Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

Go back to overview Go to complete documents for this section
Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
- SE KRAV Jan 2006
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: Bee-keeping The Bio AUSTRIA General Standard for bee-keeping is basically the requirement of the EEC regulation 2092/91 including some more detailed points: hive protection, management of colonies, building and storing of honey combs, wax processing, processing of extracted honey, honey storing and analysing, bees health. Additionally to the followings of the standard there must be made a wax analysis (mixed sample of hives medium walls and wax stocks) of residues of inadmissible Varroa- and wax moth-pesticides. • Honey must not be kept in containers made of synthetic substances (instead of stainless steel), because even food proved synthetic substances seem to emit softening agents which are supposed to be absorbed by honey changing the scent of it. • The residues must not be more than 0,5 mg/kg wax per active substance which corresponds to the provable limit. • In general there are big residue problems (the average values of wax are between 1,7 mg and 6 mg Apistan/kg, other chemicals can have much higher values). • Thymol (against Varroa) is not permitted because the residues in honey change the scent of it. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.18) The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EEC regulation 2092/91 as it provides analysis of wax for Varroa and wax moth control substances which are forbidden in organic agriculture. Residues may not exceed 0.5 mg/kg wax per substance. Further rules are specifications to the EEC regulation 2092/91 for bee keeping. Measures for avoiding or minimizing residues are to be practised.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: Bee-keeping
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Bio AUSTRIA General Standard for bee-keeping is basically the requirement of the EEC regulation 2092/91 including some more detailed points: hive protection, management of colonies, building and storing of honey combs, wax processing, processing of extracted honey, honey storing and analysing, bees health. Additionally to the followings of the standard there must be made a wax analysis (mixed sample of hives medium walls and wax stocks) of residues of inadmissible Varroa- and wax moth-pesticides. The residues must not be more than 0,5 mg/kg wax per active substance. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.18)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EEC regulation 2092/91 as it provides analysis of wax for Varroa and wax moth control substances which are forbidden in organic agriculture. Residues may not exceed 0.5 mg/kg wax per substance. Further rules are specifications to the EEC regulation 2092/91 for bee keeping. Principle of care/precaution. No justification was provided by the standard-setting organisation.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: Fish production
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Bio Austria General Standard is dealing with two types of habitats: o The habitat for carps rules the production in stagnant and warmer stretch of water. o The habitat for trout is about the production of predatory fish in running, cold stretch of water with a lot of oxygen but a lack of nutrients. Until the aquatic production will be ruled by the EEC-Regulation 2092/91 the rules for different animals are valid for the aquatic production by analogy if practicable. The basis is: The fish production in ponds tries to achieve closed cycles of materials and healthy ecological systems. Therefore methods and techniques are used which maintain the fertility of fish and stretch of water infinitely, use renewable resources, do not pollute the environment badly, support the natural cycles in water and do not disturb any other process of the food chain. The natural behaviour and needs of the fish are the basis for structuring and assessing the conditions of fish keeping. The Bio AUSTRIA General Standard for fish is the same like that of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus and therefore it is valid for all organic fish farms in Austria. It contains detailed rules for water quality, cultivation, stock and keeping, therapy and hygiene, fish multiplying, origin and dissemination, feed and feed buying, fish protection, conversion and control. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.17)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EEC regulation 2092/91 does not cover rules for fish production. In case of fish production EEC-Regulation do not cover legal rules it is necessary to give minimum standards to this part of animal husbandry.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: Fish production
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Bio Austria General Standard is dealing with two types of habitats: o The habitat for carps rules the production in stagnant and warmer stretch of water. o The habitat for trout is about the production of predatory fish in running, cold stretch of water with a lot of oxygen but a lack of nutrients. Until the aquatic production will be ruled by the EEC-Regulation 2092/91 the rules for different animals are valid for the aquatic production by analogy if practicable. The basis is: The fish production in ponds tries to achieve closed cycles of materials and healthy ecological systems. Therefore methods and techniques are used which maintain the fertility of fish and stretch of water infinitely, use renewable resources, do not pollute the environment badly, support the natural cycles in water and do not disturb any other process of the food chain. The natural behaviour and needs of the fish are the basis for structuring and assessing the conditions of fish keeping. The Bio AUSTRIA General Standard for fish is the same like that of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus and therefore it is valid for all organic fish farms in Austria. It contains detailed rules for water quality, cultivation, stock and keeping, therapy and hygiene, fish multiplying, origin and dissemination, feed and feed buying, fish protection, conversion and control. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.17)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EEC regulation 2092/91 does not cover rules for fish production. In case of fish production EEC-Regulation do not cover legal rules it is necessary to give minimum standards to this part of animal husbandry.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: Full farm conversion Conversion of the entire holding is a prerequisite for the certification as an organic farm of Bio Austria. Beekeeping and fish farming are the only exceptions, and may be practiced conventionally. The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter as it covers the whole farm and not just a production unit, as defined in EEC regulation 2092/91 as smallest unit to convert (annex I B 1.5 ff) and annex III A.1. §. 3 which defines the requirements for certification of the production unit, which can be farmed by the same company/farmer. Therefore it is not necessary to convert the whole farm. The main reason is to create high confidence by consumers (exclusion of fraud and mistakes).
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: Outside access for laying hens
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Outdoor access areas for laying hens must be within a radius of 150 m of the poultry barn. This regulation applies to all barns built since 23 April, 2001. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.13.2)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed and therefore stricter as the EEC regulation 2092/91 (annex VIII) defines the amount of the area but not the shape of the outdoor access. The form is very important for really using the outdoor access. Principle of animal welfare and health; protection of the environment, commitment to consumer expectations Studies performed in different European countries have shown that laying hens mainly use the area the immediately around the hen house. Areas beyond 150m are hardly used at all. As hens do not distribute themselves evenly throughout the hen run more distant areas would mean an increase of stocking density. This would lead in the remaining part to an increase of nutrients and increase the risk of infections.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: Rabbit standards
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In addition to the general rules for animals there are special rules for rabbits about the stock density, outdoor access and feed to stocks of over 50 fattening rabbits: (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.16) Husbandry conditions Housing area: min. 0.125 m2 per fattening rabbit from weaning until the end of the 8th week of age = 8 animals per m2. After the end of the 8th week, 0.25 m2 per animal = 4 rabbits per m. Housing height: min. 60 cm. Housing flooring: litter strewn resting area. Up to 50 % of the housing floor may be perforated. Outside access: paved and easy to clean, partial roofing possible. Minimum outside access area: 0.125 m2 per fattening rabbit. Group husbandry with manageable group sizes (max. 40 animals per group) Feeding The feeding rules are similar to the other BA Standards. Feeding facilities must be arranged in such a manner that even low-ranked animals receive sufficient feed. Branches with bark must be available for gnawing, and must be changed at least every 14 days.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EEC regulation 2092/91 does not cover rules for rabbit husbandry. Because the EEC-Regulation do not cover legal rules for rabbit husbandry it is necessary to give minimum standards to this part of animal husbandry.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: at least 60 % roughage for ruminants
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Roughage must comprise at least 60 % of the daily ration for ruminants. Calves are to be offered structured roughage from the second week of age. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.4.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter as the EEC regulation 2092/91 allows in special cases for at least 3 month a reduction to 50 % roughage. The offer of roughage to calves is not regulated in EEC regulation 2092/91. Ruminants need structured roughage for a species-appropriated function of the digestion. To develop a good stomach for a ruminant it is important to give calves roughage very early. It is a measure against intensification too.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: definition of nitrate levels for vegetables
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png
In connection with the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus A 8 maximum levels of nitrate for vegetables are defined. (BA-Rules chapter 4.1.8)
The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter as the EEC regulation 2092/91 does not have a restriction of the nitrate level in vegetable. Consumer protection.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: for mammals at least 1/3 of minimum space for reclining In case of mammals the area of space available for reclining must be equal to at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement. The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EEC regulation 2092/91 does not have explicit requirements for reclining areas of mammals. To contribute to animal welfare.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: green covered orchards In orchards land planting with a planting mixture appropriate to the location is required throughout the most part of the year. The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EEC regulation 2092/91 does not have requirements for land planting in orchards. The green coverage is reducing erosion problems.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: green covered vineyards In vineyards land planting with a planting mixture (green manure) appropriate to the location is required throughout the most part of the year. Land planting may be interrupted for up to 2 months in special cases. The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EEC regulation 2092/91 does not have specific requirements for land planting in vineyards. The green coverage is reducing erosion.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: herb production in distance to high used roads Locations of herb production near densely populated areas (cities) are to be avoided. The distance to high used roads (highways, high-speed road, major streets [Bundesstrassen] must be at least 50 meters. Protective hedgerows are generally recommended in such cases. The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter as the EEC regulation 2092/91 does not have a restriction for the distance to highly used roads. The main reason is to avoid residues of exhaust fumes (see “herb production with distance to conventionally fields”) and to create high confidence by consumers.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: herb production with distance to conventionally fields If the growing area of herb production borders on a field that is cultivated conventionally, there must be a distance of at least 5 meters between fields (exception: threshed herbs). Bordering on conventional fields should be avoided if possible. Protective hedgerows are recommended. The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EEC regulation 2092/91 does not have an explicit restriction for the distance to conventional fields. The main reason is to avoid residues of pesticides and to create high confidence by consumers.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: import of slurry from biogas production In principle slurry from biogas production has to come from substances of organic farming. A deviation is possible for production units where the approval for building was given before 31.12.2004. The general restrictions for the use of products of annex II are valid (3, 4 and 5). The deviation is valid until the end of 2010, if there are substrates used which are for sure delivered by the Bio Austria farm to the biogas co-production. Substrates of conventional farming may only enter a biogas co-production, if they are allowed according to the restricted Bio Austria list of bought fertilisers (see “restrictions in the positive list of fertiliser input”). The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter than the EEC regulation 2092/91 for biogas fermentation with approval since 2005 as only substances of organic farming can be used, while the EEC regulation 2092/91 allows all products of Annex II A. The main reason is to create high confidence by consumers.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: limited use of copper The annual amount of copper for plant protection is strongly restricted: Per year are allowed 2 kg/ha, for fruits 2,5 kg/ha, for vineyards 3 kg/ha and for hope 4 kg/ha. The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter than the EEC regulation 2092/91 as there is a restriction in the amount of allowed copper per ha in relation to different crops (2-4 kg/ha). EEC regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006. No restrictions are made in terms of different crops. Copper is being accumulated in the soil. A negative effect to the organisms in the soil is discussed. To reduce negative effects to the soil and the organisms in the soil the yearly amount of application is restricted.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: limits for the contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons For vegetables, fruits and grain there are limits for residues of chlorinated hydrocarbons. In principle the limit is 0,01 mg/kg, only for lindane the limit is 0,02 mg/kg. (This rule is an order of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus A 8 and therefore valid for vegetables of all organic farms in Austria, not only Bio Austria farms). The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter than the EEC regulation 2092/91 which does not have limits for residues in general, especially not for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Consumer protection.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: max. 170 [kg N/ha, a] from organic fertilisers In arable farming and grassland the total amount of N in organic fertilisers from organic origin is limited with 170 kg/ha (this rule is not valid for special cultures as like vegetables, drug plant and spices [without spices for threshing], orchards, vineyards and hope). The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter than the EEC regulation 2092/91 annex I as it requires a limit of 170 kg N/ha for the whole organic manure and not only for farmyard manure. Quality and environmental reasons
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: no artificial light in greenhouse Under glass and plastic artificial light is forbidden. An exception is given for the use for young plants. The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter as the EEC regulation 2092/91 does not have a restriction of artificial light. Exclusion of an important factor of intensification. Energy use reduction.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: no farmyard manure as top fertilisation to vegetables/herbs Farmyard manure as fertilizers may not be applied as top fertilization to plants cultivated as vegetables being used as blossom or leaves or herbs between cultivation and harvest. Only for herbs compost from farmyard manure is allowed during vegetation. The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter than the EEC regulation 2092/91 Annex I as it requires in addition to the limit of 170 kg N/ha for organic manure a limit for fertilisation with farmyard manure to vegetables during the vegetation period. Quality and hygienic reasons for consumer protection.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: no farmyard manure as top fertilisation to vegetables/herbs
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Farmyard manure as fertilizers may not be applied as top fertilization to plants cultivated as vegetables being used as blossom or leaves or herbs between cultivation and harvest. Only for herbs compost from farmyard manure is allowed during vegetation.
