Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by EU regulation

  • EC Council Regulation No. 2092/91
    • Annex I. Principles of organic production and processing
      • B.Livestock and livestock products - Annex I B
        • Livestock manure - Annex I B7, see also Annex VII
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Conversion, application of biodynamic preparations - Demeter International 2005
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Manures and composts must be treated with the biodynamic preparations. A prerequisite for the certification of the farm as "In Conversion to demeter" (Biodyn) after 12 months of farming to these standards is at least one application of the spraying preparations (cow-horn manure and the horn silica), and the spreading of prepared manures on all areas of the enterprise. (DI production standards, 4. Biodynamic Preparations)
The DI standard has additional requirements than the EU Regulation 2092/91. There is no requirement about the preparation or application of the biodynamic preparations in the EU Regulation. It is stated however, that these preparations can be used for the activation of compost. The use of the biodynamic preparations in the manure and compost is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method.
Fertilization, GMO derivatives - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 It is prohibited to use any nutrient input for organic crop production that contains genetically modified organisms (GMO) or their derivatives. This includes manure produced by livestock fed or grazed on genetically modified material within the previous 3 months. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 3.6.7. Soil Association standards prohibits the use of manure produced by livestock fed or grazed on genetically modified material within the previous 3 months. EU Regulation 2092/91 has no clear restriction. The Soil Association standards aim to minimise the risk of contamination of organic crops with genetically modified plant material by prohibiting the use of any genetically modified crop nutrient inputs. Genetically modified organisms are prohibited from use in organic farming because of the unpredictable nature of the technology, and the risks to health and the environment.
Manure fertilizers, application - FI Luomuliitto Standards for "Leppäkerttu" quality label 2004 It is required that all animal manure used for growing products intended directly for human consumption must be composted. There is no such requirement in the EU Regulation No. 2092/91. Composting of the manure is regarded as important in the eyes of the consumers.
Manure fertilizers, application - US NOP 2002
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US requires composting of manure unless it is applied to land used for a crop not intended for human consumption or it is applied 90/120 days prior harvest of a product for human consumption (depending on whether the edible portion has direct contact to the soil or not)
EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that the quantity of manure applied annually may not exceed 170 kg of nitrogen/year/ha; US does not. US sets restrictions on the time between application of raw manure and the harvest of crops for human consumption; this is not addressed by EU. EU requires controlled fermentation and or appropriate dilution of slurry/urine; US sets restrictions only if applied on land used for a crop intended for human consumption. EU sets specific requirements for the capacity of manure storage facilities; US does not. EU requires consideration of the source of manure allowing manure from organic production units and regulating the amount of manure from conventional sources. EU prohibits manure from "factory farms" (but still allows from "extensive husbandry" under certain conditions). US does not address manure source. Raw manure contributes significant benefits to soil nutrient, structure, and biological activity that other soil fertility practices and materials do not provide. The responsibility to use raw manure in a manner that is protective of human health applies to all producers, whether organic or not, who apply such materials. USDA acknowledged the commenters who noted that the OFPA cites food safety concerns relative to manure use and, therefore, that food safety considerations should be reflected in the practice standard for applying raw manure in the final rule.
Manure fertilizers, export - CH Regulation 2005
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Export of manure can only occur to farms, which also comply with the maximum level of not more than 2.5 LSU/ha (Livestock units/ha). Purchase contracts for farmyard manure are only possible between holdings which provide the ecological services laid down in the Swiss Ordinance on Direct Payments of 7 December 1998 (ODP).
While the Swiss Ordinance excludes intensive stocking rates by strictly limiting manure exports from the farm, EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the manure used on the own farm to 170kgN/ha: Excessive manure can be exported to organic farms which also comply with the limit of not more than 170kgN/ha. By these means, the goal of closed circles in organic farming of self-sufficiency with fodder and nutrients can be reached.
Manure fertilizers, export - CH Swiss Ordinance 2005
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Export of manure can only occur to farms which also comply with the maximum level of not more than 2.5 LSU/ha (Livestock units/ha). Purchase contracts for farmyard manure are only possible between holdings which provide the ecological services laid down in the Swiss Ordinance on Direct Payments of 7 December 1998 (ODP).
