Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by EU regulation

  • EC Council Regulation No. 2092/91
    • Annex II. Permitted substances for the production of organic foods
      • Substances for plants and plant production - Annex 2
        • Pesticides/Substances for plant pest and disease control - Annex II B
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Beekeeping, hive treatment - Naturland 2005
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For the external treatment of hives only natural substances are permitted. In case of acute infection, caustic soda can be used for disinfection. Combs can only be treated with acetic acids and BT preparations. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II: 2.1. Treatment of the hives 2.2. Cleaning and disinfection 3. Wax and honeycombs)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailled by allowing only natural substances for the external treatment of hives. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 all the substances listed in the annex II B can be used to protect hives, frames and combs. For disinfection all the products listed in annex II E can be used. To avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Fertilization, biodynamic prepaparations - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Specific bio-dynamic preparations enhance soil fertility and the health of crops. These preparations are defined as field sprays (cow-horn manure, horn silica) and compost preparations (camomile, oak bark, dandelion, yarrow, stinging nettle, valerian). The full effect can only be expected when all the preparations (compost and spray preparations) are used in composted manures and as crop sprays at least once throughout the year.
Specific bio-dynamic preparations help to regulate cosmic and earth-bound forces. They soil fertility and contribute to improve the nutritional quality of the crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 gives standards for fertilization requirements but does not extend the definition of fertility to aspects of superior life forces. Bio-dynamic farming includes the aspect of earthbound and cosmic forces, which can be regulated with the support of specific bio-dynamic preparations. Only the combination of manuring and application of bio-dynamic field sprays would lead to increased fertility of soil and to a (holistic) nutrional quality of the crops.
Mushroom production, protective measures - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Substrate can only be disinfected using thermal processes. For the disinfection of equipment only alcohol or acetic acid can be used. The application of pyrethrum is not allowed in mushroom production. (Bioland production standards, 5.4.3 Disinfection and Plant Protection)
The BIOLAND standard has additional requirements than the EU Regulation 2092/91 which does not explicitly refer to the disinfection of substrate. Pyrethrum can be used against pests. The regulation regarding substances for cleaning and disinfection only refers to animal production facilities and equipment. To avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Plant protection, carriers and wetting agents - SE KRAV Standards 2006
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The KRAV standards requires that carriers and wetting agents used in plant protection products are examined and accepted by KRAV (4.4.4). There are simple criteria in the standard and also a reference to the IFOAM Basic Standards criteria for evaluation of these additives. (KRAV Standards Article 4.4.4. In appendix 4, 12 accepted carriers and wetting agents are listed.)
This is an additional requirement compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation does not have any specific requirements on carriers or wetting agents. For the organic farmer it is important to have a knowledge about all substances used on the farmland. It is known that some of the carriers and wetting agents also have biological effects.
Plant protection, copper - SE KRAV 2006
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Copper can be used for plant protection but only in the amounts which are allowed by the standards for heavy metals, 0,5 kg per ha per year (KRAV standards paragraph 4.4.2).
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg of copper per ha per year from 2006 and the use will be further restricted in the coming years. In Sweden copper has not been used in organic farming. Copper is a heavy metal with environmental effects. Wine is not grown in Sweden.
Plant protection, copper - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The annual amount of copper for plant protection is more restricted then in annex II B of EEC-regulation 2092/91. Per year are allowed 2 kg/ha, to fruits 2,5 kg/ha, to vineyard 3 kg/ha and to hope 4 kg/ha. (BA-Rules chapter 2.1.5, 2.3.3, 4.1.7, 4.3.8, 4.4.3, 4.4.7)
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006, but no restrictions are made in terms of different crops. Bio Austria General Standard restricts the amount of copper per ha in relation to different crops (2-4 kg/ha). The Bio Austria General Standard restricts copper application between 2-4 kg per ha in relation to different crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006. No restrictions are made in terms of different crops.
