Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by EU regulation

  • EC Council Regulation No. 2092/91
    • Annex I. Principles of organic production and processing
      • Care of environment - not in EC Reg
        • Soil and water conservation
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Biodiversity, landscape - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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There are specific recommendations and requirements for managing semi-natural habitats, trees, woodland, farm buildings and water resources. Soil Association Standards include detailed management recommendations and requirements, in separate sections, for semi-natural habitats, trees and woodland, farm buildings, and water resources. For each of these categories, the standards explain the main issues, including the wildlife and other conservation benefits, the recommendations for best practice management, and the basic requirements that producers must adhere to. The exception to this is for water resources, for which there are basic requirements but no recommendations. Soil Association Certification Limited is currently proposing a more detailed set of new recommendations and requirements for management of watercourses, water resources, soil and ground water, surface water, storage and abstraction, and irrigation. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.5.18-4.5.31.)
Soil Association standards contain detailed recommendations and requirements not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation includes no specifically relevant requirements or recommendations. Semi-natural habitats, trees and woodland, farm buildings, and water resources are all important for wildlife and conservation management.
Conservation, soil and water - CZ KEZ Standards
KEZ Standards define principles of environmental friendly farming in relation to the soil and water resources.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not deal with irrigation, salination of soils, rainwater recycling, monitoring of water consumption or stubble burning of vegetation. These paragraphs are completely in accordance with principles of environmental friendly management.
Conservation, soil and water - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 Farmers should undertake activities to protect soils from degradation, e.g. compaction and erosion (including 'green fields' approach). They should minimise water use in production processes. (1.3.1. ? 1.3.3.) The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover the areas of water conservation and compaction of soils, while PL Ekoland has a paragraph on this topic. Soil and water are limited resources of vital importance to farming and the whole society and thus must be carefully used and protected.
Conservation, soil, water and air - DE Bioland 2005
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Water resources are not to be used excessively. It is not permissible to burn used plastic (e.g. foils and fleeces) in the fields. (Bioland production standards, 3.9 Air, Soil and Water Protection)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate the use of water resources and the burning of plastic while BIOLAND standards contain restrictions in these areas. In order to protect the natural resources and avoid negative impacts on the environment.
Conservation, water - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
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Operators should not deplete nor excessively exploit water resources, and should seek to preserve water quality. They should, where possible, recycle rainwater and monitor water extraction. (2.2.6)
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not address the matter of water depletion. Water is one of the most restricted common goods. Organic agriculture should use it in a sound manner to grant availablity for future generations.
Conservation, water, manure application - PL Ekoland 2005 The use of water should be minimised. Water should be protected from contamination. Careful storage of manures and application are one of the main priorities. The following minimum manure storage facilities are required: - minimum capacity for farm yard manure storage is 3m2 per Livestock Unit (not valid for farm with deep litter stables) - minimum capacity for liquid manure storage is 2m3 per Livestock Unit (not valid for farm with deep litter stables) - the maximum dose of manure must not exceed: 35 t of FYM per ha, 40 t of compost per ha, 30m3 of liquid manures per ha. The total dose of N applied on a farm must not exceed 170 kg per ha per year. - a derogation for the first two principles is available for farms in a difficult financial situation. This derogation expires on 25 October 2008 (1.3.4. ? 1.3.6.) The EU Regulation 2092/91 sets a limit for maximum N input only for farmyard manure (170 kg N/ha/year) and does not specify detailed storage rules and fertiliser doses for other commercial fertilisers. Water is a limited resource of vital importance to farming and the whole society and thus must be protected from contamination.
Contamination, testing, spraying equipment - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
Organic farms must have their spraying equipment tested every 4 years.
Whereas the Swiss Ordinance requires spraytests, EU Regulation 2092/91 does not rule this point of concern. As good agricultural practise also in organic farming all spraying equipment must work perfectly in order to avoid non adequate application of agricultural substances.
Fertilization, substrates, heavy metals - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Best practice recommendations are explained regarding heavy metal in soil. Maximum permitted levels of heavy metals are specified for topsoil and manure. Soil Association standards explain that soil heavy metal concentrations need to be maintained at healthy levels and that nutrient inputs should not increase concentrations above acceptable levels. This is followed by a table specifying the maximum permitted levels of heavy metals (in total dry matter) for soils and manures. These include zinc, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.9.2.)
Soil Association standards contain recommendations and restrictions on heavy metal levels for topsoil and manure, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only mentions heavy metal levels for household wastes and phosphate fertilizers. High levels of heavy metals in soil can be toxic to crop plants, and can be taken up by crops and cause health problems to people. High levels of heavy metals in manures can lead to accumulation in the soil to which they are applied. This could lead to longer-term problems for crop yields and safety. Soil Association restrictions on heavy metal in soils and manures are intended to minimise these associated risks.
Land management, nutrients, leaching - SE KRAV 2006
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To prevent leaking of nutrients into water a permanent, unfertilized, overgrown buffer zone of 3 metres should be left beside watercourses, wetlands and lakes that are water-bearing the year round. In winter a cover of vegetation is encouraged. Catch crops should be grown when possible. Animal manure should be handled so that nutrient losses are minimised (KRAV-standards paragraph 3.1.9 and 4.1.4).
Prevention of leakage of nutrients is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91 except that the use of input should not result in contamination of the environment (article 7). The leakage of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus is one of the biggest environmental problems in agriculture in Sweden.
Manure fertilizers, application - FI Luomuliitto Standards for "Leppäkerttu" quality label 2004 It is required that all animal manure used for growing products intended directly for human consumption must be composted. There is no such requirement in the EU Regulation No. 2092/91. Composting of the manure is regarded as important in the eyes of the consumers.
Plant protection, copper - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The annual amount of copper for plant protection is more restricted then in annex II B of EEC-regulation 2092/91. Per year are allowed 2 kg/ha, to fruits 2,5 kg/ha, to vineyard 3 kg/ha and to hope 4 kg/ha. (BA-Rules chapter 2.1.5, 2.3.3, 4.1.7, 4.3.8, 4.4.3, 4.4.7)
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006, but no restrictions are made in terms of different crops. Bio Austria General Standard restricts the amount of copper per ha in relation to different crops (2-4 kg/ha). The Bio Austria General Standard restricts copper application between 2-4 kg per ha in relation to different crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006. No restrictions are made in terms of different crops.
Soil management, irrigation - CZ PRO-BIO Standards 2004 Irrigation should not endanger water resources or the soil. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not deal with irrigation. Strong consideration of environmental impacts is a principle of organic production.
Soil management, salination - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
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Relevant measures should be taken to prevent or remedy soil and water salination.(2.2.5)
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not address the problem of salination, while IFOAM requires measures to prevent salination. Water salination is a irreversible damage to a common resource and therefore does not correspond with the general principles of organic agriculture.