While the Swiss Ordinance excludes intensive stocking rates by strictly limiting manure exports from the farm, EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the manure used on the own farm to 170kgN/ha. If manure is exported, the farm receiving the manure must also not exceed the limit of 170kgN/ha. The Swiss Ordinance intends to keep the stocking rate on each organic operation to an less-intensive level (not more than 2.5 LSU/ha). By these means, the goal of closed circles in organic farming, with self-sufficiency of fodder and nutrients can be reached.
Manure fertilizers, export - SI Rules 2003
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SI Rules 2003 foresee a possibility of co-operation of an organic holding with other holdings in order to spread surplus manure. Further there are no specific demands related to the storage facilities for livestock manure in SI Rules.
SI Rules state that organic-production holdings may establish co-operation with other agricultural holdings with the intention of providing areas for the use of organic fertilizers, are more specific whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 only speaks about establishing such co-operation with the intention of spreading surplus manure from organic production (EU Regulation Annex I. B 7.). SI Rules do not describe the demands related to storage facilities for livestock manure as EU regulation does in Annex I. B 7.6.-7.7. Re storage facilities: The requirements for manure storage being identical to those in EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I. B 7.6.-7.7. are in Slovenia a part of other national regulations.
Manure fertilizers, general principles - DE Bioland 2005
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The basis of fertilization is the spreading of the farms own manure to support soil life and increase the humus content. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.1 Basic Principles)
The BIOLAND standard requires own manure basis for each farm, while there is no recommendation in the EU Regulation 2092/91 to have own manure as a basis of fertilization. The aim is to ensure the recycling of organic matter on the farm and build up a sustainable system to maintain and increase soil fertility.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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The amount of nitrogen and phosphorous input per hectare is strictly limited, in general to max 2.5 LSU/ha or less depending on the crops.
Limits for the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus provided by different means of fertilisation are restricted by Bio Suisse; for different crops specific limits apply - whereas the sum of phosphorus applied by fertilisation is taken into consideration as well as nitorgen levels. The EU Regulation 2092/91 sets general limits for ferilisation intensity only for nitrogen: maximum application per yeare is 170kg nitrogen/ha. In order to avoid excessive use of fertilizers and successive contamination of the environment by leached nutrients, BIO SUISSE limits use of both nitrogen and phosphorous to effective levels required by crops.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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The amount of nutrient input must be justified by soil quality and crop requirements: evidence must be provided on the levels of nutrients used on the farm. In no case should rate of nutrient application exceed 2.5 LSU/ha.
Limits for fertilizer use are restricted not only for farmyard manure, but for the combination of all fertilizers used on the farm. Levels must not exceed the needs of the individual crops. The EU Regulation 2092/91 limits farmyard manure and commercial nutrients to a maximum of 170kg/ha, but does not differentiate individual needs of the crops. In order to avoid excessive use of fertilizers and successive contamination of the environment by leached nutrients, Swiss Ordinance limits the nutrient input to the effective levels required by the respective crops.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - CZ PRO-BIO The basis of good fertilization is using on farm manure and its proper application. Standards allow the purchase 50 kg N/ha/year. The whole total amount of organic fertilizers is 110 kg N/ha/year, and for perennial crops 90 kg N/ha/year. Pro-Bio Standards are more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91, Annex I /B 7, where the use of farmyard manure may not be higher than 170 kg N/ha/year. Closed nutrient cycling, environment protection. An effort to limit only plant production without animal husbandry at farms.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - DE Bioland 2005
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The application of fertilisers in agricultural production is restricted to 112 kg N/ha/year, being equivalent to 1,4 dung units/ha/year. A maximum of 0.5 DU/ha/year may be imported from outside the farm. Other numbers are indicated for specific production systems such as vegetable production in greenhouses (up to 330 kg nitrogen), orchards (up to 90 kg N), viticulture (150 kg N in three years but not more than 70 kg N in one year), hop cultivation (70 kg N), tree nurseries (90 kg N). In operations without animal husbandry the nitrogen supply must come from legume cropping, but the quantities needed in addition can be brought in in the form of other allowed nitrogen fertilisers. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.4 Quantity Limitation; Bioland production standards, 5 Horticulture and Permanent Crops; Bioland production standards, 5.1 Vegetable production, 5.1. Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.5. Fruit growing, 5.5.2 Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.6 Viticulture, 5.6.1 Soil Care, Greening and Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.4 Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.1 Fertilising and Soil Care
The BIOLAND standard is setting precise upper limits for nitrogen input in different cropping systems . The amount of farm yard manure allowed by the EU Regulation 2092/91 is restricted to 170 kg N/ha and year without stating a general restriction for other types of commercial fertilizers or specific production systems. Fertilising is to be designed in conformity with the location and the crops involved in such a way that the quality of the products (physiological nutritional value, taste, imperishability) may not be detrimentally affected in particular by the amount of nitrogenous fertiliser. In regard to the type, the amount and the time of application of fertiliser, care must be taken to avoid placing loads on the soil and the water (e.g. through heavy metals and nitrates).
