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Custom php script - Organic Rules and Certification
Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by EU regulation

  • EC Council Regulation No. 2092/91
    • Annex II. Permitted substances for the production of organic foods
      • Substances for plants and plant production - Annex 2
        • Fertilizers and soil conditioners - Annex II A
Go back to overview Go to complete documents for this section
Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Fertilization, biodynamic prepaparations - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Specific bio-dynamic preparations enhance soil fertility and the health of crops. These preparations are defined as field sprays (cow-horn manure, horn silica) and compost preparations (camomile, oak bark, dandelion, yarrow, stinging nettle, valerian). The full effect can only be expected when all the preparations (compost and spray preparations) are used in composted manures and as crop sprays at least once throughout the year.
Specific bio-dynamic preparations help to regulate cosmic and earth-bound forces. They soil fertility and contribute to improve the nutritional quality of the crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 gives standards for fertilization requirements but does not extend the definition of fertility to aspects of superior life forces. Bio-dynamic farming includes the aspect of earthbound and cosmic forces, which can be regulated with the support of specific bio-dynamic preparations. Only the combination of manuring and application of bio-dynamic field sprays would lead to increased fertility of soil and to a (holistic) nutrional quality of the crops.
Fertilization, general requirements - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Composted farm yard manure (preferably from own animal husbandry) with specific bio-dynamic preparations (plant extract additives) enhances soil fertility and the soil quality. Farms should have their own animal husbandry. Only in exceptional cases fare arms without animal husbandry accepted (e.g. fruit orchards, horticulture).
Manure applied should preferably originate from own animal husbandry and must be composted with specific bio-dynamic preparates. An exception from the DEMETER certification is required if no animals are reared on the farm. The EU Regulation 2092/91 makes no preferences for the origin of the nutrients applied, but only requires that farm yard manure has to be from extensive husbandry. Enlivening the soil and the maintenance and development of soil fertility are basic objectives of the bio-dynamic method. The greatest influence in this regard (besides sound soil tillage and crop rotation) is the careful use of composted and prepared manures from ruminants, in particular from cows.
Fertilization, substrates, heavy metals - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Best practice recommendations are explained regarding heavy metal in soil. Maximum permitted levels of heavy metals are specified for topsoil and manure. Soil Association standards explain that soil heavy metal concentrations need to be maintained at healthy levels and that nutrient inputs should not increase concentrations above acceptable levels. This is followed by a table specifying the maximum permitted levels of heavy metals (in total dry matter) for soils and manures. These include zinc, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.9.2.)
Soil Association standards contain recommendations and restrictions on heavy metal levels for topsoil and manure, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only mentions heavy metal levels for household wastes and phosphate fertilizers. High levels of heavy metals in soil can be toxic to crop plants, and can be taken up by crops and cause health problems to people. High levels of heavy metals in manures can lead to accumulation in the soil to which they are applied. This could lead to longer-term problems for crop yields and safety. Soil Association restrictions on heavy metal in soils and manures are intended to minimise these associated risks.
Fertilizers, admitted - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In principle slurry from biogas production has to come from substances of organic farming. A deviation is possible for production units where the approval for building was given before 31.12.2004. The general restrictions for the use of products of annex II are valid (3, 4 and 5). The deviation is valid until the end of 2010, if there are substrates used which are for sure delivered by the Bio Austria farm to the biogas co-production. Substrates of conventional farming may only enter a biogas co-production, if they are allowed according to the restricted Bio Austria list of bought fertilisers (see “restrictions in the positive list of fertiliser input”).
The Bio Austria General Standard restricts the use of slurry and biogas; only slurry and biogas gained from fermented substances of organic farming can be used, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows all products as basis for fermentation. The main reason is to create high consumer confidence.