The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter than the EEC regulation 2092/91 Annex I as it requires in addition to the limit of 170 kg N/ha for organic manure a limit for fertilisation with farmyard manure to vegetables during the vegetation period. Quality and hygienic reasons for consumer protection.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: no prophylactic teat dipping with synthetic substances Prophylactic teat dipping with chemical or synthetic substances is forbidden. The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter as there are no restrictions of dipping in the EEC regulation 2092/91. Prophylactic teat dipping with chemical or synthetic substances makes a selection of the symbiotic flora of the teat. The development of resistant micro-organism is possible and residues of these substances can remain on the teats, too. A following medication with harmless preparations will not be successful. Dipping is necessary as a result of modern breeding goals (high performance, good milkability).
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: outside access Interpretation of EEC-regulation 2092/91 for the climate of Austria: All animals must have access to pasture or at least an open-air exercise yard on at least 180 days a year, distributed throughout the year. Cattle kept in tethering systems must have outside access either 180 days distributed throughout the year or, in addition to the ANI (TGI), at least once a week. The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EEC regulation 2092/91 as it is a specification for orientation which has to be fulfilled. Just specification for orientation; definition of an absolutely minimum requirement under unfavourable circumstances.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: reduced input of organic fertilisers from conventional origin The amount of N-input of conventional farmyard manure to cultures of arable farming and grassland is restricted. The difference between the N-amount of farmyard manure of the own farm to the amount of 170 kg [N/ha, a] has to be reduced to: a) 25 % in the case of soluble (fast effective) organic fertilisers, b) 70 % in the case of slow-release organic fertilisers (relation of C:N ≥ 25:1). A prerequisite in arable farming is a minimum of 20 % legumes in the main crop rotation. Only following organic fertilisers are allowed in grassland: farmyard manure, composted or fermented household waste, composted or fermented mixture of vegetable matter. The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter than the EEC regulation 2092/91 as it limits the amount of conventional farmyard manures to be brought in, soluble (fast effective) fertilisers more than slow soluble one. The EEC regulation 2092/91 annex I is less strict as it requires only a limit of the amount of organic manure (170 kg N/ha, a). Quality and environmental reasons.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: reduced input of organic fertilisers from conventional origin
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The amount of N-input of conventional farmyard manure to cultures of arable farming and grassland is restricted. The difference between the N-amount of farmyard manure of the own farm to the amount of 170 kg [N/ha, a] has to be reduced to  25 % in the case of soluble (fast effective) organic fertilisers,  70 % in the case of slow effective organic fertilisers (relation of C:N ≥ 25:1). A prerequisite in arable farming is a minimum of 20 % legumes in the main crop rotation. Only following organic fertilisers are allowed in grassland: farmyard manure, composted or fermented household waste, composted or fermented mixture of vegetable matter. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.3)
The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter than the EEC regulation 2092/91 as it limits the amount of conventional farmyard manures to be brought in, soluble (fast effective) fertilisers more than slow soluble ones. The EEC regulation 2092/91 annex I is less strict as it requires only a limit of the amount of organic manure (170 kg N/ha, a). Quality and environmental reasons.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: restricted conditions for cow trainer until 2010; only in existing barns The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions. The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as in the EEC regulation 2092/91 a cow trainer is not mentioned. The requirements in the Bio Austria General Standard give the guarantee for minor effects to the health of the cows. Old systems of barn do not function without a cow trainer (fouling, dirtiness and hygiene). The non-use of cow trainer is supporting animal welfare.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: restricted heating of glasshouses in winter During the winter (December to February) cultivated areas under glass and plastic may be only kept free from frost (resp. being heated up to 10 °C / 50 °F), with the exception of young plants and plants in pots and the use of heat from renewable energy sources or waste heat (for example from biogas production). The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EEC regulation 2092/91 does not have a restriction for the use of energy resources. To reduce the use of non-renewable resources is an important measure for sustainability of agriculture.
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: restriction of peat for seedling production; 70 % of substratum Peat is only allowed for the production of seedlings and can constitute only 70 % of the substratum. Peat must not be used as an organic soil supplement. The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter than the EEC regulation 2092/91 as it allows the use of peat only for the production of seedlings and limits the proportion to 70 %. Annex II A of the EEC regulation 2092/91 allows the use of peat only for horticulture but does not give more restrictions. Peat is a limited natural resource. Restriction of it's use is in line with the approach of sustainability and the protection of natural resources(nature conservation).
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: restrictions in the positive list of fertiliser input The following fertilisers are not allowed by Bio Austria: a) blood meal, hoof meal, bone meal, fish meal, meat meal, feather and ”chiquette” meal b) the by-product of starch-production from conventional potatoes (Kartoffelrestfruchtwasser). c) the special basic slag “Thomas phosphate”. The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter than the EEC regulation 2092/91 as it does not just limit the total amount of organic manures of conventional farms to be brought in. It also does not allow to use some products which are listed in the EEC regulation 2092/91 in annex II. A. Products or by-products were restricted during the BSE crisis. This restrictions were prolonged (not absolutely necessary). The by-product of starch-production from potatoes is readily soluble almost like readily soluble conventional fertilizers. The taste of this product (Kartoffelrestfruchtwasser) is not desired too. The special basic slag “Thomas phosphate” is a by-product of steel. For the production resources of recycling of old metal inclusive nickel and chromium are used. Therefore the residues of these heavy metals in the fertilizer can be high (principle of care/precaution).
AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006: vegetable production only in soil culture Vegetables may only be grown in a soil culture with exception of chicory and cress. The Bio Austria General Standard is stricter as the EEC regulation 2092/91 does not have this specification. To maintain consumer confidence and organic integrity
AT Bio Austria General Standards 2006: detailed requirements for herb production
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Bio Austria General Standard has, in addition to the requirements of distance to roads and conventionally fields, requirements for a fast preparation of fresh material, a fast and careful drying (normally not higher than 40 °C). The drying room should be a separate unit. The room may not contain any materials contaminated with harmful substances (e.g. treated particle board). It is forbidden to use direct heating with fuel oil, gas, coal, or wood, or dehydration through chemical additives. A batch record of drying temperatures is to be kept, which is to be made available during the annual inspection. The storage space must be protected from light, dry and as cool as possible. A humidity level of 60% and a temperature of 19 °C are recommended. Drugs must be inspected regularly and the storage areas kept clean. Storage areas are to be kept separate from processing locales. (BA-Rules chapter 4.2.2, 4.2.4, 4.2.5, 4.2.7, 4.2.8)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EEC regulation 2092/91 does not have such specific requirements for preparation, drying and processing of herbs. The main reason is to reach high quality products and to create high confidence by consumers through a very fresh preparation/processing and a drying with care and to avoid environmental pollutants.