Manure fertilizers, intensity - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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The use of fertilizers is restricted. The total amount of fertilizers applied may in general not exceed the equivalent of 1.4 du/ha/year (112 kg N and 98 kg P2O5). In accordance with the NATURLAND extension services and related to the results of soil analyses and the specific demand of the crop, more than 110 kg N/ha and year can be applied in greenhouses. For perennials (including orchards), shrubs and christmas trees the limit is 90 kg N/ha/year. In viticulture only 150 kg/N/ha in three years is allowed, while in the latter the amount of one year may not exceed 70 kg N/ha. The amount of bought in fertilizers is limited with 0.5 DU/ha and year (40 kg N). (NL standards on production: Part B.I.Plant production, 1.Humus management and fertilization; Part B.III. Market gardening 1; Part B. V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees 1; Part B. Fruit cultivation 1; Part B. Viniculture and wine production 2; Part B. Permanent tropical plantations 1.)
The NL standard is very differentiated in limiting the amount of manure which can be applied for different types of crop production. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the amount of fertilizer (animal manure) is limited to 170 kg N/ha/year without any explicit limit for the amount of commercial fertilizers bought in. Fertilization shall primarily support the accumulation of humus complexes in the soil. The amount of fertilizer is to assure the activity of the soil in the long run. Over-fertilization shaould be avoided. The organic production is directly linked to the natural conditions and production capacities of the site.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005
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Manure application rates should be at levels that do not contribute to ground and/or surface water contamination. The competent authority may establish maximum application rates for manure or stocking densities. The timing of application and application methods should not increase the potential for run-off into ponds, rivers and streams.
Whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 strictly limits the input of farmyard manure to a maximum level of 170kgN/ha, CODEX Alimentarius Guidelines does not set any limits for the level of nutrient input but leaves this up to the competent authorities. As the Codex Guidelines are a guidance for national regulations it does not make sense to set a maximum limit which would be applicable everywhere in the world.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - NL Skal Standard 2005
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At least 20% of the manure used in organic farming has to be from organic farming. SKAL has set a maximum norm of 135 kg N/ha/ year conventional farmyard manure and a total maximum of 170 kg N/ha/year, 35 kg N/ha/year has to be of organic farming origin.
With regard to the use of farmyard manure SKAL sets lower limits for manure from conventional origin, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 only mentions "Need recognized by the inspection body or inspection authority, Indication of animal species." It is important to set a norm for the maximum amount of conventional farmyard manure, since organic farmers tend to use this a lot, because of the lower price. The Regulation has not defined it specifically, stating that there is not enough organic manure at the moment. There has to be a defined way to ensure that organic manure is used first.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and export - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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The aim is to create the operation as an organism, which is a closed circle of nutrients and crop and fodder production - neither fodder nor fertilisers should be imported or exported. The operation is expected to be balanced in this regard. If at all, manure can only be exported to other organic units complying with the maximum stocking rate. For transporting manure the maximum distance of the Bio Suisse regulation is applied, which requires not more than 20-80km transport distance depending on the kind of manure.
