Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by EU regulation

  • EC Council Regulation No. 2092/91
    • Annex I. Principles of organic production and processing
      • B.Livestock and livestock products - Annex I B
        • Housing and free-range conditions - Annex I B8, see also Annex VIII
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, grazing - SE KRAV 2006
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Grazing should constitute at least 50% of the dry matter for ruminants (during the grazing season). For dairy animals and bullocks a somewhat lower proportion can be allowed for shorter periods but as a minimum half or the roughage should be from grazing. Pigs and poultry should have the possibility to graze, providing both feed and opportunity for activity. Stud bulls may be kept in outdoor runs but during the grazing period they should have access to fresh grass (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.13 and 5.3.14).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require grazing for pigs or poultry. For herbivores it is required in paragraph 4.7 that rearing systems for herbivores are to be based on maximum use of pasturage. All animals, including pigs and poultry graze. For poultry though it might not be such an important part of the diet, activity it is very important. Sweden has a lot of land for grazing and it is important that these areas are used, also from a biodiversity perspective.
Animals breeding, birth - SE KRAV 2006
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Animals shall be given the opportunity to be alone during giving birth and laying eggs. Cows shall be allowed to calve alone and may only in exceptional cases be tethered. Indoor calving shall take place in a calving box. Sows shall farrow alone and farrowing may take place in a farrowing hut or if indoors in a separate space with sufficient freedom and space. There shall be enough nesting material for sows (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1, 5.2.2 and 5.2.3).
Specific conditions for cows and pigs giving birth is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Animal welfare is one of the most important areas of organic production. Conditions in some conventional systems are far from providing animals the possibility of giving birth in a more natural and undisturbed way. Therefore it is important to clearly express this in organic standards.
Common land use - NL Skal Standards 2005
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Common land in the Netherlands is defined as land owned by an organisation that manages it, according to the EU Regulation on organic farming. These organisations are Staatsbosbeheer, Natuurmonumenten Nederland en De Provinciale Landschappen. They have to approve their appropriate land keeping with a certificate. Rule Text: Annex I, part B 1.8: By way of a second derogation from this principle, animals reared in accordance with the provisions of this Regulation may be grazed on common land.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 says nothing about a certificate indicating the provisions of the regulation. Use of non-organic land should be avoided. These certificates prevent the use of chemicals etc.
Flock size, poultry - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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There are recommended maximum flock sizes for poultry, and Soil Association permission is required to keep larger houses. The Soil Association standards' recommended maximum poultry flock sizes are for a maximum of 500 chickens, ducks, or guinea fowl, or 250 turkeys or geese. Permission is required for larger units, and will depend on good health and welfare levels, good environmental conditions, and sufficient available range with vegetation within suitable distances of the housing. Beyond this, Soil Standards standards restrict the maximum poultry flock size, in any case, to 2,000 birds for laying chickens, and to 1000 birds for other classes of poultry. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 20.7.10-20.7.13.)
EU Regulation 2092/91 has higher maximum flock sizes of between 2,500 for turkeys and geese, and 5,200 for guinea fowl, and it has no smaller recommended flock sizes. The two sets of organic standards differ only in the maximum individual poultry flock (house) size, not the size of the production unit. The Soil Association standards' smaller, recommended and maximum flock sizes for poultry are to help ensure adequate health and welfare. Restricting flock sizes will limit the size of any disease or pest infestation, and will enable closer monitoring of birds' condition, Smaller flock sizes are closer to the maximum group sizes found among wild poultry, and therefore contribute to reducing stress that may be caused by social alienation among the birds.
Free range conditions, access - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005
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Codex Alimentarius in general requires free range conditions for all animals, but also accepts that animals are confined for temporarily restricted times and certain reasons.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires specific minimal sizes of free range areas as well as indoor housing areas for different animal species. Codex Alimentarius does not set figures for this area. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines is a guidance for governments. Therefore making detailed rules for indoor and outdoor areas on a world-wide level was not seen as appropriate.
Free range conditions, access - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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Interpretation of EU Regulation 2092/91 for the climate of Austria: All animals must have access to pasture or at least an open-air exercise yard on at least 180 days a year, distributed throughout the year. Cattle kept in tethering systems must have outdoor access either 180 days distributed throughout the year or, in addition to the ANI (TGI), at least once a week. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.9, 3.10.5, 3.11.3, 3.11.4, 3.12.7, 3.13.2, 3.14.3, 3.15.3)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it is a specification for orientation which has to be fulfilled. Just specification for orientation; definition of an absolutely minimum requirement under unfavourable circumstances.
Free range conditions, access - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005 Swiss ordinance Program for regular free-range of livestock must be met, which requires extended free range on pasture. While Bio Suisse follows a set minimal number of days per month for animals to be at pasture, EU Regulation 2092/91 requires access to pasture in a general manner. Furthermore access to outdoor run is also mandatory in winter time according to Bio Suisse. From an ethological point of view regular access to outdoor areas is seen as essential need for livestock.
Free range conditions, access - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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The Swiss Ordinance on animal friendly husbandry defines the rules for organic farms in detail. Minimal hours and minimal amount of days for access to outdoor runs are required, further more minimal area per animal category are defined. Also in winter time access to the outdoors must be provided.
Swiss Ordinance requires bigger outdoor areas than the EU Regulation 2092/91 does. Equine 9 + 0,7 per 100 kg (EU only 3.7m2), Sheep and goats 4 m2 (EU only 2.5m2), Bovine /example adult female: 12 m2 (EU only 4.5 m2). The Swiss Ordinance furthermore requires access to outdoor runs in winter time, whereas EU Regulation does not. In order to support behavioural needs of animals and the rank dynamic in groups, outdoor runs must be big enough. If of insufficient size animals will not use these areas on a regular basis or fights for rank order will become dangerous for the animals due to lack of space.