AT Bio Austria General Standards 2006: outdoor access All animals must have access to pasture or at least an open-air exercise yard on at least 180 days a year, distributed throughout the year. Cattle kept in tethering systems must have outside access either 180 days distributed throughout the year or, in addition to the ANI (TGI = Tiergerechtigkeitsindex), at least once a week. The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed and stricter than the EEC regulation 2092/91 as it is a specification which has to be fulfilled. it is an interpretation of EEC-regulation 2092/91 for the climate of Austria. Just specification for orientation; definition of an absolutely minimum requirement under unfavourable circumstances.
AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006 feed materials from mineral origin
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
To fulfil the Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006 the single components of agricultural origin for vitamins and feed materials from mineral origin must be organic.
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 are stricter with regard to the organic origin for single components whereas the EEC regulation allows import from conventional agriculture. This requirement of organic origin for single components for vitamins and feed materials from mineral origin is a very consequent interpretation of the EEC regulation 2092/91. In general the full list of annex II C concerning import from conventional agriculture are made use of. The main reason for reduction is to create high confidence by consumers.
AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006: Outdoor access for fattening pigs All pigs for meat production must always have access to exercise yards. The BA Special Market Rules 2006 are stricter with regard to the outdoor access. Permanent and daily outdoor access is not required in EEC regulation 2092/91 (annex I B 8.3.8.). There is an exemption in annex I B 8.5.1 for existing buildings before 1999 until the year 2010. This exemption according to 8.5.1 of annex I B can not be granted. The main reason for this restriction is to create high confidence by consumers. Another reason is that the permanent outdoor access is seen as better for animal health.
AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006: Requirements for feeding hens Organic farms which deliver products to a “Bio Austria Marketing Project” have to fulfil further feeding restrictions for hens/chicken in addition to the general standard of Bio Austria. Conventional feed components are forbidden except the following ones which are not or not enough available from organic Austrian origin: sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, maize gluten, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent). The BA Special Market Rules 2006 are stricter with regard to the permitted amount of some feed as they allow only sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EEC regulation 2092/91. The main reason for reduction is to create high confidence by consumers. Another reason is the minimization of risks of GMO contamination.
AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006: Requirements for feeding hens
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Organic farms which deliver products to a “Bio Austria Marketing Project” have to fulfil further hen feeding restrictions in addition to the general standard of Bio Austria. Conventional feed components are forbidden except the following ones which are not or not enough available as organic Austrian origin: sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, maize gluten, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent).
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 are stricter with regard to the permitted amount of some feed as they allow only sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EEC regulation 2092/91. The main reason for reduction is to create high confidence by consumers. Another reason is the minimization of risks of GMO contamination.
AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006: Requirements for feeding herbivores
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Organic farms which deliver products to a “Bio Austria Marketing Project” have to fulfil further feeding restrictions in addition to the general rules. Conventional feed is definitely not permitted, except two kinds of feed: sugar beet pulp and molasses as a binding agent up to 10 % of additionally purchased organic feed. (Because in this case the self-made basic feed and the added ready-made feed are not calculated the part of this feed is really small.)
The Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006 are stricter with regard to the permitted amount of some feed. The BA Special Market Rules 2006 allow only sugar beet pulp and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EEC regulation 2092/91. The permitted amount of this feed is strictly limited, too. It is related to additional purchased single feed material from organic farming and may only be used in connection to those. Because the roughage and the ready-made organic feed (organic mixed fodder) can not be a basis for calculation, the use of these two feed is reduced to less than 5 % (which is the current maximum for conventional feed). The main reason for reduction is to create high confidence by consumers. Another reason is the minimization of risks of GMO contamination.
AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006: Requirements for feeding herbivores
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Organic farms which deliver products to a “Bio Austria Marketing Project” have to fulfil further feeding restrictions in addition to the general rules. Conventional feed is definitely not permitted, except two kinds of feed: sugar beet pulp and molasses as a binding agent up to 10 % of additionally purchased organic feed. (Because in this case the self-made basic feed and the added ready-made feed are not calculated the part of this feed is really small.)
The Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006 are stricter with regard to the permitted amount of some feed. The BA Special Market Rules 2006 allow only sugar beet pulp and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EEC regulation 2092/91. The permitted amount of this feed is strictly limited, too. It is related to additional purchased single feed material from organic farming and may only be used in connection to those. Because the roughage and the ready-made organic feed (organic mixed fodder) can not be a basis for calculation, the use of these two feed is reduced to less than 5 % (which is the current maximum for conventional feed). The main reason for reduction is to create high confidence by consumers. Another reason is the minimization of risks of GMO contamination.
AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006: Requirements for feeding pigs
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Organic farms which deliver products to a “Bio Austria Market Project” have to fulfil further pig feeding restrictions in addition to the general rules. Conventional feed components are forbidden except the following ones which are not or not enough available as organic Austrian origin: sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent).
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 are stricter with regard to the permitted amount of some feed as they allow only sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EEC regulation 2092/91. The main reason for reduction is to create high confidence by consumers. Another reason is the minimization of risks of GMO contamination.
AT Bio Austria general standards 2006: Full farm conversion Conversion of the entire holding is a prerequisite for the certification as an organic farm of Bio Austria. Beekeeping and fish farming are the only exceptions, and may be practiced conventionally. The Bio Austria are stricter as they do cover the whole farm and not just the production unit, as defined in EEC Regulation 2092/91 as littlest unit to convert (annex I B 1.5 ff) and Annex III A.1. §. 3 which defines the requirements for certification of the production unit, which can farmed by the same company/farm. Therefore it is not necessary based on the EEC Regulation to convert the whole farm. The main reason is to create high confidence by consumers (exclusion of fraud and mistakes).
Animal breeding, general requirements - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005 The choice of breeds, strains and breeding methods shall be consistent with the principles of organic farming. CODEX does not list acceptable breeding techniques but leaves it to a very general wording of adapted breeding methods, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 more clearly excludes certain breeding techniques. No justification was available.
Animal breeding, longevity - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Longevity has to be taken into account for breeding purposes and especially in the case of animals for milk production. Only animal breeds appropriate to the animal husbandry systems practised in organic farming should be used. Breeding should not be based on the purchase of animals from conventional origin and breeding and breeding animals (to be purchased) should not originate from embryo transfer. (Bioland production standards, 4.7 Animal breeding, 4.7.1 General; Bioland production standards, 4.7 Animal breeding, 4.7.2 Origin of animals for breeding -purposes
The BIOLAND standard has further requirements to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to longevity as a breeding aim and the suitability of the animals to organic farming systems. However the adaptation to the environment is to be considered. There are no details within the EU Standards about the use of conventional animals / animals originating from embryo transfer in breeding programmes. To enhance the breeding of animals appropriate to organic farming and increase independency from conventional strains.
Animal breeding, pigs - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Only pigs which are resistant to stress (with proved NN status) may be used for breeding piglets. This must be recorded and proved.
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 are more detailed than the EU Regulation. EU Regulation 2092/91 point 3.1 of annex I B has only a general statement that for intensive livestock breeds with typical diseases or health problems (e.g. stress-syndrome) should be avoided. The main reason for the rule is a better quality assurance to create high confidence by consumers.
Animal fodder, animal origin - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Feeding stuffs of animal origin other than milk and milk products cannot be given to herbivores. (DI production standards, 5.5.2. Feeding of dairy cows, sheep, goats and horses; DI production standards, 5.5.4. Feeding of replacement calves, calves for fattening, foal, lambs and kids)
The DI standards restricts feeding stuffs of animal origin for herbivores. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 fish and other animal products derived from the sea can be fed. Feeds must be appropriate to the class of animals and its physiological needs.
Animal fodder, animal origin - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 There is a limited list of feeds of animal origin permitted for feeding to livestock. Certain items on this list are permitted to be fed only to non-herbivores. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.13.23. Soil Association standards are more restrictive than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards specify that fish molluscan or crustacean autolysates, hydrolysates and proteolysates obtained by enzyme action, fish oil, and fishmeal may be fed only to non-herbivores. EU Regulation allows feeding of these products to both herbivores and non-herbivores. Feeding fish products to herbivores is incompatible with their innate behaviour and therefore contradicts the principles of care and fairness.
Animal fodder, animal origin, - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Conventional feed of animal origin is not allowed to be fed to ruminants, but may be fed to pigs and chickens. For ruminants, organic by-products from milk processing such as whey and skim milk may be used (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.12).
There are no restrictions on the use of conventional feed of animal origin to ruminants in EU Regulation 2092/91. There are restrictions on the type of conventional feedstuff of animal origin but there is no requirement that any should be organic. Ruminants do not naturally eat fish and should therefore not be feed with fish products.
Animal fodder, animal origin, fish products - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 There is a limited list of feeds of animal origin permitted for feeding to animals. Among these, any fish products must be either a by-product of fish for human consumption or from fisheries certified as being sustainably managed. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.13.23. Soil Association standards contain an additional restriction not included in EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards state that fish products for animal feed must be either by-products of human consumption or products of fisheries certified by a recognised body as sustainably managed. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the use of any fish product for this purpose. The Soil Association standards aim to ensure that the use of fish products for organic animal feed does not increase the amount of unsustainable fishing.
Animal fodder, cattle - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
During the summer cattle must be fed fresh green fodder. Calves should preferably be fed with BIOLAND certified milk during the first 3 months. The feeding of dried grass cobs should be avoided. (Bioland production standards, 4.5.2 Cattle feeding)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The feeding of fresh green fodder is not required by the EU Regulation 2092/91 and it does not refer to grass cobs. To provide the animals with feed which is appropriate to the species, to ensure BIOLAND quality throughout the whole production chain and to reduce the consumption of energy.