Plant protection, copper - AT Bio CH Bio Suisse Standard 2005
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Copper preparations are admitted for fungal disease control. Arable crops can not be treated with copper, except for potatoes, vegetables and hops. The annual amount of copper applied is clearly restricted for individual crops to a maximum 4 kg/ha metalic copper, for apple and pears 1.5 kg/ha and for berries 2 kg/ha).
Copper application is restricted to lower quantities and in terms of crops (application rate between 1.5-4 kg pure metallic copper, arable crops excluded except potatoes). EU Regulatoin 2092/91 admits 8kg of copper till the end of 2006 and maximum 6 kg of copper afterwards: no restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided.
Plant protection, copper - CH DEMETER
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Copper preparates are admitted for fungal diseases and for fruit and vine production exclusively. The upper limit for the yearly application is 3kg/ha metallic copper.
Copper application is restricted to lower quantities and specific application rates apply for different crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 admits 8kg of copper till the end of 2005 and max 6 kg of copper from the year 2006 onwards: no restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore copper applications are restricted.
Plant protection, copper - CH Regulance/Ordinance 2005
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Copper may be applied against fungi in plant production. The limit is at 4kg/ha per year metallic copper or not more than 20kg averaged over 5 consecutive years.
Copper application is restricted to lower quantities (4 kg in general, not more than 6 kg for wine growing). EU Regulation allows 8 kg of copper until the end of 2005 and max 6 kg of copper from January 2006 onwards: no restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore copper applications are restricted to max 4 kg/ha metallic copper
Plant protection, copper - CZ PRO-BIO 2004 Total dosage of copper is maximum 3 kg Cu (2+)/ha/year (metallic copper). If copper preparations are used, the copper soil content has to be analysed each 6th year. Copper application is restricted to lower quantities, and if applied the soil copper content has to be determined. EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex II/B IV admits 8 kg/ha of copper (till the end of 2005 and max 6 kg/ha of copper from 2006 onwards (with special rules for perennial crops). Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote soil fertility; any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore copper applications are restricted. Standards require the use of preventive measures (crop rotation, crop cultivation, choice of varieties) too.
Plant protection, copper - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Use of copper is not allowed for plant protection purposes in any organic or conventional plant cultures in Denmark. The DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark" does not mention copper or any copper compounds. Copper is not allowed according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, while limited quantities of certain Copper compounds may be used according to Annex II B, Section IV of the EU Regulation 2092/91. Copper is a heavy metal which may accumulate in the soil and have a negative influence on the soil flora and fauna. Therefore the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark, has banned the use of copper products for plant protection purposes in Denmark.
Plant protection, copper - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guideline 2005
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Copper preparates are admitted and listed in the CODEX positive list Appendix 2.
Whereas CODEX does not set limits for copper application per hectare and year, EU Regulation 2092/91 admits 8 kg of copper till the end of 2005 and max 6 kg of copper from the year 2006 onward: No restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations in either of the two regulations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore a restriction on the use of metalic copper is necessary.
Plant protection, copper - NL Regulation 2005
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No forms of copper are allowed in the Netherlands: see also at www.ctb-wageningen.nl
In contrast to NL the EU Regulation 2092/91 lists in Annex II part B several permissable copper preparations Organic farming principles say that the use of pesticides etc. should be avoided. The use of copper should therefore, from the Dutch government's point of view, not be allowed in Europe or at least be restricted.
Plant protection, copper - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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The use of copper substances as plant protection products is not allowed in organic production.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 permits copper preparates (with restrictions). Copper preparates are an environmental strain and the use should be restricted. There are no productions in Norway where the use of copper preparates is crucial.
Plant protection, microorganisms - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Only the named microorganism species, Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana, Coniothyrium minitans, Phlebiopsis gigantea, Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Streptomyces griseovirides, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma ploysporium and Verticillium lecanii are approved for biological control according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark". Only certain named microorganism species are approved for biological control in organic plant production in Denmark whereas the species allowed for biological control are not specified in the EU Regulation 2092/91, Annex II B, Section II. The microorganism species approved for biological control in organic plant production in Denmark are the ones which have been approved for use in conventional and organic plant production by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark.