Fertilizers, origin - DE Bioland 2005
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The commercial fertilizers and manures bought in from other farms and listed under 10.1. may be used in addition to the farms own fertilizing programme. Manures from conventional farms, free from polluting substances, must be composted before use. Liquid and semi-liquid conventional manure, conventional manure from pig and poultry farming, meal from blood and bones, sewage sludge as well as synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and highly soluble phosphates (among others) are prohibited. Composted household wastes from community collection and peat substitutes require approval by BIOLAND. The use of liquid and fresh manure in herb cultivation is restricted. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.2 Permissible External Fertilizers; Bioland production standards, 3.5.3 Non-permissible Fertilizers; Bioland production standards, 3.5.6 Sewage Sludge and Compost; Bioland production standards, 5 Horticulture and Permanent Crops; Bioland production standards, 5.2.4 Fertilizing Bioland production standards, 10 Appendix)
The BIOLAND has less products on the list of allowed fertilisers in the Annex than the corresponding annex of the EU Regulation 2092/91, and conventional manures must be composted before use. Manures from conventional farms, free from polluting substances must be composted before use. Liquid and semi-liquid conventional manure, conventional manure from pig and poultry farming, meal from blood and bones, sewage sludge as well as synthetic nitrogen fertilisers and highly soluble phosphates (among others) are prohibited. To avoid contamination with harmful substances and to strengthen the farms own fertilising programme. Fertilizing is to be designed in conformity with the location and the crops involved in such a way that the quality of the products (physiological nutritional value, taste, imperishability) may not be detrimentally affected in particular by the amount of nitrogenous fertiliser. In regard to the type, the amount and the time of applying fertilizer, care must be taken to avoid placing loads on the soil and the water (e.g. through heavy metals and nitrates) (Bioland production standards, 3.5.5 Production of Quality and Environmental Compatibility) The objective of fertilisation is to achieve harmonic nutrition of the plants by means of a soil full of life. Organic material from the business itself forms the basis of fertilization. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.1 Basic Principles)
Fertilizers, origin - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Soil Association permission is required to use non-organic animal manure or plant waste, which must be used only as a complement to the soil fertility management. Permission will be granted only if information is provided about the material and why it is needed. The types of non-organic agricultural and food by-products that may be used are subject to detailed, specified restrictions, regarding the stocking densities and husbandry systems, as well as the stacking or composting of the material. These include straw, farmyard manure, stable manure, poultry manure (from certain production systems with specified maximum stocking densities for each), straw-based pig manure, food processing by-products, plant wastes and by-products, as well as non-organic slurry, mushroom composts and worm composts from the systems specified. Dirty water from non-organic systems may be applied to in-conversion land. In addition, the Soil Association standards specify that non-organic slurry must have been aerated, pig and poultry manure must have been properly composted, stacked for 12 months, or stacked for 6 months and turned twice, and other non-organic livestock manure and plant waste must have been stacked for half the above-mentioned times or properly composted. Soil Association may request a soil or manure analysis to check the heavy metal levels. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.7.5-4.7.7 and 4.7.17.)
Soil Association standards specify that only certain types of manure and plant wastes from non-organic production or processing systems may be permitted to complement soil fertility management. EU Regulation 2092/91 specifies "need recognised by the inspection body". The Soil Association standards aim to avoid providing an organic farming demand for manure products of livestock systems where the animal welfare is compromised by lack of bedding, or by excessive stocking densities or movement restrictions. Soil Association standards try to avoid potential organic consumer health problems by requiring composting or stacking time for the degradation of residues of prohibited inputs or veterinary medicines before application of non-organic manure and plant wastes to organic crops. Consumer health and long-term soil fertility concerns are the reasons why analysis may be required for heavy metal levels.
Fertilizers, restrictions - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The following fertilisers are not allowed by Bio Austria: blood meal, hoof meal, bone meal, fish meal, meat meal, feather and 'chiquette' meal the by-product of starch-production from conventional potatoes (Kartoffelrestfruchtwasser). the special basic slag 'Thomas phosphate'. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.3, 2.1.5)
The Bio Austria General Standard contains further restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it does not just limit the total amount of organic manures of conventional farms to be brought in. It also does not allow to use some products which are listed in the EU Regulation 2092/91 annex II A. Products or by-products were restricted during the BSE crisis. This restrictions were prolonged (not absolutely necessary). (principle of care/precaution). The by-product of starch-production from potatoes is readily soluble almost like readily soluble conventional fertilizers. The taste of this product (Kartoffelrestfruchtwasser) is not desired too. The special basic slag Thomas phosphate is a by-product of steel. For the production resources of recycling of old metal inclusive nickel and chromium are used. Therefore the residues of these heavy metals in the fertilizer can be high.