Animal fodder, cattle - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Cattle must be fed with fresh green fodder during the growing season. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.2.Feeding, 2.2 Cattle)
The NATURLAND requires cattle to be fed with fresh green fodder whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 requires roughage for herbivores and recommends pasture. To ensure animal feeding to be appropriate to the species and as natural as possible.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Bio Austria has the following restrictions of the products of annex II C and D.: Annex II C 1 Feed materials from plant origin: Following species as grains or kernels and/or by-products are not allowed 1.1. rice, millet, sorghum; 1.2. cotton, sesame, palm, olives, vegetable oils; 1.3. chickpeas, ervil, broad beans vetches; 1.4. potato, sweet potato, manioc. 1.5. All products of annex II C 1.5. are not allowed. 1.6. As forages and roughages only the following conventional feeds are permitted: o alfalfa grass meal, clover grass meal, grass meal o only after procurement of additional fields, as the harvest of newly acquired acreage: alfalfa, clover, green forage, hay, silage, grain straw as green forage and roughage. 1.7. Molasses is allowed as binding agent only; all other products are not allowed. 2 Only the following feed material from animal origin are permitted: 2.1. Curd and sour milk are allowed only from organic origin. 2.2. All products of annex II C 2.2. (products of aquaculture) are not allowed. 2.3. Eggs and egg products for use as poultry feed are allowed only from organic origin. In Annex II D the following products are not allowed: 1.3. Enzymes 3.1. Cereal flour and molasses
The list of admitted fodder from conventionl sources is more restricted by Bio Austria General Standard when compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91 annex II C. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence . There is a historical point too. The list of conventional feed in the Austrian Codex Alimentarius was very short in the past before 1999. Therefore it should also be continued in the future. Some products are not relevant in Austria (f. e. seed of cotton or palm kernels).
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006 Bio Austria has the following restrictions of the products of annex II C and D.: Annex II C 1Feed materials from plant origin: Following species as grains or kernels and/or by-products are not allowed 1.1.rice, millet, sorghum; 1.2.cotton, sesame, palm, olives, vegetable oils; 1.3.chickpeas, ervil, broad beans vetches; 1.4.potato, sweet potato, manioc. 1.5.All products of annex II C 1.5. are not allowed. 1.6.As forages and roughages only the following conventional feeds are permitted: oalfalfa grass meal, clover grass meal, grass meal oonly after procurement of additional fields, as the harvest of newly acquired acreage: alfalfa, clover, green forage, hay, silage, grain straw as green forage and roughage. 1.7.Molasses is allowed as a binding agent only; all other products are not allowed. 2Only the following feed material from animal origin are permitted: 2.1.Curd and sour milk are allowed only from organic origin. 2.2.All products of annex II C 2.2. (products of aquaculture) are not allowed. 2.3.Eggs and egg products for use as poultry feed are allowed only from organic origin. In Annex II D the following products are not allowed: 1.3.Enzymes 3.1.Cereal flour and molasses The Bio Austria General Standard contains further restrictions to EU Regulation 2092/91, as there are a lot of products of the annex II which are not allowed or restricted while EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the full list of annex II C to be imported from conventional agriculture. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence. There is a historical point too: The list of conventional feed in the Austrian Codex Alimentarius was very short in the past before 1999 and therefore this should be continued in future too. Some products are not relevant in Austria (f. e. seed of cotton or palm kernels).
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Bio Austria has the following restrictions of the products of annex II C and D.: Annex II C 1 Feed materials from plant origin: Following species as grains or kernels and/or by-products are not allowed 1.1. rice, millet, sorghum; 1.2. cotton, sesame, palm, olives, vegetable oils; 1.3. chickpeas, ervil, broad beans vetches; 1.4. potato, sweet potato, manioc. 1.5. All products of annex II C 1.5. are not allowed. 1.6. As forages and roughages only the following conventional feeds are permitted: o alfalfa grass meal, clover grass meal, grass meal o only after procurement of additional fields, as the harvest of newly acquired acreage: alfalfa, clover, green forage, hay, silage, grain straw as green forage and roughage. 1.7. Molasses is allowed as binding agent only; all other products are not allowed. 2 Only the following feed material from animal origin are permitted: 2.1. Curd and sour milk are allowed only from organic origin. 2.2. All products of annex II C 2.2. (products of aquaculture) are not allowed. 2.3. Eggs and egg products for use as poultry feed are allowed only from organic origin. In Annex II D the following products are not allowed: 1.3. Enzymes 3.1. Cereal flour and molasses (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.4 (3.4.2.2, 3.4.2.4))
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as there are a lot of products of the annex II that are not allowed or restricted while EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the full list of annex II C to import from conventional agriculture. The main reason for this reduction is to create high consumer confidence. There is a historical point too. The list of conventional feed in the Austrian Codex Alimentarius was very short in the past before 1999. Therefore it should be continued in future too. Some products are not relevant in Austria (f. e. seed of cotton or palm kernels).
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Animals must be fed with bio-dynamic or organic fodder: no conventional fodder is allowed (with the exception of minerals and emergency cases).
DEMETER does not accept any conventional fodder on their farms with the only exception for cases of emergency. EU Regulation 2092/91 does allow certain limited ratios of non-organic fodder. No justification was provided from the standards owner.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) shall be fed 100 % organic feed whith a maximum of 30 % in-conversion feed or 60 % in-conversion feed if it comes from own farm according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, 2006, table 4.4. According to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Table 4.4: Requirements of the daily feed ration in DM/animal/day, it is not allowed to feed conventional feed products to ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats), while the EU Regulation 2092/91 as amendended by EU Regulation 1294/2005, allows 5% conventional feed to ruminants during the period from 25 August 2005 to 31 December 2007. A study carried out in Denmark showed that it is possible to feed ruminants with 100 % organic and in-conversion feedstuffs, so the allowance of 5 % conventional feed in the feed ration for herbivores until 31. December 2007 only applies to horses in Denmark. Consumers expect that animals used for organic food production are fed 100 % with organic feed products.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
In France, a limited proportion of conventional feedstuff is authorised where the farmer is unable to obtain feed exclusively from organic production. The maximum percentage of conventional feedstuff authorised per year is 10 % of the annual ration for all animals (25% of the daily ration).
French regulation limits the use of non organic feed materials to 10% of the annual ration for herbivores and non herbivores, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 20% for non herbivores until August 2005 and from then on gradually lower amounts. 100 % organic feed is an important goal for organic animal husbandry: It is a question of consistency, independence, traceability, security against GMOs, and confidence of the consumers. In France, organic cereals are widely available and 10% is sufficient for the protein feed materials..
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
All livestock systems should provide the optimum level of 100% of the diet from feedstuffs (including 'in conversion' feedstuffs) produced to the requirements of these guidelines. (Codex Alimenarius Article 13) For an implementation period to be set by the competent authority, livestock products will maintain their organic status providing feed, consisting of at least 85% for ruminants and 80% for non-ruminants and calculated on a dry matter basis, is from organic sources produced in compliance with these Guidelines(Article 14).
The Codex Alimentarius Guidelines do allow a higher percentage of conventional feed compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91, which has been changed in the year 2005 and is reducing in a step-wise procedure the amount on non-conventional feed: until 31 December 2007 for herbivores 5 % and for non-herbivores 15 %. After this period these amounts will be further reduced. Whereas Codex Alimentarius does not set any limits for the purchase of organic off farm fodder, the EU Regulation requires 50% of the feed of herbivores to come from the farm unit itself or in case this is not feasible, be produced on other organic farms. As the Codex Alimentarius Guidelines is a world-wide guideline for national regulations, the requirements for organic feed allow some more flexibility for national competent authorities regarding the use of non-organic feed due to the fact that not in all countries the production of organic feed is already sufficient developed. The principle of availabilty is relevant.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - Nature et Progres Standards 2002
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
For all animal species, the ration must be 100 % organic feed. For herbivores, conventional feedstuff is allowed up to 10%, under exceptional climate conditions (dryness, fire, etc.), but concentrates must be 100 % organic.
Nature et Progres standards require a 100% organic ration for all species (except under exceptionnal climate conditions), and 100 % organic concentrates for all species, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows conventionnal feedingstuff in the annual ration of organic livestock (10% for herbivores, 20% for non herbivores). 100 % organic feed is an important goal for organic breeding: It is a question of consistency, independence, traceability, precaution with regard to GMOs, and maintenance of consumer confidence. In France organic cereals are widely available.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed, hens - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Organic farms which deliver products to a “Bio Austria Marketing Project” have to fulfill further hen feeding restrictions in addition to the general standard of Bio Austria. Conventional feed components are forbidden except the following for which insufficient quantities are available from organic Austrian origin; sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, maize gluten, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent).
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 restrict the amount of some feed as they allow only sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EU Regulation 2092/91. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence. Another reason is to minimise the risks of GMO contamination.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed, pigs - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006 Organic farms which deliver products to a Bio Austria Market Project have to fulfill further pig feeding restrictions in addition to the general rules. Conventional feed components are forbidden except for the following for which products of organic Austrian origin have limited availability: sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewers yeast and molasses (only as binding agent). The BA Special Market Rules 2006 contain further restrictions with regard to the permitted amount of some feed as they allow only sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewers yeast and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EU Regulation 2092/91. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence. Another reason is the minimise the risks of GMO contamination.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed, poultry - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Poultry can be fed with up to 50% organic feed, if Demeter certified feed is not available. No bought in conventional feeding stuffs may be fed. Conventional feed can be used up to 10% in the ration for poultry, if the feed was produced on an area of the Demeter farm itself, which was newly acquired and has not yet completed the first year of the conversion period. (DI production standards, 5.5.9. Feeding of poultry)
The DI standard contains further restrictions. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 poultry can be fed with up to 15% of conventional feed if listed in the corresponding annex and organic quality feed is not available. This applies until 31.12.2007, after that the percentage will decline by 5% in two years until reaching 5% in 2012. The quality of the feed influences the quality of the animal product. Additionally, to enhance independence of the farm from outside inputs and to avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed, roughage and concentrate - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
In France, the percentage of non organic feed in the annual ration of herbivores is calculated separately for roughage and for concentrates.