Free range conditions, access - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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On at least 26 days per month during vegetation period and on 13 days per month in winter time animals must have access to the outdoors and pasture.
While Swiss Ordinance rules the minimal number of days per month of access to pasture or outdoor run in detail, the EU Regulation 2092/91 leaves it to a general principle, not fixing a minimal number of days for outdoor access and not requiring outdoor access during winter time (if pasture was used in summer). From an ethological point of view regular access to the outdoor area is seen as an essential need of farm animals throughout the year.
Free range conditions, access - SI BIODAR Standards
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SI BIODAR standards require that the animals have access to free-range, open-air exercise areas or open-air runs for a minimum of 200 days/year distributed evenly throughout all the seasons (4.10.4) or at least once a week if the farm is fulfilling the animal needs index by Bartussek.
SI BIODAR standards require that animals have access to free-range, open-air exercise areas or open-air runs for a specified minimum number of days/year.the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify the minimum time (Annex I. B. 8.). The provision should ensure that the farmer provides the animals with enough outside exercise especially in the winter-time.
Free range conditions, access - SI Rules 2003
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SI Rules state that for the assessment of animals' well-being, the animal needs index by Bartussek should be used (Art. 25). SI Rules require that bulls over 1 year have access to pasture, an open-air exercise area or an open-air run and that they are separated from the rest of the herd except for the purposes of natural insemination (Art. 21)
SI Rules 2003 foresee a use of animal needs index whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Another additional requirement in SI Rules is the separation of bulls in free range areas, whereas EU Regulation does not specify this. The animal needs index by Bartussek has been used in the private standards before the national rules were published. They have proved to be an useful instrument for assessing the animal welfare conditions on individual units.
Free range conditions, access to soil, piglets - SE KRAV 2006
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Piglets should have access to soil the year around (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.24).
This is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Piglets intake required amounts of iron from the soil. This is more natural then feed minerals.
Free range conditions, access to water - DE Bioland 2005
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Water fowl have to have access at all times to running streams, ponds or lakes (only if hygienic conditions and water protection acts permit it) or to a durable water surface that is replaced regularly by fresh water. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.5. Poultry, 4.2.5.3 Poultry for fattening, 4.2.5.3.4 Water surfaces)
The BIOLAND standard is simliar to the EU Regulation 2092/91, however according to EU Regulation this requirement can be suspended with a derogation until 2010. To enable the animals to execute their natural behaviour.
Free range conditions, access, pigs - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006
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Pigs for fattening must always have access to exercise yards.
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 contain further requirements with regard to the outdoor access. Permanent and daily outdoor access is not required under EU Regulation 2092/91 (annex I B 8.3.8.). There is an exemption in annex I B 8.5.1 for buildings existing before 1999 until the year 2010. This exemption according to 8.5.1 of annex I B can not be granted. The main reason for reduction is to create high confidence by consumers. Another reason is that the permanent outdoor access is seen as better for animal health.
Free range conditions, access, poultry - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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Outdoor access areas for laying hens must be within a radius of 150 m of the poultry barn. This regulation applies to all barns built since 23 April, 2001. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.13.2)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91, which defines the amount of the area but not the shape of the outdoor access. The shape is very important for adequate use of the outdoor access. Principle of animal welfare and health; protection of the environment, commitment to consumer expectations Studies performed in different European countries have shown that laying hens mainly use the area the immediately around the hen house. Areas beyond 150m are hardly used at all. As hens do not distribute themselves evenly throughout the hen run more distant areas would mean an increase of stocking density. This would lead in the remaining part to an increase of nutrients and increase the risk of infections.
Free range conditions, access, poultry - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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DEMETER requires permanent access to out-door excercise or a "wintergarden" (covered area with outdoor climate). For poultry the plots for outdoor run must be switched periodically (for sanitary reasons).
DEMETER is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation requires permanent access to out-door exercise for poultry, at least during 1/3 or their lifetime. The requied area is 4m2 per laying hen as outdoor run ( DEMETER requires 5m2). Permanent access to an ourdoor run is considered as an essential need for farm animals. Periodic changing/switching the outdoor area reduces risks of parasites.
Free range conditions, access, poultry - DE Naturland 2005
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Outdoor areas must be accessible for laying hens at all time of the year. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.5.1 Laying hens)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The hens must have access to a (covered) outdoor climate area even in bad weather conditions. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires an outdoor area to be accessible under suitable weather conditions and for at least one third of the hens lifetime. To ensure exposure to outdoor climate even in bad weather conditions and to help the animals to become robust.
Free range conditions, access, poultry - FR Regulation 2000
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Table poultry must have free access to an open-air run for part of the day and for at least half their life. Laying hens must have access to an open-air run for the major part of the day and by no later than their 28th week.
French regulation requires that table poultry have free access to an open-air run for at least half of their life, and laying hens by no later than their 28th week, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that poultry have open-air access for at least one third of their life. Organic poultry should have as much access as possible to open-air range. Furthermore, the earlier this begins, the better poultry can cope with outdoor access.
Free range conditions, access, ruminants - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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During vegetation season all animals must have daily access to free range (pasture and or coral). During winter time exceptions for ruminants are possible: ruminants must have access to free range on at least 13 days of each month.
While DEMETER follows a set minimal number of days for animals to be at pasture, which is based on an ordinance and payment scheme of the Swiss Government for outdoor access. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires access to pasture in a general manner, and in winter time access to outdoor run is not mandatory. The minimal size for outdoor runs required by DEMETER is larger than the size defined by the EU Regulation. From a ethological point of view an almost daily but at least regular access to an outdoor area is seen as essential need for farm animals.