Fertilizers, substrates - CH Demeter Standards 2005 Fertility should be enhanced by own farmyard manure. If not available only a limited amount of bought in manure is allowed according to DEMETER standards and it should be of bio-dynamic or organic origin. DEMETER standards provide a shorter list of admitted fertilizers. Guano is not allowed according DEMETER standards nor are animal corps preparates (except horn). The distance for the transport of farmyard manure is restricted. Peat can only be used for seedling production and only to a very limited ratio. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows a broader range of fertilizers. There are ecological reasons to exclued Guano, to restrict the use of peat and to limit the transport of farmyard manure.
Fertilizers, substrates - DE Naturland Standards 2005 The substances that can be used as fertilizers on NATURLAND farms are regulated by a positive list in the appendix 1 and by certain restrictions mentioned in the corresponding chapter (B I). Explicitly excluded from use are synthetic chemical nitrogen fertilizers, Chile saltpeter and urea, composted waste (other than green compost), faecal and sewage sludge, liquid and semi-liquid manure from conventional origin as well as conventional chicken manure. Conventional manure as well as any semi-liquid manure must be treated before application. Environmental pollution must be avoided. Mineral and trace element fertilizers that are not easily soluble (see appendix 1. 1.5) can be used after consulting an adviser and is related to the results of soil analyses, deficiency symptoms of the crop and the nutrient balance of the whole farm. Bought in fertilizers and soil conditioners can be applied if listed in the corresponding appendix 1 and the indicated conditions of use are complied with. (NL standards on production: Part B.I.Plant production, 1.Humus management and fertilization; Appendix 1.) The NATURLAND standard is similar but in some cases has additional restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91: conventional chicken manure, conventional liquid or semi-liquid manure, bone and blood meal as well as composted community household wastes are not allowed to be used. Fertilization shall primarily support the accumulation of humus complexes in the soil. As a consequence, highly concentrated and easily soluble nitrogen fertilisers are not acceptable. The risk of contamination with objectionable substances from conventional animal farming, community wastes etc. must be reduced.
Fertilizers, substrates, animal by-products - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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With prior Soil Association permission, a number of soil nutrient supplements are permitted for use to treat severe deficiencies. Among these, animal by-products are subject to particular restrictions. Soil Association standards permit the use of meat, blood, bone, hoof and horn meals, with prior permission, only in compost for use in plant propagation and not on units where there are cattle or sheep. Wool shoddy may be used, with prior permission, only if not in direct contact with the crop. Fish meals and fish emulsions may be used, with prior permission, if they do not contain prohibited substances and only in protected cropping, propagating composts or perennial crops. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.8.10.)
Soil Association standards restrict the use of animal by products. EU Regulation 2092/91 generally permits animal by-products (such as meat, blood, bone, hoof and horn meals, wool shoddy, fish products) for use where the need is recognised by the inspection body. Soil Association standards are particularly cautious regarding the use of animal by-products as soil nutrient supplements partly due to the risk of contamination of crops with agents or vectors of infectious disease, such as BSE infected prions on pasture. "Intense exploitation of fish stocks to produce fish meal has major implications for the integrity of marine ecosystems." (Little and Edwards, 2003). Regular use of fish products for crop nutrition would not be compatible with organic ecological principles. Reference: Little, D.C. and Edwards, P. (2003) Integrated livestock - fish farming systems. URL: >
Fertilizers, substrates, guano - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 It is prohibited to fertilize the soil with fresh blood, guano, Chilean nitrate, urea, or slaked lime or quicklime. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.8.12. Soil Association standards have further restrictions than EU Regulation 2092/91, where for example guano is permitted as fertiliser where the need is recognised by the inspection body. It is prohibited by the Soil Association standards. Guano extraction is unsustainable on a large scale because of habitat damage and limited reserves. Historically, guano was used as a major nitrate source, but nitrogen fixed from the atmosphere should be the main source of nitrate in organic farming.