French regulation specifies that the percentage of non organic feed materials must be calculated separately for roughage and concentrates, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require this. The aim is to avoid all the concentrates in the herbivore ration being non organic.
Animal fodder, feed additives - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Feed additives are allowed if listed in the corresponding appendix (10.4.6.). The amount of copper and zinc is limited. The use of certain substances requires approval of BIOLAND and some can only be used for specific purposes. (Bioland production standards, 4.4.4 Feed additives; Bioland production standards, 10.4.6 Permitted single fodder and additives as feed additives in feeding animals)
The provisions are very similar but in some cases more detailed, i.e. the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the amount of copper and zinc and preservatives do not require specific approval. Avoiding contamination with copper and zinc in outdoor runs and manure.
Animal fodder, general requirements - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Organic farms which deliver products to a “Bio Austria Marketing Project” have to fulfil further feeding restrictions in addition to the general rules. Conventional feed is not permitted, with two exceptions; sugar beet pulp and molasses as a binding agent up to 10 % of additionally purchased organic feed. (Because in this case the self-made basic feed and the added ready-made feed are not calculated the part of this feed is really small.)
The Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006 contain further restrictions with regard to the permitted amount of some feed. The BA Special Market Rules 2006 allow only sugar beet pulp and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EU Regulation 2092/91. The permitted amount of this feed is limited too. It is related to additional purchased single feed material from organic farming and may only be used in connection to those. Because the roughage and the ready-made organic feed (organic mixed fodder) can not be a basis for calculation, the use of these two feeds is reduced to less than 5 % (which is the current maximum for conventional feed). The main reason for the reduction is to create high consumer confidence. Another reason is to minimise the risks of GMO contamination.
Animal fodder, general requirements - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006 Organic farms which deliver products to a Bio Austria Marketing Project have to fulfil further feeding restrictions in addition to the general rules. Conventional feed is not permitted, with two exceptions; sugar beet pulp and molasses as a binding agent up to 10 % of additionally purchased organic feed. (Because in this case the self-made basic feed and the added ready-made feed are not calculated; the part of this feed is really small.) The Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006 contain further restricyions with regard to the permitted amount of some feed as the EU Regulation. The BA Special Market Rules 2006 allow only sugar beet pulp and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EU Regulation 2092/91. The permitted amount of this feed is strictly limited too. It is related to additional purchased single feed material from Organic Farming and may only be used in connection to those. Because the roughage and the ready-made organic feed (organic mixed fodder) can not be a basis for calculation, the use of these two feeds is reduced to less than 5 % (which is the current maximum for conventional feed). The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence. Another reason is the minimization of risks of GMO contamination.
Animal fodder, general requirements - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
§ 205.237 Livestock feed. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must provide livestock with a total feed ration composed of agricultural products, including pasture and forage that are organically produced and if applicable organically handled: In exception those nonsynthetic substances and synthetic substances allowed under § 205.603 may be used as feed additives and supplements.
US require 100 % organic feed (except for approved feed additives and approved synthetic inert ingredients and milk replacer in case of an emergency). EU Regulation 2092/91 allows feed from conventional sources 5 % for herbivores and up to 15 % for other species until 2007 with a decreasing share until 2011. From 2012 onwards EU also require 100 % organic feed. EU specifies feed formula per species, US does not. EU requires that for herbivores at least 50 % of the feed must come from the farm unit itself or a cooperating farm, whereas US does not. No justification was available.
Animal fodder, general requirements, poultry - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Hens must be able to take in part of the feed ration (grains) from the litter, the ration must contain roughage and calcareous feed components. Feed for fattening poultry must consist of at least 65% grains. Waterfowl should be given part of the feed ration in a moist form. (Bioland production standards, 4.5.5 Poultry feeding)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly require grains to be taken up from the litter or a certain percentage of grains to be fed, calcareous feed components or moist feed for waterfowl. However there is the general requirement that the feed shall meet the nutritional and physiological needs of the animals. To provide feed appropriate to the species.
Animal fodder, in-conversion animals, calves - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Brought in organic calves must be fed and managed according to Demeter standards and can be marketed using the Demeter trademark at the earliest 6 months after weaning. (DI production standards, 5.5.4. Feeding of replacement calves, calves for fattening, foal, lambs and kids)
DI has specific provisions for brought in organic calves whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover this aspect. The quality of the feed influences the quality of the animal product.
Animal fodder, in-conversion feedstuff - FR Nature et Progres Standards 2002
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
On average, up to 20 % of the feed formula of rations may comprise in-conversion feedstuff.
Nature et Progres standards allow 20 % of in-conversion feedingstuff in the annual ration of organic livestock whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 30 % of in-conversion feedstuff (up to 60 % if coming from a unit of the own holding). The use of a too large amount of in-conversion feedstuff in rations could prevent organic feedstuff, widely available in France, to be used.
Animal fodder, nutritive definitions - NL SKAL Standard 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Within the definition for roughage, a distinction is made between feed concentrate and other roughage. SKAL has defined feed concentrate - when the roughage consists of: 900 VEM/kg dry matter, a structure of 3% or less, dry matter of 80% or a mixture of corn-cob, corn scrap, potato fibres, grass -and luzerne waste. All other feed is called roughage.
SKAL standard is more detailed by defining concentrates and type of roughage whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 is much more general ( Annex I, part B, 4.7): Rearing systems for herbivores are to be based on maximum use of pasture according to the availability of pastures in the different periods of the year. At least 60 % of the dry matter in daily rations is to consist of roughage, fresh or dried fodder, or silage. For the definition of roughage, the former private SKAL Norms for animal husbandry have been used. This difference should avoid the use of too much feed concentrate.
Animal fodder, origin - Int IFOAM Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The prevailing part (at least more than 50%) of the feed should come from the farm unit itself or be produced in co-operation with other organic farms in the region.(5.6.2)
Whereas the IFOAM limits the purchase of organic fodder by defined limits the EU Regulation 2092/91 states 50% of fodder that should be grown on farm (not mandatory). Fodder production and nutrients on farm should be in balance.
Animal fodder, origin - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Only in pig and chicken production, purchase of bio-dynamic off-farm fodder (cereals) is unlimited. For all other animals the quantity of purchased fodder must not exceed 20% of dry matter equivalent of the annual need for each category.
DEMETER standards contain further restrictions since the standard limits the purchase of fodder at 20% (related to the yearly dry matter equivalent needed for each animal category). Only for pig and chicken rearing are no limits set. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires 50% of the fodder to be grown on the farm if feasible, and if not it should be purchased from other organic farms. The self supply with fodder for ruminants is a principle aim within a bio-dynamic farm. The production of enough roughage adds to a closed and balanced production cycle within the operation and therefore purchase of fodder is restricted for ruminants.
Animal fodder, origin - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Fodder must be procured from organic farms. Purchase is limited by the limits for fertilization intensity on the farm. Also by strictly limiting the export of farmyard manure (which implements a limit on the number of animals) the purchase of fodder is automatically restricted.
The Swiss Ordinance requires a balanced equation of fodder, farm yard manure and commercial fertilizers used in order to ensure a closed production cicle with no excessive farm yard manure produced within the organic farm. The EU Regulation 2092/91 has less requirements, since it only recommends that at least 50 % of the feed should come from the farm unit itself or if this is not feasible produced in cooperation with other organic farms. Fodder production and fertilization on farm must be in balance. In order to avoid soil independent animal husbandry, the Swiss Ordinance limits the purchase of fodder by strictly limiting the export of farm yard manure and by limiting the fertilization with farm yard manure and commercial fertilisers on the operations own land.
Animal fodder, origin - CZ PRO BIO Standards 2004 Livestock farming with the following numbers of animals must be supplied annually with at least 50 % feed from the own organic farm unit: poultry more than 1000, breeding sows more than 30, pigs for fattening more than 60 and horses with more than 10. Farms with numbers of animals less than those mentioned above are not limited. (PB Standards Part II, Chapter 3.1) PRO-BIO restricts the purchase of feed from other organic farms. EU Regulation 2092/92 Annex I/B 4 does allow the use of feed from other organic farms and its quantity is not limited by livestock numbers. The reason for this rule is to restrict animal husbandry without plant production in organic farming.