Free range conditions, area, cattle - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Cattle must be allowed fresh forage throughout the grazing season with a specified minimum total grazing area. Buffer feeding of grazing cattle is permitted. Soil Association standards state that cattle must be allowed fresh forage throughout the grazing season with a minimum total grazing area of 0.27 hectares per cow per season and that buffer feeding is permitted. Soil Association Organic Standards Paragraphs 11.3.3 and 11.3.4. Soil Association standards are more specific than the EU Regulation 2092/91 with regards to minimum grazing areas for cattle. EU Regulation only states that herbivores must have access to pasture whenever conditions allow and that outdoor pasture must be of sufficiently low stocking density to prevent poaching and overgrazing without giving a minimum figure for the grazing area per cow/season. The Soil Association sets a minimum grazing area for cows, taking account of UK organic grassland productivity, to help ensure the following: that soil condition and grassland habitats are conserved; that the cattle have an adequate ranging area to optimise their health and welfare; that an adequate proportion of their forage during the grazing season is grazed, not conserved; and that the risk of water pollution is minimised.
Free range conditions, general requirements - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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Interpretation of EU Regulation for the climate of Austria: All animals must have access to pasture or at least an open-air exercise yard on at least 180 days a year, distributed throughout the year. Cattle kept in tethering systems must have outside access either 180 days distributed throughout the year or, in addition to the ANI (TGI), at least once a week.
The Bio Austria General Standard specifies minimal requirements for outdoor access therefore is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Just specification for orientation; definition of an absolutely minimum requirement under unfavourable circumstances.
Free range conditions, grazing rotation, pigs - UK Soil Associaition Organic Standards 2005
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Soil Association standards recommend that pigs should be kept in rotational grazing systems, moved at least every 6 months, and not returned to the same land more than once in 4 years. There is a table, detailing the number of different age/size/group types of pig that will produce 170 kg nitrogen per year, together with a worked example of a 100-hectare farm. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 13.3.3, 13.3.4 and 13.3.5.)
Soil Association contain recommendations that pigs should be kept in rotational grazing systems, and further related guidance and recommendations, that are not in EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation does not include these recommendations and guidance items. Long intervals in the grazing rotation ofpigs helps to reduce the infectivity of pasture with parasitic worms. Soil Association standards aim to encourage best practice among organic pig producers for soil management and animal health and welfare by including this recommendation and guidance on rotational grazing systems, which are not actually required in the standards.
Free range conditions, pigs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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All pigs for mast must always have access to exercise yards.
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 have more requirements with regard to outdoor access. Permanent and daily outdoor access is not required in EU Regulation 2092/91 (annex I B 8.3.8.). There is an exemption in annex I B 8.5.1 for existing buildings before 1999 until the year 2010. This exemption according to 8.5.1 of annex I B cannot be granted. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence. Another reason is that the permanent outdoor access is considered to be better for animal health.
Free range conditions, rest periods, poultry - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Poultry runs must be left empty between batches for specified minimum periods. For laying poultry, the Soil Association standards minimum rest period is 9 months, and it is 2 months per year plus 1 year in every 3 years for table poultry. Soil Association Organic Standards, Paragraphs 20.8.4-20.8.6. Soil Association standards contain further restrictions than the UK Compendium, which sets national rules in accordance with the EU Regulation 2092/91 requirements. UK Compendium, Annex 1B, Paragraph 8.4.6 complies with the requirements of EU Regulation by specifying minimum rest periods for runs accommodating the different classes of poultry in UK. Compared to the UK Compendium, Soil Association standards specify significantly longer minimum rest periods for poultry runs between batches. Soil Association standards for minimum rest periods in poultry runs aim to break the life cycle of parasitic worms. The secondary aim is to give time for the built-up fertility of the land to be used.
Livestock housing and free range conditions - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In case of mammals the area of space available for reclining must be equal to at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have explicit requirements for reclining areas of mammals. To contribute to animal welfare.
Livestock housing and free range conditions, poultry - AT Bio Austrial General Standard 2006
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In addition to the general rules for animals there are special rules for free-range broilers about stocking density, the litter, the light, outdoor access and pasture. The total allowable number of broilers per farm is 9600. Maximum 35 animals/m2 of barn area are permissible until the end of the 4th week of age, direct and concentrated glare from the sun should be avoided. No low frequency neon lighting is to be used. In newly constructed barns, the distance to the exit/entry pop-holes may not exceed 12 m for chickens. Barn areas that are farther than 12 m from an opening to the outdoor exercise yard are not calculated as barn area. If there are more than one exit opening, each one must be at least 40 cm wide. 4 weeks are necessary for empty outdoor areas between the runs. A covered yard area right beside of the barn must be at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement and has to be spread with litter. This yard must be easily accessible for the broilers (even when there is snow on the ground) and should be protected from wind. It must be available for the animals during daytime (also in winter) without restriction – apart from temperatures below 0° C (danger of frost). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.15)
The Bio Austria General Standard is very detailed while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have such specific requirements for free-range broiler husbandry. Animal welfare and health, protection of the environment. The main reason is to fulfil consumer expectations; integrity of organic farming (husbandry).
Livestock housing, area - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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For mammals the area of space available for reclining must be equal to at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.10.1.4, 3.11.1.4, 3.12.1.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have explicit requirements for reclining areas of mammals. To contribute to animal welfare.
