They shall have the possibility for rooting and food searching behaviour on fallow land, forest or woodland. In the winter this should be in deep litter. Pigs should have access to a mud bath or a water bath in the summer. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1)
Annex 1, paragraph 8.3.8 states that there shall be exercise areas which must permit rooting. Different substrates can be used for that. Mud baths or water baths are not covered by EU Regulation 2092/91. The KRAV standards require that during the non frozen period pigs are out on land, in winter they can be kept in an exercise area. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows pigs to be kept in an exercise area the year around. There is a qualitative difference to root in substrate or in real soil. The pigs can also be used for uprooting leys etc. Pigs cannot sweat and need water or mud baths to regulate temperature. This is an animal welfare issue.
Livestock housing, nesting material, poultry - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The nests of laying hens must be provided with formable natural materials. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.13, 1.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is very detailed, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not say anything about the material of nests. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal integrity. Behavioural priorities of laying hens, littered nests are preferred by laying hens. Litter satisfies behavioural requirements of laying hens by allowing moulding and other behaviours performed during egg laying.
Livestock housing, rearing, calves - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Calves should stay with their mothers at least for the first day of their life. After 7 days or for the latest after 5 weeks they must be kept in groups. Cattle of less than one year must not be tethered. (Bioland production standard, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.2 Keeping cattle, 4.2.2.3 Calves)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require calves to stay with their mothers, but the keeping of calves older than 10 days in single boxes is not allowed. Tethering of calves is not explicitly prohibited under the EU Regulation. To enable natural behaviour appropriate to the species in livestock housing.
Livestock housing, rearing, calves - DE Naturland 2005
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Calves should be allowed to suckle from the mother cow and must not be kept tied up or in single boxes. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.2.3 Calves)
The NATURLAND standard contais further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not recommend the suckling of the calf and the keeping of calves in single boxes is prohibited only for calves older than 10 days. To enable the performance of natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter3.10.3) BA-Rules 2006: The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions: Only appliances with a delivery of max 0.3 joule per impulse may be used. Cow trainers may not be in operation for more than 2 days a week. The cow trainer must be installed along the length of and parallel to the trough. The distance between withers and cow trainer must not be less than 5 cm, meaning that only devices that are adjustable for each individual animal may be used. Cow trainers may only be used for cows (beginning of the first lactation period). The cow trainer must be raised to its maximal height before calving and until 5 days after calving. This is also indicated for several days before the animal comes in heat.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as in the EU Regulation 2092/91 cow trainers are not mentioned. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal integrity and livelihood - equity principle; old systems of barn do not function without a cow trainer (fouling, dirtiness and hygiene).
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - DE Naturland 2005
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Electrical devices to condition cows are prohibited. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.2.1. Dairy farming)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailled. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not mention the prohibition of electrical devices. To enable natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - Demeter International 2005
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The use of electrical cow trainers is not allowed. (DI production standards, 5.4.1. Cattle management)
The DI standard is more detailed, the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly prohibit the use of electrical cow trainers. To enable the natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock management, general reqquirements, horses - SP CCPAE Catalunya 2002
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The CCPAE Catalunya Organic Standards for horse breeding has 5 pages (Article 11.06 of General CCPAE standards, pages 154-158). The main points of these Horse Standards are: origin of the animals, conversion period, management, suckling and breeding of foals; animal welfare, free ranch areas and facilities for breeding horses, animal feeding, animal health and animal identification.
There are no specific standards of organic horse breeding within the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide clear rules for any significant type of agricultural / food production.
Livestock management, general requirements, deer - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards have several standards for deer. The environment should be natural and contain plants and food that deer prefer. There should be protection in the enclosure by trees or forest. Handling of deer should be done so that stress is minimised. All deer should be able to feed at the feeding station at the same time. The feed should 100% KRAV –certified, 30% of the daily intake can be concentrate. Deer kids should suckle until natural weaning. Deer should only be slaughtered in the enclosure or adjacent to the enclosure (KRAV standards, several paragraphs in chapter 5).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have any specific standards for deer. Deer are in several ways quite different to other ruminants. It is important that they are treated in the best way.