Animal fodder, origin - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
50% of the feed for one animal species has to be produced on the same farm. The rest can be bought in, preferably from other BIOLAND certified farms. In case of small stock sizes of poultry, pigs and horses (less than 1000 laying hens or the respective figure of other poultry categories, less than 30 sows, less than 60 fattening pigs places or less than 10 horses) 100 % of the fodder can be purchased. If unavailable other organic feeding stuffs and certain conventional feeding stuffs can be used after approval. Ready mixed feed components and mineral feed components can only be purchased from BIOLAND certified, respectively BIOLAND approved companies. Conventional feeding stuffs can only make up 5% of the diet of pigs (not all kind of pig production), 10% for laying hens, 15% for pullets, 15% for fattening poultry and only until an age of 10 weeks, 5% for sheep and 10% for deer. The daily intake of conventional feeding stuffs is limited to 25%. Only a few conventional feeding stuffs are admitted (hay, grass silage, leguminous plants, cereals and mill residue products, oil-bearing seeds, oil cakes, oil expellers, fodder beets, potato protein (only for pigs and poultry), gluten of maize (only poultry), winter grazing on extensively managed areas(only for sheep). Some more conventional feeding stuffs can be used during the conversion period, as long as the animal products are marketed without reference to organic agriculture. Conventional grassland harvest from the own farm can be fed to all kind of animals within the percentages allowed according to the EU Regulation and without specific approval. Animal feed must be of a good quality, feeding stuffs from third world countries, feeding stuffs of animal origin (except for milk) and extraction groats are excluded. (Bioland production standards, 4.4 Animal Density and Purchase of Additional Feedstuffs, 4.4.1 General; Bioland production standards, 10.4 Temporary regulations for purchased feed from non-organic origin; Bioland production standards, 10.4.1 - 10.4.5; Bioland production standards, 4.4.3 Quality of purchased feed; Bioland production standards, 4.4.2 Feed from land in conversion)
The BIOLAND standard contains further restrictions. Less conventional feeding stuffs are admitted and the respective percentages are lower. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 ruminants can be fed with up to 5% conventional feeding stuffs listed in the Annex II C and pigs and poultry can be given up to 15% until the end of 2007. After that the percentage will decline (10% until the end of 2009, 5% until the end of 2011). If animal products are not to be marketed with reference to organic farming within 5 years of the beginning of the conversion period, more types of conventional feeding stuffs (but still less than in the EU Regulation) and the same percentages as indicated in the EU Regulation are admissible. The stipulation to have 50% feed produced on the same farm is restricted in the EU Regulation to herbivores and it can be produced by another organic farm as a cooperation partner.Bioland excludes feeding stuff originating from developping countries, EU doesn't specifiy the origin. The animal density is mainly oriented on the basis of the provision of feed by the business/farm itself. The purchase of fodder is subject to most stringent quality standards in order to minimise the load placed on the operational cycle of the business by pollutants. Bioland production standards, 4.4 Animal Density and Purchase of Additional Feedstuffs, 4.4.1 General; Bioland production standards, 4.4 Animal Density and Purchase of Additional Feedstuffs, 4.4.3 Quality of purchased feed; The provisions refer to the ecological principle of recyling of nutrients and mutual benefit among the different production units of a farm. Furthermore contamination with objectionable substances (i.e. solubles used for extraction processes)must be avoided.
Animal fodder, origin - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
At least 50% of the feed must be produced on the farm itself or by a NATURLAND authorised cooperation partner. Exceptions are admissible for farms with a small number of animals (up to 10 DU). (NL standards on production, Part B.II.2.Feeding)
The NATURLAND standard is similar but slightly more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that 50% of the diet must be home-grown feed for herbivores only. If this is not possible, the feed can be provided by another organic farm as a cooperation partner. All kind of animals shall be fed with home-grown organic feed, if possible. To ensure animal production to be directly linked to the land area and plant production.
Animal fodder, origin - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
At least 50% of the feed must originate on the farm itself or in cooperation with another Demeter farm. (DI production standards, 5.5. Feeding; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 12)
Demeter requires 50% home-grown feed for any kind of animal. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires this only for herbivores. To strive for a circular flow economic system and independence from outside inputs, to enhance the farm individuality
Animal fodder, origin - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Brought in feed should originate from Demeter production if possible, certain quantities of feed may come from not fully certified but biodynamic areas and from organically farmed areas. (DI production standards, 5.5.1. Brought in feeds and in conversion feeds; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 11 and 12)
The DI standard is more detailed in this aspect. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires organic feed and admits feeding of up to 10% brought in feed of conventional origin if this is listed in the corresponding annex and not available in organic quality. Nothing is stated about the percentage of in conversion feed in the daily ration. In order to produce high quality products; the quality of the feed influences the quality of the animal product.
Animal fodder, origin - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
In France, a minimum part of the ration of the organic livestock must be grown on the farm: 50 % of the annual ration of herbivores, 40 % of the annual ration of non-herbivores. For non-herbivores, the percentage can be lower (but not under 10%) if unsufficient land or if the soils of the farm are not good enough to grow cereals (but all the land dedicated to growing feed must be organic). In this case the difference between the feed produced and the 40 % of ration must be contracted with another organic farmer, a feed producer or a cooperative. It is always possible to sell the feed materials to a feed producer and to buy feed in exchange but it has to be contracted.
French regulation requires organic breeders to grow a part of their annual livestock ration, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only requires them to grow a part of their herbivores annual ration or to contract it out to another organic unit. This rule has several justifications. Firstly, it seemed necessary to ensure production of enough organic feed in France. It is partly thanks to this rule that France is ready to reduce the part of conventional feed in organic livestock rations. Secondly, it is a way to ensure that each organic farm has enough land, because off-land breeding is not consistent with the principles of organic agriculture, and because organic manure should be used in priority on the farm where it has been produced..
Animal fodder, origin - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005 All livestock systems should provide the optimum level of 100% of the diet from feedstuffs (including 'in conversion' feedstuffs) produced to the requirements of these guidelines. For an implementation period to be set by the competent authority, livestock products will maintain their organic status providing feed, consisting of at least 85% for ruminants and 80% for non-ruminants and calculated on a dry matter basis, is from organic sources produced in compliance with these Guidelines.(Annex I B 13./14.) Whereas CODEX does not set any limits for the purchase of organic off farm fodder, the EU Regulation 2092/91 suggests 50% of the fodder should be grown on farm (not mandatory). No justification was available.
Animal fodder, origin - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Purchased animal feed must come with preference from NATURLAND certified or equivalent sources. In case of non-availability the admissible percentages of feeding stuffs from conventional origin are 10% for ruminants and 15% for pigs and poultry, if the products are to be marketed with reference to organic production. Otherwise the corresponding percentages of the EU Regulation apply. Only those feeding stuffs listed in the corresponding annexes can be used. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.2.Feeding: 2.1 General requirements, 2.4. Pigs, 2.5. Poultry Appendix 3), 2.Feeding)
The NATURLAND standard contains further restrictions with a lower percentage of conventional feed components for pigs and poultry. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 pigs and poultry can be fed with up to 20% conventional feeding stuff (until 31.12.2005), if the requested organic feed components are not available. This appies to any livestock producer, regardless of the labelling of the product. The NATURLAND list of admissible feeding stuffs of conventional origin is less extensive and includes an indication of which feeding stuff can be used for which type of animal, (i.e. cereals and legume crops are excluded, fish is limited to the feeding of young poultry)) Feeding stuffs that are in general not available in organic quality, or that are considered as problematical (such as soy bean) are excluded from the list to ensure the innocuousness and organic quality throughout the entire production chain.
Animal fodder, origin - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
50% of the feed should be grown on the farm. There are exceptions for small farms (for example 3 cows with off spring or 10 beef cattle or 3 sows with off spring). Cooperation on growing of feed can be done between neighbour farms, there is a need for a cooperation contract. Exceptions can be made special cases (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.6).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 4.3 requires that 50% of the feed for herbivores should come from the farm itself or if that is not possible be produced in cooperation with other organic farms. The KRAV standards cover all animals while EU Regulation 2092/91 covers herbivores. In the KRAV standards pigs should have the possibility to graze and also be provided with roughage during the winter. The KRAV standards make exceptions for small farms were it might be difficult to have the machinery to produce feed of the required kind on the farm.
Animal fodder, origin - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Minimum proportions of fibrous, home-produced, in-conversion, and organic feedstuffs are specified for livestock feed rations. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.13.13 and 10.13.15. The Soil Association standards contain further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation requires at least 50% of feed for herbivores to be produced on the farm unit or on linked farms. The Soil Association standards require this proportion to be 60%, and they set a minimum proportion of 50% of feed for non-herbivores to be produced on the farm unit or on linked farms to be effective from 1st January 2011. Soil Association standards are intended to conserve energy resources by reducing feed transport and to encourage producers to design their organic holdings or groups of holdings as whole farm systems with relatively closed production cycles, minimising inputs and so conserving resources for sustainable best practice.
Animal fodder, origin, nomadic livestock - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Nomadic livestock, to be marketed with reference to the Demeter trademark, must be fed with 2/3 fodder from own production. Additional fodder can come from extensively managed areas (not certified). (DI production standards, 5.5.5. Nomadic livestock and summer grazing on uncultivated areas)
The percentage of home grown fodder required by the DI standards is higher. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 50% of the feed for herbivores should be produced in the same farming unit or in another cooperating organic farm. This is not required during transhumancy periods. The quality of the feed influences the quality of the animal product.
Animal fodder, origin, pigs - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The amount of bought in feed for pigs may not exceed 50%. This rule applies to farms where an equivalent of more than 5 livestock units in pigs are kept. Feeding stuffs of conventional origin cannot be brought in. Conventional feed can be used up to 10% in the ration, if the feed was produced on an area of the Demeter farm itself, which was newly acquired and has not yet completed the first year of conversion period. In case of proven unavailability of Demeter certified feed, the respective organisation can allow the feeding of maximum 50% organic feed. (DI production standards, 5.5.8. Feeding of pigs)
The DI standard contains further restrictions. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 pigs can be fed with up to 15% of conventional feed if listed in the corresponding annex and organic quality feed is not available. This applies until 31.12.2007, after that the percentage will decline in steps of 5% in two years until reaching 5% in 2012. In order to produce high quality products. The quality of the feed influences the quality of the animal product. Additionally to enhance independence of the farm from outside inputs and to avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Animal fodder, pigs - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Organic farms which deliver products to a “Bio Austria Market Project” have to fulfil further pig feeding restrictions in addition to the general rules. Conventional feed components are forbidden except the following ones for which insufficient quantities of organic Austrian origin are available; sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent).
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 restrict the permitted amount of some feed as they allow only sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EU Regulation 2092/91. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence. Another reason is to minimise the risks of GMO contamination.