Livestock housing, area, cattle - DE Bioland 2005
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Cattle should be kept in housing systems that allow permanent free movement. There should be enough space so that all animals can eat or rest at the same time. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.2. Keeping cattle, 4.2.2.1.1 Non-penned cowsheds)
The BIOLAND standard is similar but more detailed. In the EU Regulation 2092/91 there is a general requirement that livestock housing must meet the livestock's biological and ethological needs and that livestock must have easy access to feeding and watering. Furthermore the stocking density in buildings shall provide for the comfort and well being of the animals. To enable natural behaviour appropriate to the species in livestock housing.
Livestock housing, area, pigs - FR Regulation 2000
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he size of pig production units is limited in all cases to 1500 slaughter pigs per year or 200 sows or their equivalent in the case of farrowing-fattening units. These maximum figures for each production unit may be exceeded where 100 % of the feed is produced on the holding.
French regulation limits the size of pig production units, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Limiting the size limits environmental pollution, noise and odour. It is a way of encouraging small farms, of human scale, socially acceptable and easier to hand down to the next generation.
Livestock housing, area, pigs - Nature et Progres Standards 2002
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The size of pig production units is limited in all cases up to 500 pigs per year. Furthermore the size of the unit must be calculated as a function of the application capacity of the soil of the farm.
Nature et Progres standards limit the size of pig production units, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. To limit the size is to limit the environmental pollution, noise and odour. It is a way of encouraging small farms of human scale, with diversified productions, socially acceptable and easier to hand down to the next generation.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005 For fattening poultry not more than 2000 animals and for laying hens not more then 600 may be reared in one stable (towards end of fattening period max 500 poultry,for turkey max. 250 animals/stable, for geese and ducks max. 250 animals /stable). The number of animals per stable, the stocking density in-house, is lower in the Bio Suisse regulation compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU defines the max number of animals per stable as 4800 poultry, 3000 laying hens, 5200 guinea fowl, etc. From an ethological point of view a lower number of animals per square meter and a lower maximum number of animals per stable is considered as more animal-friendly.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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DEMTER has to comply with the Swiss Ordinance on animal husbandry and rules the area of stable size in the same way as the latter. In the stable not more than 6 hens per m2 can be kept, additionally a wintergarden must be provided with 43m2 per 1000 animals and in addition to this there must be an outdoor area (pasture) of 5m2 per animal.
EU Regulation 2092/91 also requires no more than 6 animals/m2, but the size of wintergarden is not defined, and the size of pasture required is 4m2/animal which is less than the size required by Swiss Ordinance and therefore also by DEMETER. From an ethological point of view a lower number of animals per surface area and a lower maximum number of animals per stable is seen as more animal-friendly.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - DE Bioland 2005
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With the exception of stock sizes of less than 100 animals and mobile housing systems, an outdoor climate area of at least one third of the total minimum housing area is mandatory for fattening chicken and turkey. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.5. Poultry, 4.2.5.3 Poultry for fattening, 4.2.5.3.2. Exterior climate area)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require an outdoor climate area. According to the EU Regulation poultry must have access to an open air run whenever this is allowed by the climatic conditions, and at least during 3/4 of their lifetime. The animals must have the opportunity to execute their natural behaviour.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - FR Regulation 2000
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The total usable area of poultry houses for laying hens and table poultry of any production unit must not exceed 1,600 m2.
French regulation limits the size of the total area of poultry house for laying hens and table poultry, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only limits it for table birds. We see no reason not to apply the same rules to laying hens as to table poultry. Limiting the size limits environnemental pollution, noise and odour. It is a way of encouraging small farms, of human scale that are socially acceptable and easier to hand down to the next generation.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - FR Regulation 2000
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The area of poultry houses for table birds on each production site must not exceed 400 m2.
French regulation limits the area of poultry house for table poultry whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Limiting the size limits environmental pollution, noise and odour. It lowers the risks of sanitary problems. It is more acceptable for nearby residents.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - Nature et Progres Standards 2002
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The total usable area of poultry houses for laying hens and table poultry of any production unit must not exceed 800 m2.
Nature et Progrès standards limit the size of the total area of poultry house for laying hens and table poultry to 800 m², whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only limits it for table birds to 1600 m². Limiting the size limits environnemental pollution, noise and odour. It is a way of encouraging small farms, of human scale, with diversified productions, that are socially acceptable and easier to hand down to the next generation.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - Naturland 2005
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The maximum stocking density in aviaries is dependent on the individual housing system and must be agreed with the NATURLAND adviser. In no case should more than 12 hens/m² ground area be kept. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.5.1. laying hens)
The NATURLAND standard is more differentiated. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the stocking density is calculated on the base of the area, which is accessible to the animals, and there is no specific restriction for aviary systems. However, in the EU Regulation there is the general requirement to ensure the well-being of the animals and adapt the indoors stocking density to the situation (Annex I.B.8.8.2.) To ensure the well-being of the animals and provide detailed rules adapted to the specific production system.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association standards have a set of maximum poultry housing densities, minimum space for perching per bird, and maximum number of birds per nest for laying chickens. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 20.7.3. Soil Association standards contain further restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards specify a maximum of 6 laying hens for each nesting box, while the EU Regulation figure is 8. Soil Association standards specify separate maximum housing stocking rates for turkeys and geese of 2 birds per sq. metre in fixed housing and 3 birds per sq. metre in mobile housing, but EU Regulations apply the same figure for all classes of poultry, i.e. 10 birds per sq. metre (fixed) and 16 birds per sq. metre (mobile), which are also the maximum densities for all other classes of poultry in the Soil Association standards. The Soil Association standards' lower maximum number of laying hens per nesting box is intended to ensure an adequate level of welfare for each bird by improving access to nesting boxes. The specific housing density requirements for turkeys and geese in Soil Association standards take account of the larger size of these birds. Although both sets of standards include the same maximum weight of birds per sq. metre of housing area, the specific maximum housing densities for turkeys and geese in Soil Association standards help to ensure adequate health and welfare conditions for these larger birds.