Livestock management, identification - US NOP 2002 US does not address the identification of animals. According to EU Regulation 2092/91 Livestock and livestock products are to be identified at all stages of their production, preparation, transport and marketing. US does not address this. No justification was available.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - SE KRAV 2006
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The only mutilations allowed are castration and dehorning. Castration of calves has to be done before they are 8 weeks old. Calves should be anaesthetised during castration. Castration of pigs should be done before they are 7 days old. Dehorning of calves through burning is allowed before the age of 8 weeks. Dehorning of older animals can be done on a case by case basis for animal welfare reasons (KRAV standards paragraph 5.5.3 and 5.5.4).
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows mutilations for reasons of safety, improvment of health, welfare and hygiene, but not in a systematic manner. Mutilations must be carried out at the most appropriate age by qualified personnel and any suffering to the animals must be reduced to a minimum. Castrations are allowed if the above requirements are fulfilled. The KRAV standards allow fewer types of mutilations and have more precise time limits and requirements. If mutilations are only done at young age the risk for side effects is less. Ringing of bulls is not seen as a mutilation. Ringing of sows is not permitted by Swedish law.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Dehorning of ruminants is not allowed according DEMETER standards.
Whereas DEMETER disallowes dehorning of ruminants, EU Regulation 2092/91 allows it under certain circumstances. The horns of ruminants have significance for the development of life forces. They provide an opposing balance of forces to the intensive digestion and absorption processes. They are a part of the entire being. In comparison to other animal species, cattle manure has a particularly stimulating effect on soil fertility. The horns also have a large significance as a sheath in the production of the bio-dynamic preparations.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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Dehorning of adult ruminants may only occur for safety reasons and not in the months of May - August. Dehorning must be carried out under narcosis.
Swiss Ordinance is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91: dehorning must be carried out by a veterinarian and under narcosis, while EU Regulation mentions only the dehorning of young animals, with a requirement to minimize the suffering of animals in general. Mutilations such as dehorning strongly interfere with the ethological well-being of the animal.They should only be done if absolutely necessary, if at all, and in the most gentle and careful way to avoid suffering of the animal.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - CZ PRO-BIO Standards 2004 PRO-BIO Standards do not allow dehorning by cauterizing.(PB Standards: Sec. II, Chapter 3, Part 4) PRO-BIO Standards are more detailed as they prohibit a specific method. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify the methods of dehorning. Annex I/B: 6.1.2. names only the reasons and conditions for such operations. Ethically non-acceptable methods may not be used in organic farming according PRO-BIO Standards.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Appropriate and careful handling of the animals and regular care is required. Horns cannot be removed by means of cauterising. Tail-docking for cattle and pigs, prophylactic cutting of pigs`teeth, nose rings or clamps and trimming of beaks is prohibited. Further physical operations may not be realised systematically. Hens during the laying pause must have at least 5 hours of daylight. (Bioland production standards, 4.3 Dealing with animals, 4.3.1 General; Bioland production standards, 4.3.2 Measures in the business)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the majority of the above mentioned physical operations, under the condition that they are not executed systematically, but some of the operations can be admitted for reasons of health, animal welfare, safety or hygiene and they must be carried out in an appropriate way. Nothing is mentioned within the EU Regulation about hens during the laying pause. Good care is essential for the well-being of the animals. Physical operations must be avoided wherever possible and this is why many operations commonly applied in conventional animal husbandry are prohibitted. The animals must be able to execute their natural behaviour (i.e.: digging into the earth is an important element of the natural behaviour of pigs, which is made impossible by the application of nose rings).