Fertilizers, substrates, maerl - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association permission is required to use seaweed sources for soil nutrient supplementation, but maerl from Lithothamnium corallioides, Lithothamnium glaciale or Phymatolithon calcareum are prohibited. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.8.5. Soil Association standards prohibit the use of maerl from Lithothamnium corallioides, Lithothamnium glaciale or Phymatolithon calcareum. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include this prohibition, but it allows seaweed products, where the need is recognised by the inspection body, and maerl with no restriction. The seaweed species named as prohibited inputs in the Soil Association standards are endangered species, and the maerl extraction contributes to the threat of their extinction.
Manure fertilizers and compost - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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Farmyard manure and compost should be derived from own organic operation or from other extensive farms.
In general the list of fertilizers is comparable with the EU Regulation 2092/91. Some fertilizers of the EU list are restricted in the positive list of the Swiss Ordinance (e.g. guano) No justification was available.
Manure fertilizers, application - FR Nature et Progres Standards 2002
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Farmers have to compost animal manure for three months before using it as fertilizer.
Nature et Progres standards requires the composting of manure whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Using animal manure without composting may result in high levels of nitrogen on the fields that can pollute water stocks or create disorders in plants' growth. Using manure without composting may also contaminate fields with germs and parasites.
Manure fertilizers, application - US NOP 2002
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US requires composting of manure unless it is applied to land used for a crop not intended for human consumption or it is applied 90/120 days prior harvest of a product for human consumption (depending on whether the edible portion has direct contact to the soil or not)
EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that the quantity of manure applied annually may not exceed 170 kg of nitrogen/year/ha; US does not. US sets restrictions on the time between application of raw manure and the harvest of crops for human consumption; this is not addressed by EU. EU requires controlled fermentation and or appropriate dilution of slurry/urine; US sets restrictions only if applied on land used for a crop intended for human consumption. EU sets specific requirements for the capacity of manure storage facilities; US does not. EU requires consideration of the source of manure allowing manure from organic production units and regulating the amount of manure from conventional sources. EU prohibits manure from "factory farms" (but still allows from "extensive husbandry" under certain conditions). US does not address manure source. Raw manure contributes significant benefits to soil nutrient, structure, and biological activity that other soil fertility practices and materials do not provide. The responsibility to use raw manure in a manner that is protective of human health applies to all producers, whether organic or not, who apply such materials. USDA acknowledged the commenters who noted that the OFPA cites food safety concerns relative to manure use and, therefore, that food safety considerations should be reflected in the practice standard for applying raw manure in the final rule.
Manure fertilizers, application, vegetables and herbs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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Farmyard manure as fertilizers may not be applied as top fertilization to plants cultivated as vegetables being used as blossom or leaves or herbs between cultivation and harvest. Only for herbs compost from farmyard manure is allowed during vegetation.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it requires in addition to the limit of 170 kg N/ha a restriction for fertilization with farmyard manure to vegetables during the vegetation period. Quality and hygienic reasons for consumer protection.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and import - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Imported organic farm yard manures may not exceed 50% of the quantity which is needed for the crops on farm. Commercial mineral and organic fertilizers are accepted but restricted according to their quality and origin and should undergo composting.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the import of commercial fertilizers. It only limits the application of farm yard manure to 170kgN/ha. DEMETER does limit this application to the LSU equivalent that could be fed on the farms own fodder basis. DEMETER also limits the distance for transporting farm yard manure. Own animal husbandry is an important factor in a farm organism as definied by DEMETER. The lack of own animals should not be underlined by importing manures: instead own animal husbandry should be established. Furthermore, imported fertilizers can only be applied if used in combination with composted or prepared animal fertilizers.