Livestock housing, bedding material - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Straw which is used as bedding material in animal housing should preferably be grown on the farm itself or come from another organic farm. If conventional straw is used, it should not come from an intensive farming system. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.1 General, 4.2.1.3 Movement and Rest Area)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require animal bedding matieral to be of organic origin. To avoid contamination of the animal manure with residues from agrochemicals. Animals usually will eat part of the litter.
Livestock housing, bedding material - DE Naturland 2005
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Straw used for animal bedding must come from organic farms. In the case of non-availability it must be purchased from low intensity cultivation systems. (NL standards on production, Part B.1. Animal husbandry 1.)
The NATURLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require the bedding material to come from organic or low intensity sources. To avoid contamination with harmful substances. Most types of animals will eat part of the bedding material.
Livestock housing, bedding material - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Livestock bedding areas without bedding material or the use of peat as bedding are not permitted. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.12.11. Soil Association standards forbid the use of peat as bedding. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the use of "suitable bedding materials". The extraction of peat causes damage to environmentally valuable semi-natural habitats.
Livestock housing, cleaning - DE Naturland 2005
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Only the products listed in the corresponding appendix can be used for cleaning of equipment used in animal production. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.5.Shed hygiene and appendix 8)
The lists of admissible products are very similar. However on the NATURLAND list, formic acid and formaldehyde are not included. Exclusion of hazardous substances.
Livestock housing, cleaning - FR Regulation 2000
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In the case of mammals reared in uniform age groups, the housing and facilities must be entirely emptied, cleaned and disinfected after each group has been removed.
French regulation requires a period when the buildings are empty, cleaned and disinfected for all mammals reared in uniform age groups, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only requires it for poultry. Mammals reared in uniform age groups are exposed to the same sanitary risks as poultry.
Livestock housing, cleaning - UK Compendium 2005 Buildings must be cleaned and disinfected between batches of poultry. Runs must be left empty between batches for specified minimum periods. UK Compendium requires a minimum rest period for poultry runs of 2 months, and in particular, specifies a minimum rest period of 2 months per year for the runs of poultry for meat production. UK Compendium, Annex IB, Paragraph 8.4.6. The UK compendium is more precise with regard to the minimum rest period, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 leaves the precise rest period between batches for poultry runs to be decided by member states. UK Compendium follows the requirements of EU Regulation in deciding on national level on minimum rest periods for runs accommodating the different classes of poultry.
Livestock housing, darkness, poultry - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards require that both hens and chickens should have at least 8 hours a day without artificial light (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.19).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 8.4.4 also requires that laying hens shall have at least 8 hours without artificial light. However, these KRAV standards also apply to chikens. The KRAV standards cover both hens and chickens, the EU Regulation 2092/91 only covers laying hens. There are conventional systems for chicken rearing which use 24 hours of light to get the animals to eat more and as such grow faster.
Livestock housing, daylight - SE KRAV 2006
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Animals should have adequate access to daylight. The area for letting in daylight should be at least 5% of the floor area (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.18).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 8.1.1 states that the building must permit plentiful natural ventilation and light to enter, but the KRAV standards are more specific. The KRAV standards are more specific and easier to verify.
Livestock housing, flooring - DE Bioland 2005
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The main part of the area for moving and resting in animal housing for mammals must be a solid floor. Slatted floors must be in an excellent condition and the perforation must be appropriate to the size of the animals. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.1 General, 4.2.1.3 Movement and Rest Area)
The BIOLAND standard is similar but more precise. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires more than 50% of the floor to have a solid and unslatted surface, but it does not explicitly refer to any further characterisitics of the perforated elements. However, there is a general requirement that animal housing must meet the livestock's biological and ethological needs. To avoid injury to the animals and to consider the needs of every single type of animal (species, size, age?) in the construction of animal housing.
Livestock housing, flooring - FR Nature et Progres Standards 2002
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Slatted floors and grid constructions are prohibited.
Nature et Progres standards prohibit the use of slatted floors and grid constructions, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 allows a proportion of slatted floors for every species to a maximum of 50% for herbivores and to 66 % for poultry. Slatted and grid constructions are not good for animal welfare and generate highly concentrated manures, which are potentially polluting for soils and waters.
Livestock housing, flooring - FR Regulation 2000
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Slatted floors are prohibited for mammals except for cattle & pigs in upland areas. In these cases, at least three quarters of the total covered floor area must be made of solid material and cannot therefore be made up of gratings or grids.
Concerning mammals, French regulation only allows slatted and grid construction for pigs in upland areas and for cattle, and to a maximum of 25% of the floor area, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 allows it for every species to a maximum of 50%. Slatted and grid construction are not good for animal welfare. They should be strictly limited.
Livestock housing, flooring - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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The requirement that at least half of the indoor area for mammals should have solid floor, is not applicable to sheep. Lambs should have access to solid beds with a sufficient thermal qualities as defined by general Norwegian legislation.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I B paragraph 8.3.5 requires at least half of the indoor area to be solid for all mammals. The impact of the requirement in 8.3.5 would be detrimental to organic sheep production in Norway. Meanwhile animal welfare of sheep is well provided on floors that are not solid.