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - Demeter International 2005
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Dehorning of animals and dehorned animals are not permitted on the farm. In well-justified cases, an exemption may be approved by the respective organisation but must be reviewed annually . (DI production standards, 5.4.1. Cattle management; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 9)
The DI standard is more demanding but less detailed. The EU Regulation is more precisely indicating the circumstances of dehorning: According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 systematic dehorning of animals is not allowed but can be done for a couple of reasons (security, health, animal welfare or hygiene) and under certain conditions (done by qualified personnel and at an appropriate age of the animal). Furthermore EU Regulation does not prohibit the presence of dehorned animals on the farm. In practice (in Germany) very few cases for the dehorning of single animals have been approved on Demeter farms, while regular dehorning of cattle is common on organic farms. The horns of ruminants have significance for the development of life forces. They provide an opposing balance of forces to the intensive digestion and absorption processes. They are a part of the total being of the cow. In comparison to other animal types, cattle manure has a particularly stimulating effect on soil fertility. The horns also have a large significance as a sheath in the production of the Biodynamic preparations.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - FI Governmenal Regulation on organic animal production 2000 Castration of pigs is forbidden after the age of 7 days. This standard is more precise than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Some of the treatments (attaching elastic bands to the tails of sheep, tail-docking, cutting of teeth, trimming of beaks) mentioned in Annex I B 6.1.2 are not allowed according to the Finnish animal protection law (396/1996):
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - FI Governmenal Regulation on organic animal production 2000 Teeth grinding of male piglets is only allowed in the case of teat biting and until the age of 8 days. This standard is more precise than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Some of the treatments (attaching elastic bands to the tails of sheep, tail-docking, cutting of teeth, trimming of beaks) mentioned in Annex I B 6.1.2 are not allowed according to the Finnish animal protection law (396/1996.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - FI Governmenal Regulation on organic animal production 2000 De-horning of calves is forbidden after the age of 8 weeks. This standard is more precise than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Some of the treatments (attaching elastic bands to the tails of sheep, tail-docking, cutting of teeth, trimming of beaks) mentioned in Annex I B 6.1.2 are not allowed according to the Finnish animal protection law (396/1996.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - UK Compendium 2005 Although practices involving mutilations such as tail docking and dehorning should not be systematically practised on organic farms, inspection bodies may authorise such practices to benefit the health, hygiene or welfare of livestock, or for safety reasons. All such operations should be recorded in the Livestock Health Plan, and they should be carried out by qualified staff with the minimum possible suffering for the animals. UK Compendium, Annex IB, Paragraph 6.1.2. The UK Compendium standards on operations involving animal mutilations, such as tail docking or dehorning, are identical to the EU Regulation 2092/91 except for their additional requirement to record the operations in the Livestock Health Plan, which is itself a separate requirement set out in UK Compendium, Paragraph 2.1.2. (see the relevant difference item). EU Regulation contains no separate requirement for a Livestock Health Plan, so it cannot include a requirement to include any specific operations in this health plan. The UK Compendium requires all operations affecting livestock health and welfare to be recorded in the Livestock Health Plan, not only those involving mutilations. The requirement is mentioned again specifically in Paragraph 6.1.2. to ensure clarity and enforceability.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Soil Association standards include a number of detailed requirements and restrictions relating to operations involving physical mutilation of different classes of livestock. Soil Association standards allow the disbudding or castration of calves, and the tail docking or castration of sheep and goats, on condition that these practices are justified for welfare reasons. Soil Association standards require such operations to be detailed in the animal health plan, and in this latter requirement, they comply with UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Paragraph 6.1.2. Disbudding of calves is permitted only up to 3 months old and castration of calves only to 2 months. Use of a rubber ring for the castration of calves, and for the castration or tail docking of sheep and goats, is permitted without anaesthetic only within the first week of life, after which, anaesthetic is required. For tail docking or castration of sheep and goats, the burdizzo method is permitted up to 6 weeks old, and use of a hot iron is permitted between 3 and 6 weeks old. Castration of pigs is permitted only with Soil Association permission in exceptional circumstances, and castrated pigs may not be sold as organic. Deer antlers may be removed only with Soil Association permission, which will only be given on grounds of safety or welfare, and in any case, not when the antlers are in velvet. No other mutilating operations are permitted in Soil Association standards. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 11.5.12 - 11.5.15, 12.2.1, 12.2.2, 13.2.2, 14.3.2 and 20.5.4.)
Soil Association standards contain detailed rules that EU Regulation 2092/91 explicitly permits inspection bodies to set. The Soil Association rules on livestock mutilating operations are designed to minimise animal welfare problems in the context of the culture and conditions in which livestock are kept in the UK. The aim is to allow only those types of mutilation that are widely practised in UK agriculture and only if they can be carried out without excessive pain and can be justified on the grounds of animal welfare. The rules are detailed for each class of livestock by the Soil Association standards, which is enabled by the discretion permitted for inspection bodies within the EU Regulation.
Livestock management, tethering - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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When animals are tethered (exceptions can be approved by BIOLAND for a limited period of time), they must be able to stand up, lie down, eat and clean themselves in accordance with their natural behaviour appropriate to the species. Electrical cow trainers are prohibited.
The BIOLAND standard is similar but slightly more detailed. The EU Regulation does not explicitly refer to the characterics of tethering devices, nor prohibit the use of electrical cow trainers. However, it requires that tethering is executed in line with animal welfare requirements with comfortably littered areas, as well as individual management and regular exercise. Cow trainers are not mentioned. To enable natural behaviour appropriate to the species in livestock housing.