Manure fertilizers, origin - SE KRAV 2006
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Manure from beef cattle in slatted floor boxes, conventional pig production, battery hens and caged fur animals are not permitted as fertilizers. There are exceptions for pig production with less then 50 animals a year and when the animals are kept in big boxes with straw bedding. There is also an exception for producers with beef cattle in slatted floors or conventional pig production which can use the manure from the conventional animals if they at the same time start to convert the animal husbandry to organic (KRAV standards paragraph 4.3.3).
In the EU Regulation 2092/91 the use of manure from ‘factory farming’ is not allowed. The KRAV standards are stricter than the Swedish interpretation of ‘factory farming’ in the EU Regulation. If the KRAV standards are stricter than the other countries it is not possible to assess the interpretations as the interpretations are not official.
Manure fertilizers, slurry - CZ PRO-BIO Standards 2004 Slurry and poultry excrements from conventional farming are prohibited. EU Regulation 2092/91, Annex II/A permits the use of slurry and poultry excrement if it is sourced from extensive animal husbandry. Manure originating from ethically non-aceptable breeding/husbandry systems, may not be used in organic farming according PRO-BIO Standards.
Mushroom production, substrate - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Substrates must consist of materials from BIOLAND certified farms or at least certified organic origin. Substrates other than of BIOLAND origin can only be used after approval by BIOLAND. Organic animal manure to be used as substrate component requires organic bedding material. In the case of conventional wood, the origin must be traceable and if needed an analysis completed to show its harmlessness. Peat is admissible as top layer. Mineral substrate components can be used, if listed in the corresponding annex (10.1.4.). (Bioland production standards, 5.4 Mushroom Production 5.4.1 Basic Principles; Bioland production standards, 5.4.2 Substrate; Bioland production standards, 10.1.4 Mineral Complementing Fertilisers)
The BIOLAND standard is more demanding. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 up to 25% of the substrate can consist of certain types of conventional animal manure, if these are not available in organic quality. This is not allowed according to the BIOLAND standards. To ensure BIOLAND / organic quality throughout the whole production chain and to avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Mushroom production, substrate and inoculum - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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Inoculums and substrate materials of NATURLAND or equivalent certification must be used. If these are not available, materials from other certified organic origin can be purchased after approval. The use of certain disinfection agents during the productive period is prohibited. The empty facilities can be cleaned and disinfected with the substances listed in the appendix 8. (NL standards on production, Part B.IV. Mushroom cultivation)
The provisions are more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 and in some aspects shave additional requirements. The use of substrates is regulated in the corresponding annex of the EU Regulation where up to 25% of the substrate can consist of conventional animal manure if the components required are not available in organic quality. The use of inoculums and disinfection agents for mushroom production is not regulated in the EU Regulation. To ensure NATURLAND quality throughout the whole production chain, to avoid contamination with objectionable substances from conventional substrate material or from cleaning agents.
Peat - CH Demeter 2005
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Peat can constitute only 70% of the substratum for the production of seedlings.
DEMETER restricts the use of peat to seedling production and within substrata to a maximum 70% whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 only lists peat as admitted 'fertilizer' limited to horticulture (market gardening, floriculture, arboriculture, nursery). Peat is a very limited resource which should be used as little as possible to ensure supplies for future generations. Furthermore peat production infringes on natural habitats, which is not in line with the aim for sound production methods of organic farming.
Peat - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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The components that can be used in soil and substrate preparations are defined by the corresponding annexes. The use of synthetic substrate materials is prohibited. Peat can be used in substrates and may not exceed 80% of the mixture for seedlings and 50% of the mixture for potted plants (with exemptions). The cultivation of crops without using soil or substrate is not allowed. NL standards on production: Part B. III. Market gardening 2. Part B. V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees 2 Appendices 1,2 and 9)
The NATURLAND standard has additional requirments and restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91. The list of components, that can be used is more restricted, i.e. composted community household wastes (appendix 9) are excluded, as well as liquid or semi-liquid manure and chicken manure from conventional origin (appendix 1). In the EU Regulation there is no limit for the amount of peat to be used. Synthetic substrates are not regulated. The cultivation of crops without soil or substrate is not regulated. Protection of the natural peat deposits. The vital soil is an indispensable element of organic farming.