Livestock housing, general requirements - Demeter International 2005
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Changes to the building construction which are necessary from an animal husbandry viewpoint (e.g. access to pasture, bays for rearing groups of calves, rebuilding of fully slatted floors etc.) are to be completed within a maximum five year conversion period. (DI production standards, 5.4. Management; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 6)
The DI standard is more precise by forcing adaptions for an appropriate animal housing within a five year timeframe. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 inappropriate housing (in certain cases) can be tolerated with a derogation up to 31.12.2010. As there are only 5 years left until the end of 2010 the implementation of the rule will probably now be the same. Converting farmers must have time to adapt the given conditions of the farm to the requirements of the Demeter standards. However, in order to increase credibility of organic and biodynamic farming the necessary changes should be encouraged.
Livestock housing, general requirements - US NOP 2002
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§ 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain livestock living conditions which accommodate the health and natural behavior of animals, including: (1) Access to the outdoors (2) Access to pasture for ruminants (3) Appropriate clean, dry bedding. If the bedding is typically consumed by the animal species, it must comply with the feed requirements of § 205.237; (4) Shelter meeting the needs of animals (b) The producer of an organic livestock operation may provide temporary confinement for an animal under certain conditions
The detail of living condition standards differes between the US and the EU Regulation 2092/91. Both US and EU require outdoor access for any animals. US in addition requires pasture for ruminants, not allowing derogations, EU require pasture for herbivores 'wherever conditions allow'. EU waves outdoor access for herbivores in winter under certain conditions. EU allows tethering under specified conditions, US does not address tethering. US require bedding to meet feed requirements if is typically consumed by the animal species. EU does not address this. EU has detailed requirements for housing of poultry, US do not. EU defines minimum indoor and outdoor surface area and other characteristics of housing in the different species and types of production. No justification was available.
Livestock housing, general requirements, pigs - SE KRAV 2006
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The natural behaviour patterns of pigs should be provided for. They shall have the possibility for rooting and food searching behaviour on fallow land, forest or woodland. In the winter this should be in deep litter. Pigs should have access to a mud bath or a water bath in the summer. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1)
Annex 1, paragraph 8.3.8 states that there shall be exercise areas which must permit rooting. Different substrates can be used for that. Mud baths or water baths are not covered by EU Regulation 2092/91. The KRAV standards require that during the non frozen period pigs are out on land, in winter they can be kept in an exercise area. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows pigs to be kept in an exercise area the year around. There is a qualitative difference to root in substrate or in real soil. The pigs can also be used for uprooting leys etc. Pigs cannot sweat and need water or mud baths to regulate temperature. This is an animal welfare issue.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Housing systems for laying hens can be floor systems or aviaries with access to open air run (exceptions are possible). Detailed instructions are given about the characteristics of the area (indoors and outdoors), that can be taken into account for calculating the total area, accessible to the hens (including exterior climate area, the scratching area, open air run, covered with vegetation). In aviaries the stocking density is restricted to 12 hens/m² floor space. Details are given concerning the size of the windows, the design of the feeding and watering equipment, the handling of excrements, the perch rods, the nests, the openings. Possibility of dust bathing is mandatory. Housing systems with more than 200 hens must have an exterior climate area of a determined minimum size, which is permanently accessible to the hens. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.5.1. Laying hens, 4.2.5.1.1.-4.2.5.1.3; Bioland production standards, 9.4. Commencement of Validity and Transitional Arrangements)
The provisions of the BIOLAND standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Bioland requires a permanently accessible outdoor climate area and the limitation of the maximum stocking density in aviaries in relation to the ground area of the building. The EU Regulation does not indicate as many details concerning the housing system, but in addition to the specific indications for poultry (Annex I B, 8.4.) there is the general requirement, that housing systems must be appropriate to the species and account for the biological and ethological needs of the animals (Annex I B, 8.1., 8.2.) In order to ensure that BIOLAND certified laying hens are kept in accordance with the specific needs and natural behaviour of the species.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - SE KRAV 2006
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Hens shall have dust baths. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1).
This is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Dust bathing is one of the basic needs for hens. It is a way to get rid of parasites. All hens should have the possibility to dust bath, this is an animal welfare issue.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - UK Compendium 2005
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Conditions for poultry housing are specified, regarding their integrity, flooring, bedding, perches, pop-holes and maximum stock numbers. UK Compendium, Annex IB, Paragraph 8.4.3.
The paragraph in UK Compendium contains text not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91, as follows: "poultry houses must be structured with their own dedicated grazing, air space, ventilation, feed and water." This rule is otherwise identical to the EU Regulation. The additional UK Compendium text is designed to facilitate the inclusion of more than one poultry house in a single building. It makes it clear that each house must be completely separate from any others nearby.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - UK Soil Associaition Organic Standards 2005 In poultry houses of more than 100 birds, social grouping must be encouraged by the arrangement of feeders and drinkers, and by the use of partitions. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 20.7.2. Soil Association standards contain a requirement not included in EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards require the use of partitions and the arrangement of feeders and drinkers to encourage small social groups to be formed among birds in a large poultry house. EU Regulation does not include this requirement. Natural populations of poultry tend to form smaller social groups than exist in large poultry houses, so the provision of partitions, etc. reduces the incidence welfare problems relating to social alienation among birds in a large house.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - UK Soil Associaition Organic Standards 2005
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Soil Association poultry housing standards include minimum requirements for solid, unslatted and bedded floor areas, along with minimum areas of pop holes, drinking and feeding space, and numbers of drinkers per flock size. There are also certain stipulations regarding the types and maintenance of poultry bedding. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 20.7.4-20.7.7.)