Livestock management, tethering - FR Regulation 2000
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Tethering of cattle is possible during winter time in buildings which already existed before 24 August 2000, until 31st December 2010 and in small farms, provided that regular exercise is provided and rearing takes place in line with animal welfare requirements with comfortably littered areas as well as individual management.
The French regulation limits the tethering of cattle to the winter season, whereas in the EU Regulation 2092/91 this is not specified. There is no reason to tether cattle indoors when weather conditions allow them to go out.
Livestock management, tethering - Nature et Progrès Standards 2002
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Certain kinds of indoor tethering are forbidden. It must not be too tight : the animal must still be able to make certain movements. For example, "dutch" tethering system is not allowed.
Nature et Progrès standards forbid certain kind of tethering, whereas the EU does not differentiate between different kinds of tethering. Certain kinds of tethering are not compatible with animal welfare.
Livestock management, tethering - UK Compendium 2005 Defra do not allocate the paragraph that would correspond with the EU Regulation derogation on cattle tethering in older buildings. EU Regulations allow a derogation for livestock enterprises with older buildings, which were designed for the housing of tethered cattle, to continue the practice of tethering until the end of 2010, providing that certain conditions be met regarding the animals welfare. The UK Compendium contains no such derogation. This derogation on cattle tethering would be a redundant feature of UK organic standards. In the EU Regulation, it is included to give time for changes in husbandry practice and for the depreciation of the value of livestock housing built before the tethering prohibition was introduced. No such buildings have existed in UK for a long time, and animal housing is mostly in cubicles or loose houses.
Livestock management, tethering - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Livestock must neither be housed permanently nor tethered for prolonged periods. Flooring in livestock houses must not have more than 50% slatted area. Permission is required for the tethering of animals for special circumstances such as for shows, welfare, safety or for short periods. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 10.12.4 and 10.12.5. Soil Association standards omit certain derogations permitted within EU Regulation. EU Regulation allows a derogation for livestock enterprises with older buildings, which were designed for the housing of tethered cattle, to continue the practice of tethering until the end of 2010, providing that certain conditions be met regarding the animals welfare. EU Regulation has a further derogation that allows cattle in small holdings, where they cannot be kept in groups appropriate to their behaviour requirements, to be tethered with access to open areas only twice per week. Soil Association standards do not allow any prolonged tethering, and require their permission to be sought even for tethering for short periods or for welfare or safety purposes. In omitting the derogation for tethering in older buildings, Soil Association standards comply with the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 6.1.5, but the UK Compendium, Annex 1B, Paragraph 6.1.6 includes the derogation for smallholdings, which Soil Association standards do not. Cattle are rarely kept tethered in UK smallholdings, and buildings have not been designed for tethering, so there is no need for the Soil Association to provide similar derogations to the EU Regulation. However, some flexibility is provided requiring permission for tethering in certain circumstances.
Livestock management, tethering, age restrictions - CZ PRO-BIO 2004 Livestock must be older than one year before tethering is permitted. (PB Standards Sec. II, Chapter 3, Part 3.2) Keeping livestock tethered in organic farming is generally forbidden by EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I/B: 6.1.4, 6.1.5., 6.1.6 quoted exceptions are not limited by livestock´s age. PRO-BIO does not allow exceptions for livestock younger than one year. Ethical non-aceptable methods may not be used in organic farming according to PRO-BIO Standards.
Livestock management, tethering, methods - CZ PRO-BIO 2004 PRO-BIO Standards lists methods which cannot be used (throat frames, stretch chains, belts) for animal tethering. (PB Standards Sec. II, Chap. 3, Part 3.3) EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I/B (6) does not specify methods, which can or cannot be used to tether the livestock. PRO-BIO is more detailed as it specifies the methods which are permitted. Ethically non-aceptable methods may not be used in organic farming according to PRO-BIO Standards.
Livestock physical operations/mutilations - FI Governmental Regulation on organic animal production 2000
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Castration of pigs is forbidden after the age of 7 days. Furthermore some mutilations; attaching elastic bands to the tails of sheep, tail-docking, cutting of teeth, trimming of beaks) mentioned in Annex I B 6.1.2 are not allowed according to the Finnish animal protection law.