Peat - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005 Peat is listed in Appendix 1 on the positive list, but may not be used for soil conditioning EU Regulation 2092/91 only lists peat as admitted 'fertilizer' limited to horticulture (market gardening, floriculture, arboriculture, nursery), whereas IFOAM restricts the application by excluding soil conditionning. No justification was given.
Peat - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Among a number of other prohibited soil inputs, it is prohibited to use peat as a soil conditioner. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.7.10. Soil Association standards have further restrictions than EU Regulation 2092/91 regarding the use of peat as a soil conditioner. Effectively, it may be used only in propogating media. EU Regulation permits peat for use in horticulture (market gardening, floriculture, arboriculture, nursery). Soil Association standard's prohibition on the use of peat as a soil conditioner is intended to reduce the damage to peat bogs. These are important habitats for wildlife, supporting many bird, invertebrate and plant species, some of which depend on peat bogs for their survival. Peat extraction for horticulture has been the main cause of the damage to British peat bogs in the past 50 years. Only 6% of British peat bogs remain undamaged. This damage could be repeated in other countries if its widespread use continues.
Peat, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The content of peat in substrates may not exceed 80% for seedlings and 50% for trees, herbaceous and ornamental plants. Exceptions are possible for crops, that require a low pH. Purchased composts, peat substitutes and additives must be examined with regard to their environmental compatibility and, in particular, to their pollutant content. (BIOLAND standards 5.8.6., 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.6 Soils and Substrates)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91, where the the use of peat in horticulture is not restricted. Purchased composts must not exceed the contents in heavy metals, laid down in the Annex II A. There is no requirement to examine the environmental compatibility of the components of substrate. To avoid the escessive exploitation of moor lands and to avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Peat, seedling production - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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Peat is only allowed for the production of seedlings and can only constitute 70 % of the substratum. Peat must not be used as an organic soil supplement. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.5, 4.1.5.1 (4.5.1: mushrooms)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it allows the use of peat only for the production of seedlings and limits the proportion to 70 %. Annex II A of the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the use of peat only to horticulture but does not give more restrictions. Peat is a limited natural resource. Restriction of its use is in line with the approach of sustainability and the protection of natural resources. Reasons: nature conservation.
Plant protection, copper - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
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Copper preparates are admitted and listed in the IFOAM positive list Appendix 3.
Whereas IFOAM restricts the application of copper to 8kg/ha and year, EU Regulation 2092/91 admits 8kg of copper till the end of 2005 and max 6kg of copper from the year 2006 onward. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore a restriction on the use of metalic copper is necessary.
Slury import, from biogas production - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In principle slurry from biogas production has to come from substances of organic farming. A deviation is possible for production units where the approval for building was given before 31.12.2004. The general restrictions for the use of products of annex II are valid (3, 4 and 5). The deviation is valid until the end of 2010, if there are substrates which are provably delivered by the Bio Austria farm to the biogas co-production. Substrates of conventional farming may only enter a biogas co-production, if they are allowed according to the restricted Bio Austria list of brought in fertilisers (see 'restrictions in the positive list of fertiliser input'). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 for biogas fermentation with approval since 2005 as they require to use only substances of organic farming while the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows all products of Annex II A. The main reason is to create high consumer confidence.
Soil and potting mixes - Demeter International 2005
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Soils and potting mixes should preferably be generated from the farm itself and must consist of at least 25% prepared composts. Peat can only be used in propagating beds and potting mixes and is limited in quantity (max. 75%). Synthetic soil improving agents are not allowed. (DI standards 3.4.2.Manures, soils and potting mixes)
The use of the biodynamic preparations in the manure and compost is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method. The farm "organism" should strive for independence from outside inputs. Peat is restricted because of nature protection reasons. The use of the biodynamic preparations in the manure and compost is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method. The farm organisms should strive for independence from outside inputs. Peat is restricted because of nature protection reasons.

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