Soil Association standards are more comprehensive than EU Regulation 2092/91. The Soil Association standards minimum requirements for solid, unslatted and bedded floor areas are set at 50%, but EU Regulation requires a minimum one third of floor area of these descriptions. Soil Association standards require minimum space per bird for various types of drinker and feeder, but the EU Regulation does not include such requirements. The Soil Association standards require the bedding to be topped up regularly, and kept dry and friable, whereas EU Regulation requires enough of the floor space to be available for removal of bird droppings. Soil Association standards are intended to ensure an adequate level of health and welfare for the birds by requiring a larger proportion of the housing floor area to be unslatted and bedded, with minimum feeding and drinking spaces per bird. The requirement for topping up bedding rather than for removing droppings reveals a difference of emphasis between the two sets of standards, in which the Soil Association focuses more on providing sufficient resources for the birds to enable their normal behaviours.
Livestock housing, grazing period - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards have specific standards on when animals can be kept inside even if the general provision is that animals should be outside whenever it is possible to keep them outside. Animals can be kept indoors in case of mating, insemination, giving birth, illness, insect attacks, and extreme weather conditions or before slaughter. Calves may be kept inside during the period of milk feeding. Sows may be kept indoors for maximum a month for mating/insemination, if kept inside for more then a week they shall have access to an outdoor run. Bulls are not allowed to keep inside if they are not going to be sent for slaughter in the near future. The producer shall document all animals kept indoors. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.4).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify when and for how long animals can be kept inside during the grazing period. In Annex 1 paragraph 8.3.1 states that mammals shall be outside whenever the physiological condition of the animal, the weather conditions and the state of the ground permit. In paragraph 8.3.4 it is a derogation to keep cattle, pigs and sheep for meat production inside during the final fattening stage, which can be maximum one fifth of the lifetime and not over three months. KRAV have more specific standards on when and how animals can be kept inside during the grazing period, the EU Regulation is much more general. From experience it is known there is always a risk that some animals are kept inside for too long time. KRAV standards disallow keeping animals inside during the final fattening stage. It is so important that animals are outside in the summer that this is seen as more important, it should also be possible to manage the animals outside even if coming closer to slaughter.
Livestock housing, nesting material, poultry - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The nests of laying hens must be provided with formable natural materials. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.13, 1.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is very detailed, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not say anything about the material of nests. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal integrity. Behavioural priorities of laying hens, littered nests are preferred by laying hens. Litter satisfies behavioural requirements of laying hens by allowing moulding and other behaviours performed during egg laying.
Livestock housing, perches, poultry - NL Skal Standard 2005
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SKAL has made norms for the size, material and position of the perches for poultry. SKAL's interpretation of perches is as follows: the material has to be wood, metal, or plastic. It has to be at least 30 mm² thick and 50% has to be above ground level.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 only defines the number of hens per perch/ m² and is more general (referring in Annex I part B 8.1.1, 8.2.2, 8.4.3): "they must have perches of a size and number commensurate with the size of the group and of the birds as laid down in Annex VIII" All animals need enough space and outdoor areas for natural behaviour.
Livestock housing, rearing, calves - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Calves should stay with their mothers at least for the first day of their life. After 7 days or for the latest after 5 weeks they must be kept in groups. Cattle of less than one year must not be tethered. (Bioland production standard, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.2 Keeping cattle, 4.2.2.3 Calves)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require calves to stay with their mothers, but the keeping of calves older than 10 days in single boxes is not allowed. Tethering of calves is not explicitly prohibited under the EU Regulation. To enable natural behaviour appropriate to the species in livestock housing.
Livestock housing, rearing, calves - DE Naturland 2005
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Calves should be allowed to suckle from the mother cow and must not be kept tied up or in single boxes. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.2.3 Calves)
The NATURLAND standard contais further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not recommend the suckling of the calf and the keeping of calves in single boxes is prohibited only for calves older than 10 days. To enable the performance of natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock housing, rearing, fattening - NO Governmnetal Regulation 2005
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Indoor fattening is only allowed for slaughter pigs, not for cattle and sheep.
The derogation Annex I B, paragraph 8.3.4 of the EU Regulation 2092/91 is only applicable to slaughter pigs. The Norwegion Governmental regulation does not allow indoor fattening for cattle and sheep as the EU Regulation does. Indoor fattening should be restricted for animal welfare considerations. There is no tradition for indoor fattening of cattle and sheep in Norway.
Livestock housing, rearing, pigs - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association standards include a number of specific requirements and conditions regarding the servicing, farrowing and weaning of pigs. Pig service pens have to be of at least 10.5 sq. metres per head. It is recommended to settle sows into farrowing accommodation well in advance of farrowing, to use farrowing arcs of area approx. 2.5m x 2m, and to use straw bedding. It is prohibited to use farrowing crates and to deny food or water to drying off sows. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 13.6.2 and 13.6.4. Soil Association standards are more specific than the EU Regulation 2092/91 to ensure adequate welfare for organic pigs. EU Regulation requires compliance with directive 91/630/EEC, which permits the use of farrowing crates, which is prohibited by SA standards. Farrowing crates are prohibited because they impose confinement that restricts movement and prevents natural behaviour tendencies.