The Finnish Guidelines are more precise as they list the physical operations/mutilations, which are not allowed whereas the EU Regulation in Article 6.1.2. allow operations such as attaching elastic bands to the tails of sheep, tail-docking, cutting of teeth, trimming of beaks and dehorning if they are not be carried out systematically in organic farming. Some of these operations may, however, be authorised by the inspection authority or body, for reasons of safety (for example dehorning in young animals) or if they are intended to improve the health, welfare or hygiene of the livestock. Some of the treatments (attaching elastic bands to the tails of sheep, tail-docking, cutting of teeth, trimming of beaks) are not allowed according to the Finnish animal protection law (396/1996)
Milk for offspings - SE KRAV 2006
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Calves, lambs and kids should be allowed to suckle for at least the full colostrum period and then get their own kind of animals unprocessed KRAV-certified milk. Organic milk from other species can be used for motherless animals. If that is not possible unprocessed conventional milk can be used. In emergencies milk powder can be used, but if this is more then 30% of the daily feed intake a 12 month conversion time is required. The producer has to document all use of milk from other species, conventional milk and milk substitutes. Calves which do not suckle should be given the opportunity to suck in a natural position through an artificial teat (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.16 – 5.3.18).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 4.5 states that the feeding of young mammals must be based on natural milk, preferably maternal milk, though there are no requirements that animals should suckle. The KRAV standards require organic milk, in the normal case from the own species. The first days of suckling are important as the offspring gets the mothers micro flora together with the milk. That gives a protection against diseases. The requirement that calves shall suckle in a natural position even if hand reared is based on research showing that the milk ends up in the right stomach when suckling from above instead of drinking from a bucket below.
Slaughter and livestock husbandry - US NOP 2002 US has no specific provisions for husbandry practices and slaughter. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows artificial insemination but not embryo transfer. US does not address this however the use of hormones in the absence of illness in the US is not allowed. EU does not allow operations such as dehorning, cutting of teeth and other to be carried out systematically. EU defines minimum age for slaughter of poultry. US does not address this. No justification was available.
Slaughter, general requirements - SE KRAV Standards 2006
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The standards for slaughter of animals are detailed standards on how animals should be transported, kept in the lairage, stunned and slaughtered. Groups of animals are not allowed to be mixed with for them unknown animals. The slaughter of the animals should normally take place on the same day as arrival to the slaughterhouse. The waiting animals should have access to water and for animals kept more than 4 hours access to roughage and bedded lying areas. The movement of animals within the slaughterhouse should be without physical violence and electric pods are not allowed. Animals should be checked individually for successful stunning and bleeding to death should occur without the awareness of unstunned animals. Each animal should be checked to ensure that it is dead. (KRAV Standards Chapter 10).
KRAV standards are more detailed and have additional requirements to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation states that the slaughter must be handled in such a way that stress to the animals is reduced to a minimum. Animal welfare in all parts of an animals life and on the way death is seen to be very important by all stakeholders involved; producers, handlers, traders, supermarkets, NGOs and consumers.
Slaughter, minimum age - FR Regulation 2000
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Minimum age at slaughter is defined for each species of poultry (81 days for chickens, etc.)
Minimum age at slaughter is the same for every strain of poultry, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require this minimum age if the farmer uses slow growing strains. By definition, slow growing strains mature after the other strains. There is absolutely no reason to slaughter them before the others. Plus 81 days is the minmum age for slaughter of chickens under the Label Rouge, the French conventional quality standard.
Slaughter, minimum age - UK Compendium 2005 The minimum ages for slaughter of various classes of poultry are specified, with an exception allowed in the case of slow growing strains. Capons are included in the list in the EU Regulation 2092/91 but not in UK Compendium. Capons are omitted from the list in the UK Compendium, to avoid redundancy of information, because this class of poultry is not reared in UK due to the requirement for a vet for the castration process.
Slaughter, minimum age, pigs - FR Regulation 2000
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Minimum age of slaughter for pigs is 182 days.
French regulation defines a minimum age at slaughter for pigs. There is no such obligation in the EU Regulation 2092/91. The aim is to avoid organic pigs with poor meat quaity. 182 days is the minimum age for slaughter of pigs under Label Rouge, the French conventional quality standard.