Animal fodder, poultry - CZ PRO BIO Standards 2004 A minimum of 10% of the daily corn-feed for laying hens must be given scattered on the ground. (PB Standards, Part II, Chapter 3.5) No similar paragraph is quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. he ethology of scratchers/gallinaceans is a justification for this rule.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
At least 60% of the diet of herbivores must consist of roughage. In summer most of the diet must be fresh green feed, preferably pasture. In winter herbivores (except beef cattle) must be given hay (exemptions can be approved). A feed ration based on silage over the whole year is not allowed. The ration for beef cattle can be based on silage but green material must be given additionally in summer. (DI production standards, 5.5.2. Feeding of dairy cows, sheep, goats and horses; DI production standards, 5.5.3. Feeding of beef cattle)
The DI standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 solely requires the feeding of roughage (60% respectively 50%) and pasture (young herbivores). Feeds must be appropriate to the class of animals and its physiological needs. There are also aspects of product quality, e.g. for milk.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement - Nature et Progres Standards 2002
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
A minimum proportion of the dry matter in daily rations of herbivores has to consist of roughage, fresh or dried fodder : 80% for cattle, 70% for sheeps and goats.
Nature et Progres standards require at least 70 % of roughage, fresh or dried fodder in the ration of sheeps and goats, and 80% in the ration of cattle, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only requires 60 % for all herbivores, or 50 % under certain conditions. This requirement is to satisfy the physiological needs of ruminants which need a certain amount of fibres to have good digestion.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
All animals should have free access to roughage. In the diet for ruminants reared for meat there may be maximum 30% concentrate. For dairy animals there may be maximum 40% concentrate except for the first three months in lactation when it may be 50%. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.10 and 5.3.11).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 4.7 it is required that 60% of the feed for herbivores is roughage. This can be reduced to 50% for dairy animals during three months early in the lactation. Paragraph 4.11 requires that roughage shall be added to the daily diet for pigs and poultry. The KRAV standards require free access to roughage.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, grazing - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Grazing should constitute at least 50% of the dry matter for ruminants (during the grazing season). For dairy animals and bullocks a somewhat lower proportion can be allowed for shorter periods but as a minimum half or the roughage should be from grazing. Pigs and poultry should have the possibility to graze, providing both feed and opportunity for activity. Stud bulls may be kept in outdoor runs but during the grazing period they should have access to fresh grass (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.13 and 5.3.14).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require grazing for pigs or poultry. For herbivores it is required in paragraph 4.7 that rearing systems for herbivores are to be based on maximum use of pasturage. All animals, including pigs and poultry graze. For poultry though it might not be such an important part of the diet, activity it is very important. Sweden has a lot of land for grazing and it is important that these areas are used, also from a biodiversity perspective.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, ruminants - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 Daily ratio for all ruminants must comprise at least 60% of roughage (calculated on a dry matter basis). Calves must be offered roughage from the second week of their life.(4.4.4. - 4.4.5) The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows for animals in a dairy production reduction to 50% of roughage for 3 months in early lactation. The offer of roughage to calves is not required by the Regulation. All ruminants need roughage for a good digestion. The same goes for calves, for development of their stomach early access to roughage is necessary.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, ruminants - AT Bio Austria General Standard Roughage must comprise at least 60 % of the daily ration for ruminants. Calves are to be offered structured roughage from the second week of age. The Bio Austria General Standard contains tighter restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91, which allows in special cases for a 3-month reduction to 50 % roughage. The offer of roughage to calves is not regulated in EU Regulation 2092/91. Ruminants need structured roughage for a species-appropriated function of the digestion. It is important to give calves roughage early to ensure good stomach development. It is also a measure against intensification.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, ruminants - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Roughage must comprise at least 60 % of the daily ration for ruminants. Calves are to be offered structured roughage from the second week of age.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows in special cases for at least 3 months a reduction to 50 % roughage and the offer of roughage to calves is not regulated. The Bio Austria General Standard requires a higher ratio of roughage in the daily supply and considers all ruminants including calves. Ruminants need structured roughage for a species-appropriated function of the digestion. To develop a good ruminant stomach it is important to give calves roughage very early. It is a measure against intensification too.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, ruminants - UK Compendium 2005 Herbivores, once weaned, are to be reared making the maximum possible use of pastures. Their daily ration must contain at least 60% in dry matter of fresh, dried, or ensiled forage, containing roughage. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows a reduction, from 60% to 50%, in the minimum proportion of forage for the daily ration of dairy animals up to a maximum of 3 months in early lactation. This reduction is not permitted in the UK Compendium. The EU Regulation allows a higher carbohydrate, lower fibre, cereal-based ration to be fed to dairy animals in early lactation. This ration may promote higher daily milk yields but may also increase the risks to the health, welfare, and longevity of the animals. The higher concentrate ration risks compromising the health and welfare of the livestock.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, ruminants - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association standards (Paragraphs 11.3.2) set a minimum proportion of fibrous feed and a maximum proportion of concentrate feed in the rations of cattle, sheep and goats after weaning. The Soil Association specifies a minimum of 60% roughage, fresh or dried fodder, or silage for all cattle, sheep and goats (after weaning). In this case, the Soil Association complies with the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 4.7. Soil Association Organic Standards. 11.3.5, and 12.3.7. Soil Association Standards use the most strict option provided within EU Regulation 2092/91 regarding herbivore feed rations, as follows. EU Regulation permits inspection bodies to authorise a reduction from 60% to 50% in the minimum proportion of fibrous forage in the daily ration of dairy animals during the first 3 months of lactation. The EU Regulation allows inspection bodies to authorise a higher carbohydrate, lower fibre, cereal-based ration to be fed to dairy animals in early lactation. This ration may promote higher daily milk yields but increase the risks to the health, welfare, and longevity of the animals. The higher concentrate ration risks compromising the health and welfare of the livestock.
Animal fodder, silage - FR Nature et Progres Standards 2002
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Silage is forbidden in the ration of herbivores.
Natures et Progres standards forbid the use of silage for herbivores whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 allows it. Silage makes an unbalanced ration, creating bad sanitary conditions for the livestock. It also has a bad influence on the quality of milk products such as cheese or yoghurt. Furthermore in organic farms it is desirable to avoid systems based on maize silage, which is bad for the environment as maize requires a lot of water and leads to long periods of bare soil, and these systems often have short rotations.
Animal fodder, silage - FR Regulation 2000 Silage may account for not more than 50% of dry matter in daily rations of herbivores. French regulation forbids the use of more than 50% of silage in the annual ration of herbivores whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the use of it. Silage makes for an unbalanced ration, creating bad sanitary conditions for the livestock. It also has a bad influence on the quality of milk products such as cheese or yoghurt. Furthermore in organic farms, we want to avoid systems based on maize silage, which is bad for the environment as maize requires a lot of water and leads to long periods of bare soil, and these systems often have short rotations.
Animal fodder, synthetic vitamins - CZ KEZ Standards 2005 The use of synthetic vitamins is generally permitted, both for monogastric animals and for ruminants. (KEZ Standards, Part 2, 9.2). EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex II/D 1.2 allows the use of synthetic vitamins only for monogastric animals. The use of synthetic vitamins of types A, D and E for ruminants is allowed under limited conditions. KEZ Standards contain further requirements; they require recommendation from a veterinarian and permission of the certification body for their use in any case. The standard-setting body could not give a justification.
Animal fodder, waterfowl - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Waterfowl must be given moist feed. (DI production standards, 5.5.9. Feeding of poultry)
The DI standard is more precise: The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not particularly refer to the feeding of waterfowl but requires animal feed to 'meet the nutritional requirements of the livestock'. Feed must be appropriate to the class of animals and its physiological needs.
Animal health plan - UK Compendium 2005 After starting with a paragraph defining veterinary terms to be used in subsequent paragraphs, the UK Compendium then requires the preparation and implementation of a Livestock Health Plan, based on positive animal welfare and the building up of positive health to achieve a progressive reduction of disease risks. UK Compendium, Paragraph 5.1.1 contains definitions of terms in addition to the EU Regulation text. Paragraph 5.1.2 then refers to the principles of positive welfare and positive health, and requires a Livestock Health Plan to be drawn up, implemented and monitored. This plan should be designed to suit the individual circumstances of the farm, to build up levels of health as a means to reduce disease risks, and thus to progressively reduce the reliance on veterinary medication for disease control. EU Regulation 2092/91 contains no requirement for a livestock health plan. UK Compendium, Paragraph 5.1.3 is identical to EU Regulation, Paragraph 5.1. For organic livestock husbandry, animal health plans provide a standard means to: a) ensure compliance with organic standards, b) apply best practice and promote positive animal health, c) allow the monitoring of health indicators for a planned, progressive reduction in the use of allopathic treatments. They function as a management tool for farmers and herd managers, and a health and welfare evaluation tool for organic inspectors. This planned and monitored approach to animal health is seen as best practice in UK livestock husbandry. It contributes to the fulfilment and verification of the practices and positive outcomes of organic livestock husbandry.
Animal health plan - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.3.3. The livestock management plan must include a livestock health plan, preferably made with assistance of the farm veterinarian; showing how disease resistance will be built and how the use of veterinary medicines will be minimised. There are a number of detailed specifications that must be implemented in the livestock health plan. The plan must include health management during and after conversion, methods used to monitor and diagnose disease, disease control measures, the methods used to reduce pre-existing livestock health problems. The Soil Association have templates available to assist producers in formulating these livestock management and health plans. In their requirement for a livestock health plan, the Soil Association standards comply with the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 5.1. Soil Association standards contain detailed specifications not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards require that the livestock management plan should include a livestock health plan, preferably made with the assistance of the farm vet. EU Regulation mentions the requirement for a livestock health plan as part of the general requirements for a management plan for the organic-production livestock unit in Annex III, Paragraph 1, but includes no further relevant guidance or requirements. The Soil Association standards specifications and guidance for livestock health plans are intended to provide a standard means to apply best practice and promote positive animal health, and to allow the monitoring of health indicators for a progressive reduction of veterinary treatments. Livestock health plans are a management tool for producers and a health and welfare evaluation tool for organic inspectors. They are seen as best practice in UK livestock husbandry, contributing to the fulfilment and verification of the practices and positive outcomes of organic livestock husbandry.