Plant protection, substances - DE Bioland 2005
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The plant protection agents listed in the corresponding annex 10.2. can only be used, if other agricultural measures to strengthen the health of the cropping system have been unsuccessful. Equipment for the application of plant protection agents must be free from residues of objectionable substances. The use of synthetic pesticides and growth regulators is prohibited. (Bioland production standards, 3.7 Plant Protection 3.7.1 Basic Principles; Bioland production standards, 3.7.2 Permissible Measures; Bioland production standards, 3.7.3 Prohibitions; Bioland production standards, 10.2.1 Biological and Biotechnical Measures; Bioland production standards, 10.2.2 Plant Protection and Care Agents; Bioland production standards, 10.2.2.1 Generally Permissible Agents; Bioland production standards, 10.2.2.2 Agents only Permissible in Horticulture and Permanent Cultures as well as in the mentioned crops)
The BIOLAND standard has further requirements to the EU Regulation 2092/91. There are certain (mainly natural) products on the BIOLAND list of permissible products, that are not mentioned in the EU Regulation.: i.e. stone meal, bentonite, prepared aluminium oxide, "waterglass" (sodium silicate), herb extracts, herb liquid manure and teas (e.g. nettle, horsetail, onion, horse radish, parsley fern), ethyl alcohol, milk and whey products, sodium hydrogen carbonate. These products are not considered as plant protection, but fortifying agents, which can be used in accordance with the EU Regulation 2092/91 in Germany. The following products are excluded or restricted in their use according to the BIOLAND standard, but permitted in the EU Regulation.: bees wax (not considered as plant protection agent in Germany), gelatine, extraction from Nicotina tabacum, rotenon, diammoniumphosphate, metaldehyde, pyrethoids in traps, ethylene and potassium alum, copper preparations with further restrictions (max metallic copper amount 3 kg/ha and year, in hop cultivation max 4 kg/ha and year, in potato cultivation only with permission of the BIOLAND Association. If agents with copper content are used, the copper content of the soil must be continuously monitored by means of soil analysis). In order to avoid negative influences on products as well as on the environment (i.e. by the accumulation of copper in soil), substances considered to be critical and whose beneficial effects can also be caused by other products or methods are prohibited by the BIOLAND Association. Moreover some of the substances (ethylene, potassium alum) are not relevant for plant production in the area certified by BIOLAND.
Plant protection, substances - Demeter International 2005
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If the agricultural and biodynamic methods of plant care and protection prove insufficient, the products listed in appendix 5 can be applied. (DI production standards, 3.3. Plant care and protection; DI production standards, Appendix 5 Allowable materials and methods for plant care and protection)
The DI list is generally similar to the positive list of the EU Regulation 2092/91. However, the use of certain products is excluded, including synthetic phyrethroids, metaldehyde, and copper can only be applied in lower quantities. Resistance to fungal, bacterial and insect attack in the crops should be supported by biodynamic measures. Nevertheless, there may be cases, in which the treatment with a certain product is necessary in order to avoid major damage. Contamination with harmful substances must be avoided.
Plant protection, substances, Azadirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Azadirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone are not allowed for plant protection purposes in any organic and conventional plant cultures in Denmark. The DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2 "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark" does not mention Azacirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone. Azadirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone are not allowed as "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark", while products based on these substances may be used as insecticides (or mainly as repellent - Quassia), if need is recognised by the inspection authority according to Annex II B of the EU Regulation 2092/91. No plant protection products based on Azadirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone have been approved for use in Denmark by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark. To be approved a full documentation for pesticide evaluation will be needed and no companies have applied for that. Rotenone e.g. is a broad insecticide and may be very harmful to aquatic organisms.
Plant protection, substances, hydrolysed proteins - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Hydrolysed proteins are not allowed as attractants in organic plant production in Denmark, because there are no products approved by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency undder the Danish Ministry for Environment. Hydrolysed proteins are not allowed according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark". According to Annex II B, Section I of the EU Regulation 2092/91 hydrolysed proteins are allowed as attractant in authorized applications in combination with other appropriate products of this Annex II, part B. Hydrolysed protein has not been approved for use as attractant in Denmark by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark.