Slaughter, minimum age, poultry - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005 Minimal age for broilers at the day of slaughter is 63 days. EU Regulation is more detailled than BIO SUISSE. BIO SUISSE sets limits only for broilers, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 adds limits for all kinds of fowl. Furthermore BIO SUISSE accepts an age of 63 days for broilers, whereas the EU Regulation requires 81 days for chicken as minimal age at slaughter. Among fowl, only broilers are kept on an an economic scale in Switzerland. Consequently BIO SUISSE has no regulation for other fowl. For broilers the minimum age for slaughter is 63 days due to the lack of market demand for heavier animals. Too quick growth infringes the healthy development of the sceleton and the behaviour of fowl. A sound growth of animals is an ethological requirement in organic farming.
Slaughter, stunning, general requirements - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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It is prohibited to slaughter animals without pre-stunning. There are a series of detailed rules to specify how animals are stunned and killed. Equipment must have an effective cleaning and maintenance schedule. Staff must be suitably trained and qualified. There must be adequate back-up equipment. Tenderising substances must not be used on live animals. Animals must be effectively restrained without causing injury or distress, and only immediately before stunning or killing. Animals, except poultry, must be effectively stunned before shackling and hoisting. The stunning process must render the animal unconscious without distress and maintain unconsciousness until the animal is dead. There are a series of detailed specifications for the various methods of stunning that are permitted for each different class of livestock, together with the minimum stun-to-bleed times in each case. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 42.8.)
Soil Association standards are more detailled than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards prohibit the slaughter of animals without pre-stunning. There are detailed maximum times between stunning and bleeding of animals. EU Regulation states only that the slaughtering process must be conducted so that the stress to the animals is reduced to a minimum. Soil Association standards are intended to ensure that the animal welfare problems associated with slaughtering processes are minimised. They specify a set of required conditions, along with stunning and killing methods available in UK, that should involve the least risk of distress for the animals.
Slaughter, stunning, methods - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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There are a number of permitted methods of stunning, killing and slaughtering specified for different classes of livestock. Only pigs may be stunned using carbon dioxide, and Soil Association permission is required for this. The operation of the carbon dioxide stunning system is subject to a number of specified conditions. The operation of the carbon dioxide system must be constantly monitored by a specifically trained, licensed slaughterman, and pigs must be killed by the gas and bled as soon as possible. The carbon dioxide system must include back-up equipment for use in case of failure. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 42.8.8-42.8.15 and 42.9.12-42.9.14.)
Soil Association Standards are more specific than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards require that carbon dioxide must not be used to stun any animal apart from pigs, and permission must be gained for its use with pigs. EU Regulation does not contain any prohibition or other reference to the use of carbon dioxide for stunning. Carbon dioxide stunning may cause distress to animals in the stunning process. The stunning is not instant and may cause respiratory distress. Susceptibility to distress is affected by pig breed and other variables, so the Soil Association would require to know all the relevant details to decide on any permission for use of carbon dioxide in pig slaughter.
Slaughter, veterinary inspections - SE KRAV 2006
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The results from the veterinary inspections of the animal before and after slaughter should be communicated by the farmer to KRAV (KRAV standards paragraph 5.5.8).
The results of veterinarian inspections are not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. The results of veterinarian inspection gives good evidence as to whether the animals have been treated well, been dirty etc. It is a good tool for the certification body.
Transport of livestock, before slaughter - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005 Transport should be careful and with respect: Stress, fear and pain should be avoided as much as possible. Transport may not last longer than 6 hours (Swiss animal law, Sept. 2005) Swiss Ordinance limits the duration of transport to not more than 6 hours. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify the maximum duration for transport. Transport to slaughter is a major stress for the animals, even more so if it is combined with animals from other farms. By restricting its duration to a minimal time, this stress can be reduced.
Transport of livestock, distance - Demeter Interational 2005
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Transport distances should be kept short and if possible to not more than 200 kilometres. (DI production standards, 5.9. Transport and slaughter of stock)
The DI standard is slightly more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the distances of transport, but requires that stress for the animals has to be avoided. The slaughtering of animals requires particular care and attention. One must be conscious, that all processing of meat begins with the death of a living being with a soul. Ethical and moral considerations require that animals are handled in such away from transport to slaughter, that stress, fear, thirst and pain are avoided as far as possible. Transport distances should be kept as short as possible and therefore animals should be slaughtered in the region in which they were reared.
Transport of livestock, duration - FR Nature et Progres Standards 2002
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Transport of livestock must be limited to maximum of six hours.