DEMETER is striving for a balanced autonomous operation based on own fodder and fertilizer production (excessive manure does not occur in these operations). EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the farm yard manure used on the own farm to 170kg N/ha, if manure is exported this can be done to another organic unit, not exceeding the limit fo 170kg N/ha and year. The balance between farmyard manure produced on the own farm and the nutrients required by plant production is essential for a sound and sustainable organic production method. The need of manure export does not occur on DEMETER farms - the opposite is more often the case.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and import - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Imported organic farm yard manures may not exceed 50% of the quantity which is needed for the crops on farm. Commercial mineral and organic fertilizers are accepted but restricted according to their quality and origin and should undergo composting.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the import of commercial fertilizers. It only limits the application of farm yard manure to 170kgN/ha. DEMETER does limit this application to the LSU equivalent that could be fed on the farms own fodder basis. DEMETER also limits the distance for transporting farm yard manure. Own animal husbandry is an important factor in a farm organism as definied by DEMETER. The lack of own animals should not be underlined by importing manures: instead own animal husbandry should be established. Furthermore, imported fertilizers can only be applied if used in combination with composted or prepared animal fertilizers.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and import - CH Regulation 2005
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The source of brought-in manures is restricted by the positive list of admitted fertilizers in organic farming. For the export of manure of more than 1 LSU/year, a contract must exist with the farm receiving this manure. This farm must be managed according ecological principles and must not exceed adequate nutrient limits as set by the legislation.
Import of farm yard manure and compost can only occur if a contract exists with the exporting farm and nutrient needs of crops are not exceeded (evidence must be provided by calculation). EU Regulation 2092/91 also requires that farm yard manure is exported to an organic farm and all farms involved in the cooperation must comply with the nutrient limit of max 170kgN/ha. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced nor applied
Manure fertilizers, origin - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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Farm yard manure must originate from organic farms. If not available from organic farms, not more than 50% of the necessary N and P205 may origin from non-organic farms, which are managed according the integrated production standard and additional ecological requirements as defined by Swiss ordinance. However at least 50% of manure produced on the farm must be used on farm. If farm yard manure is sold to other farms, these must be certified organic farms. The distance for transporting manure and slury is restricted to 20 - 80 km depending on the kind of manure.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the export of farm yard manure to other farms as long the limit of 170kgN/ha among organic farms is respected; it only restricts the maximum stocking rate to an equivalent of 170 kg N/ha. No limits for transporting distances for manure to other farms are foreseen in the EU Regulation. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self-sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced.
Manure fertilizers, origin - CH Regulation 2005
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The source of brought-in manures is restricted by the positive list of admitted fertilizers in organic farming. For export of manure from the own operation of more than 1 LSU/year, a contract must exist with the farm receiving this manure. This farm must be managed according ecological principles and can not exceed adequate nutrient limits as set by the legislation.
Import of farm yard manure and compost can only occur if a contract exists with the exporting farm and nutrient needs of crops are not exceeded (evidence must be provided by calculation). The EU REgulation 2092/91 limits the nutrient input of farm yard manures to 170kgN/ha in general: this limit applies for the exporting farm as well as for the receiving organic farm. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced nor applied
Manure fertilizers, stocking rate - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The maximum stocking density for animals is limited to the equivalent of 1.4 animal unit/ha, which corresponds to 112 kgN/ha and 98 kg P2O5/ha. (Bioland production standards, 4.4 Animal Density and Purchase of Additional Feedstuffs, 4.4.1 General; Bioland production standards, 10.3 Calculation of Animal Stock per Hectare)
The BIOLAND standard is more restrictive. The maximum animal stocking density per ha is lower in terms of kg N/ha than that allowed by the EU Regulation 2092/91 (170 kg N/ha). However both numbers are interpreted to be equivalent of two cows by the EU Regulation as well as by the BIOLAND Association. In fact the stocking density for cattle is the same, but it is lower for laying hens (140 instead of 230 animals/ha), broilers (280 instead of 580 animals/ha) and fattening pigs (10 instead of 14 animals/ha). The animal production must be adapted to the conditions of the site (capacitiy to produce animal feed and to use animal manure on the land).
Manure fertilizers, stocking rate - DE Naturland 2005
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The maximum stocking density for a NATURLAND farm is calculated by the equivalent of 1,4 dung units (equivalent to 112 kg N/ha and 98 kg P2O5/ha). (NL standards on production, Part B.II. Livestock production and Appendix 4)
The NATURLAND standard is more restrictive. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the maximum stocking rate is an equivalent of 170 kg N/ha (approx. 2.9 du/ha). To limit the input of nitrogen.