Plant protection, substances, mineral oils - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Mineral oils are not allowed for plant protection purposes in organic plant production in Denmark according to DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark" because there is an alternative, paraffin oil. Mineral oils are not allowed according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark". According to Annex II B, Section IV of the EU Regulation 2092/91 Mineral oils are allowed as fungicide and insecticide for use in fruit trees, vines, olive trees and tropical crops, when the need is recognised by the inspection body or inspection authority. Mineral oils are not approved for use as insecticide or fungicide in organic farming in Denmark, because there is an alternative, paraffin oil, which, according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Producion 2006 may be used against insects, spinning mites and mildew in fruit trees and bushes before bluming and after harvest plus in roses and other horticultural plants. Mineral oils contain toxic substances, which may harm beneficial organisms.
Plant protection, substances, pyrethrins - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerarieaefolium are not available for plant protection purposes in organic plant production in Denmark, because there are no products approved by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, which contain pyrethrin as the only active substance. Pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerarieaefolium are allowed according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark", when need is recognised by the Plant Directorate, but no approved products with only natural Pyrethrins are available in Denmark. According to Annex II B, Section I of the EU Regulation 2092/91 Pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium are allowed when the need is recognised by the inspection body or inspection authority. No plant protection products based on Pyrethrins from Chrysanthemum cineraiaefolium without the synthetic synergist, piperonylbutoxid have been approved for use in Denmark by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark. The use of syntehtic pesticides or additives in organic crop production is against the principles of health, ecology and care
Plant protection, substances, traps/dispensers - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Diammonimum phosphate, Pheromones and Pyrethroids (only deltamethrin or lambda-cyhalothrin) are not approved for use in traps or dispensers for plant protection purposes in organic plant production in Denmark because Diammonium phosphate and pheromones for use in traps and dispensers have not been approved by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, and Batrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata wied, which are the only insects Pyrethroids may be used against in organic farming, are not found in Denmark The substances to be used in traps and/or dispensers, Diammonimum phosphate, Pheromones and Pyrethroids (only deltamethrin or lambda-cyhalothrin) are not approved according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark". According to the EU Regulation 2092/91, Annex II B, Section III, Diammonium phosphate and Pheromones are allowed without restrictions, while Pyrethroids are allowed only against Batrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata. Diammonimum phosphate and Pheromones for use in traps and dispensers have not been approved by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark, and Batrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata wied are insects, which are not found in Denmark
Plant protection, substances, weed control - DE Naturland 2005
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Preventive measures such as crop cultivation methods are to be applied in order to keep the crop healthy and reduce weeds to a tolerable level. The use of synthetic chemical substances for plant protection is prohibited. The allowed substances are listed in the appendix 2. For thermal weed reduction energy-saving methods have to be applied. (NL standards on production: Part B.I. Plant production 2. Part B.III. Market gardening 4)
The NATURLAND list of allowed substances is similar to the list of the EU Regulation 2092/91, but in some cases more detailed, i.e.: synthetic pyrethroids and metaldehyde are not allowed, copper can only be applied in lower quantities. Nothing is said about the use of energy for thermal weed control in the EU Regulation. The application of conventional crop protection agents is not compatible with organic agriculture. Contamination has to be avoided.
Soil management, steam sterilisation and pasteurisation - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of soils are not permitted for weed control; along with Azadirachtin (from neem) and lime sulphur, they may be used with prior permission only in protected cropping structures and only as a single response to a particular pest problem. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.10.5 and 4.11.10. Soil Association standards have further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards restrict the use of steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of soils. These methods are not permitted for weed control; with prior permission, they may be used only in protected cropping structures and only as a single response to a particular pest problem. EU Regulation does not refer to these practices. Steam sterilisation and pasteurisation are energy intensive methods, which impair soil biodiversity and are generally incompatible with organic soil management principles. As the methods require only the use of water and energy, their absence from the EU Regulation could be interpreted as allowing unrestricted use of the methods for pest and disease control.