Nature et Progres standards limit the duration of transport of livestock to 6 hours, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not give any limit. Long transport journeys for livestock are contrary to animal welfare. Moreover, transport pollutes the environment and consumes energy. Therefore transport should be stricly limited.
Transport of livestock, general requirements - CH Bio Suisse 2005 No specific rules for transport of animals are laid down since this is ruled by the Swiss ordinance on livestock. The EU Regulation 2092/91 has specific rules for the transport of organically raised animals: transport has to be done in a gentle manner and prevent any unnecessary stress. Electroshock to move animals is prohibited. Allopathic tranquilizers are prohibited. BIO SUISSE has no requirements for the transport of animals since the Swiss ordinance for livestock already defines the restrictions.
Transport of livestock, general requirements - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Transport should be careful and with respect, stress, fear and pain should be avoided as much as possible. Duration of transport is limited to not more than 6 hours (by Swiss Governmental Ordinance).
DEMETER has to respect the Swiss Ordinance which rules, that transport may not last longer than 6 hours. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not rule the maximum duration of transport but also refers to relevant national and Community legislation in force. By shortening the time span for transport, stress and pain can be minimized.
Transport of livestock, general requirements - CZ KEZ Standards 2005
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The KEZ standards have detailed rules for animal transport. There are specified factors, which always have to be kept in mind: age, sex, behaviour of animals, environmental conditions (temperature, humidity), physiological requirements, duration of transport. It is preferable to transport carcasses rather than live animals. (KEZ Standards, Part 2, 12.1).
As EU Regulation 2092/91 (Annex I/B6.2) the KEZ makes an effort to prevent stress of transported animals; however KEZ is more detailed with regard to the prevention of it. The standard-setting body could not give a justification.
Transport of livestock, general requirements - DE Bioland 2005
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Short distances for animal transport or transporting carcsses should be preferred. The transport to the slaughter house may not exceed 200 km or 4 hours (exceptions can be admitted by BIOLAND). The animals may not be driven by means of striking instruments or electric devices. Animals must be given sufficient water before and during transport. The animals should not starved for long periods before slaughtering. Specific indications are given for transport of ruminants, pigs and poultry (i.e.: aeration of transport vehicles, milking before transport, separate transport of male and female animals, transporting in the dark) (Bioland production standards, 4.3.3 Transport and slaughter, 4.3.3.1 General; Bioland production standards, 4.3.3 Transport and slaughter, 4.3.3.2 Transport of the animals for slaughter)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 by limiting the distance and duration of transport to the slaughterhouse, and prohibiting the use of any striking instruments. Indications for certain types on animals are not given. According to the EU Regulation stress for the animals has to be avoided during transport, driving animals with electrical devices is prohibited as well as the use of allopathic traquilisers. Within the EU Regulation nothing is mentioned about the distance or duration of transport, but it is stated, that the legal provisions of the member EU states have to be complied with. In order to contribute to the well-being of the animals (the individual needs of the species have to be considered!) and avoid suffering.
Transport of livestock, general requirements - DE Naturland 2005
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Animals must be handled carefully whilst loading and during transport. Drugs and tranquillisers are prohibited. The maximum transport time should not exceed four hours and a maximum transport distance of 200 km. Transport times longer than eight hours are not permitted. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.7.Transport and slaughtering)
The provisions are similar but NATURLAND is more restrictive by recommending a limit of 200 km and 4 hours duration for animal transport. However transport of 8 hours is possible. The EU Regulation 2092/91 refers to the legal provisions of the member states but there is a EU Directive regulating the conditions of "long journey" (= more than 8 hours)transport. Reducing stress and suffering for the animals.
Transport of livestock, general requirements - IFOAM Basic Standards 2005
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Transport should be done carefully and with respect: stress, fear and pain shall be avoided as much as possible. IFOAM generally limits the transport period to a maximum of 8 hours.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 has only general rules for the transport of organically raised animals: The transport has to be done in a gentle manner and prevent any unnecessary stress. There is no maximum transport time given. Stress to animals must be minimised.
Transport of livestock, general requirements - US NOP 2002 US has no specific provisions for transport of organic animals. EU Regulation 2092/91 requires minimizingf stress during transport and loading, and prohibits the use of electrical stimulation to coerce animals as well as the use of any allopathic tranquilliser, prior to and during transport. US do not address transport of animals. No justification was available.