Livestock housing, rearing, poultry - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In order to avoid problems regarding the behavioural development during acclimatization to the hen house, pullets must be reared at low stocking densities with perches and access to an open range. The rearing system should be as similar as possible to the system used during egg laying. Bio Austria sets special provisions regarding stocking density, structuring of the house and outdoor access to covered outdoor areas (covered yard or wintergardens) and to grassland. Because these rules for pullet rearing are part of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus they are valid for all organic farms in Austria, not only for Bio Austria farms. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.14)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation does not have special rules for pullet rearing. Therefore it is permisable to use conventional pullets if none are available of organic origin. Since 1.1.2006 in the EU conventional producers of pullets for organic farming have to fulfil the requirements of section 4 (feed) and section 5 (disease prevention and veterinary treatment) but not other requirements, especially for husbandry management, housing and free range areas. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal and ecological/organic integrity
Livestock housing, rearing, poultry - DE Bioland 2005
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The specific instructions for housing systems used for pullet rearing are concerning the maximum stocking density in relation to the stage of development of the animals (age / weight), the size of the scratching area, the characteristics of perching facilities and size of openings. Daylight is mandatory as well as a permanent accessible outdoor climate area for stocks of more than 200 animals or if the open air run covered with vegetation is less than 2.5m²/animal. If possible 1 cock shall be kept together with 100 hens. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.5 Poultry, 4.2.5.2. Young hens 4.2.5.2.1 - 4.2.5.2.3; Bioland production standards, 4.3 Dealing with animals, 4.3.2 Measures in the business)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not indicate specific instructions for rearing pullets at the moment. Consequently the general instructions concerning poultry housing apply. Specific rules are currently under development. In order to ensure the system to meet the specific needs of the animals, it must be adapted and appropriate to the animals stage of development. Consequently specific indications are needed. Chickens must have the opportunity to practice, at an early stage of development, the elements of natural behaviour in order to learn it. Disturbances in the behaviour of laying hens, which can lead to severe problems, should be avoided. Robustness and a natural immunisation against microorganisms present on the farm should be supported by providing outdoor access at an early stage of development.
Livestock housing, rearing, poultry - Naturland 2005
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Specific rules are described for pullet rearing, concerning the adaptation of the indoors stocking density in relation to the age / weight of the animals, the scratching area, illumination, perches and outdoor area. A dust bath is mandatory for pullets from the first week of life. A roofed outdoor area must be accessible from the tenth week of life. The contamination of the free range area with parasites or nutrients must be avoided. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.5.3.Pullets).
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not indicate specific instructions for rearing pullets at the moment. Consequently the general instructions concerning poultry housing apply. Specific rules are currently under development. To provide rules for any significant type of agricultural / food production.
Livestock housing, rest periods - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Between batches of poultry, houses must be cleaned and disinfected, and must be left empty for long enough to break the life cycle of pests. Soil Association Organic Standards, Paragraph 20.7.6. Soil Association standards are more precise than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards specify that the period that poultry houses are left empty between batches must be long enough to break the life cycle of pests. Although EU Regulation requires that poultry houses must be left empty, cleaned and disinfected between batches, it includes no time specification for the period that the houses must be left empty. Leaving the poultry houses empty for long enough to break the lifecycle of pests will mean that there are no established populations of pests to infest the following batch of poultry. This will reduce health and welfare problems for successive batches of poultry.
Livestock housing, rest periods, poultry - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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Poultry runs should have a rest period of a minimum 3 months between batches of poultry (ref. Annex IB, Paragraph 8.4.6)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 leaves the precise rest period for poultry runs between batches of poultry to be decided by member states, in Norway this is 3 months. The European Regulation leaves the precise rest period between batches for organic poultry runs to be decided by member states.
Livestock housing, ventilation - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 Efficient ventilation of livestock buildings must meet the following limits of maximum acceptable harmful gasses concentration: NH3 0.001% H2S 0.001% CO2 0.2% Air humidity should be kept at the level of 60-75% and air movement inside buildings to 0.3m/s (during summer hot months up to 1.0m/s). (4.8.7) The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify such limits. Animal welfare standards must be measurable, otherwise effective control is not possible.
Livestock housing, zero grazing - UK Soil Association 2005 Zero grazing systems are not permitted for cattle. (Zero grazing means feeding freshly cut forage to housed animals). Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 11.3.5. Soil Association standards are more precise than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association Standards prohibit zero grazing for cattle. Zero grazing is not specifically prohibited in the EU Regulation, but it states, "Herbivores must have access to pasturage whenever conditions allow." The Soil Association rule is a clear prohibition while the EU Regulation is not. The Soil Association rule aims to be clear and unambiguous in prohibiting zero grazing systems. Although the EU Regulation may imply such a prohibition, it could be open to other interpretations in certain situations. The prohibition of zero grazing systems encourages producers to maximise cattle's access to pasture.
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter3.10.3) BA-Rules 2006: The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions: Only appliances with a delivery of max 0.3 joule per impulse may be used. Cow trainers may not be in operation for more than 2 days a week. The cow trainer must be installed along the length of and parallel to the trough. The distance between withers and cow trainer must not be less than 5 cm, meaning that only devices that are adjustable for each individual animal may be used. Cow trainers may only be used for cows (beginning of the first lactation period). The cow trainer must be raised to its maximal height before calving and until 5 days after calving. This is also indicated for several days before the animal comes in heat.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as in the EU Regulation 2092/91 cow trainers are not mentioned. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal integrity and livelihood - equity principle; old systems of barn do not function without a cow trainer (fouling, dirtiness and hygiene).
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - Demeter International 2005
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The use of electrical cow trainers is not allowed. (DI production standards, 5.4.1. Cattle management)
The DI standard is more detailed, the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly prohibit the use of electrical cow trainers. To enable the natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock management, tethering - FR Regulation 2000
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Tethering of cattle is possible during winter time in buildings which already existed before 24 August 2000, until 31st December 2010 and in small farms, provided that regular exercise is provided and rearing takes place in line with animal welfare requirements with comfortably littered areas as well as individual management.
The French regulation limits the tethering of cattle to the winter season, whereas in the EU Regulation 2092/91 this is not specified. There is no reason to tether cattle indoors when weather conditions allow them to go out.