Animal rearing, pullets - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In order to avoid the development of behavioural problems during acclimatization to the hen house, pullets must be reared at low stocking densities with perches and access to an open range. The rearing system should be as similar as possible to the system used during egg laying. Bio Austria sets special provisions regarding stocking density, structuring of the house and outdoor access to covered outdoor areas (covered yard or wintergardens) and to grassland. Because these rules for pullet rearing are part of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus they are valid for all organic farms in Austria, not only for Bio Austria farms. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.14)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have special rules for pullet rearing. Therefore the use of conventional pullets is permissable if pullets of organic origin are not available. Since 1.1.2006, within the EU conventional producers of pullets for organic farming have to fulfil the requirements of section 4 (feed) and section 5 (disease prevention and veterinary treatment) but not other requirements, especially those relating to husbandry management, housing and free range areas. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal and ecological/organic integrity
Animal rearing, weaning, pigs - SE KRAV 2006 Piglets should not be weaned until they are 7 weeks old (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.19). In EU Regulation 2091/91 pigs should not be weaned before 40 days. It might seem that the 9 extra days is a short time but on a fifth of its lifespan the piglet is quite much stronger and also more resistant against diseases.
Animals breeding, birth - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Animals shall be given the opportunity to be alone during giving birth and laying eggs. Cows shall be allowed to calve alone and may only in exceptional cases be tethered. Indoor calving shall take place in a calving box. Sows shall farrow alone and farrowing may take place in a farrowing hut or if indoors in a separate space with sufficient freedom and space. There shall be enough nesting material for sows (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1, 5.2.2 and 5.2.3).
Specific conditions for cows and pigs giving birth is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Animal welfare is one of the most important areas of organic production. Conditions in some conventional systems are far from providing animals the possibility of giving birth in a more natural and undisturbed way. Therefore it is important to clearly express this in organic standards.
Aquaculture, fish production - CZ KEZ Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Standards incorporate the farming of many different species in fresh, brackish and sea water. They deal with the following areas: the origin of the fish and aquatic animals, they forbid any modification including genetic modification. They require conservation of the water environment and the surrounding aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem, determine water quality, particularly the biological quality and protect from potential contamination or pollution of waters. (KEZ, Chapter: Fish and aquatic animals farming, 14.)
KEZ standards cover standards for fish and auatic animals farming. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not deal with fish and aquatic animal farming. The standard-setting body could not give a justification.
Aquaculture, fish production - FR Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
There are standards for organic production of farmed fish.
French regulation includes standards for organic production of farmed fish. There are no such standards in the EU Regulation 2092/91. French fish farmers asked for organic standards.
Aquaculture, fishing - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
KRAV has elaborate standards for fishing covering stock assessment, fishing vessels, fishing methods, landing and processing. There are several standards which focus on environmental issues (KRAV standards chapter 19).
Fishing is not covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Fishing has a huge environmental impact. At the time of establishing the KRAV fishing standard it was not possible to use the Marine Stewardship Council standard due to strong resistance by the fishermen’s association.
Aquaculture, fresh water fish production - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The specific rules for aquaculture are regulated to the type and management of fish production systems, water quality, stocking density, feeding, handling of fish, health, reproduction and breeding, bought in stock and conversion. (Bioland production standards, 4.11. Fresh Water Fish Production)
Bioland has detailed standards for aquaculture, whereas aquaculture is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide rules for any type of organic animal production, practised in the area controlled by BIOLAND.
Aquaculture, general requirements - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Conversion period, maintenance of aquatic ecosystems, the production of aquatic plants and breeds are ruled by IFOAM standards. Also detailed requirements on the nutrition of aquatic animals, health and welfare aspects as well as transport and slaughter are addressed by the standard. (9)
IFOAM has detailled rules for aquaculture. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover aquaculture. Aquatic systems are very vulnerable ecosystems. Specific rules on how to use natural or establish artifical aquatic systems are necessary in order to grant sustainability and credibility in the consumers perception.
Aquaculture, general requirements - SI Rules 2003
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In SI Rules 2003 standards for aquaculture exist (Art. 43 - 47). The standards regulate organic production of non-salmonide native fish species which is possible in ponds with controlled conditions. The standards describe the culture conditions, fish species and number, origin of fish, breeding and feeding, health protection.
SI Rules specify standards for aquaculture whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. To enable organic fish culture in Slovenia.
Aquaculture, general requirements - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There is a substantial chapter containing detailed and comprehensive organic standards for aquaculture. The Soil Association standards on aquaculture contain subsections on system management, organic conversion, eggs and youngstock, environmental management, managing holding facilities, managing water quality, feeding organic stock, maintaining high stock welfare, keeping stock healthy, transporting livestock, harvesting and slaughtering, and record keeping. We do not yet have Soil Association permission to upload very substantial sections of text from the Soil Association Organic Standards, so the file attached contains a list of the associated chapters and subsections together with the text of the first subsection on principles of organic aquaculture.
Soil Association standards contain a set of standards on aquaculture not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation do not include any standards referring to aquaculture. quaculture is a significant sector of food production. The existence of detailed standards enables the principles of organic food and farming to be put into practice in the fish farming sector, encouraging sustainability throughout the sector and making organic farmed fish available to the market, with consequent benefits to all aspects of sustainability.
Aquaculture, general requirements - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Bio Austria General Standard deals with two types of habitats: The habitat for carps rules the production in stagnant and warmer stretches of water. The habitat for trout rules the production of predatory fish in cold running stretches of water, high in oxygen oxygen content but lacking in nutrients. Until aquatic production is ruled by the EU Regulation 2092/91 the rules for different animals are valid for the aquatic production by analogy if practicable. The basis is: The fish production in ponds tries to achieve closed cycles of materials and healthy ecological systems. Therefore methods and techniques are used which infinitely maintain the fertility of fish and stretch of water, use renewable resources, prevent pollution of the environment, support the natural cycles in water and do not disturb any other processes of the food chain. The natural behaviour and needs of the fish are the basis for structuring and assessing the conditions of fish keeping. The Bio AUSTRIA General Standard for fish is the same as that of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus and therefore it is valid for all organic fish farms in Austria. It contains detailed rules for water quality, cultivation, stock and keeping, therapy and hygiene, fish multiplying, origin and dissemination, feed and feed buying, fish protection, conversion and control. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.17)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover rules for fish production. In the case of fish production EU Regulation does not give legal rules and it is therefore necessary to give minimum standards to this part of animal husbandry.
Aquaculture, general requirements - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_html.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_html.png
The Bio Austria General Standard deals with two types of habitats: o The habitat for carps rules the production in stagnant and warmer stretches of water. o The habitat for trout is about the production of predatory fish in running, cold stretch of water high in oxygen but lacking in nutrients. Until the aquatic production will be ruled by the EU Regulation 2092/91 the rules for different animals are valid for the aquatic production by analogy if practical. The basis is: The fish production in ponds tries to achieve closed cycles of materials and healthy ecological systems. Therefore methods and techniques are used which maintain the fertility of fish and the stretch of water infinitely, use renewable resources, do not pollute the environment badly, support the natural cycles in water and do not disturb any other process of the food chain. The natural behaviour and needs of the fish are the basis for structuring and assessing the conditions of fish keeping. The Bio AUSTRIA General Standard for fish is the same as that of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus and therefore it is valid for all organic fish farms in Austria. It contains detailed rules for water quality, cultivation, stock and keeping, therapy and hygiene, fish multiplying, origin and dissemination, feed and feed buying, fish protection, conversion and control. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.17)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover rules for fish production. Principle of care. No justification was provided by the standard-setting organisation.
Aquaculture, general requirements - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The NATURLAND standards for organic aquaculture contain detailed provisions regarding the following aspects: 1. Selection of site, interaction with surrounding ecosystems 2. Species and origin of stock 3. Breeding, hatchery management 4. Design of holding systems, water quality, stocking density 5. Health and Hygiene 6. Oxygen Supply 7. Organic Fertilising 8. Feeding 9. Transport, Slaughtering and Processing 10. Smoking 11. Social aspects Moreover there are specific instructions concerning the production systems of carp (Cyprinus carpio), trout, salmon and other salmonids, mussels (Blue mussel Mytilus edulis and others), shrimps (Western White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and others) and tropical freshwater fishes (Siamese catfish Pangasius sp., milkfish Chanos chanos, tilapia Oreochromis sp., arapaima Arapaima gigas et al.). (NL standards for organic aquaculture, 01/2005)
There is a detailed NATURLAND aquaculture standard. Aquaculture is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide specific rules for any significant type of agricultural / food production.
Aquaculture, general requirements - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
KRAV has standards for aquaculture covering conversion, environmental aspects, animal welfare, health, feed and slaughter. There are specific standards for salmonoids, perch and mussels (KRAV Standards chapter 7).
There are no detailed rules for aquaculture in EU Regulation 2092/91 but there is a reference to the possibility for the Member States to recognise private standards. There is an interest from consumers to also get organic aquaculture products. There are several environmental and health issues in aquaculture were organic production makes a difference.
Aquaculture, production and processing - SP CAAE Standards 2002
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The farmed fish aquaculture standards of the Andalusian Comittee for Organic Farming (CAAE), a private certification body in Andalusia and Castilla-La Mancha has a 10 page standard document for farmed fish and a 3 page document for fish processing, covering different aspects such as; scope, general principles, labelling, conversion period, animal origin, health care, surrounding environment, farm fished facilities, fish feeding; animal identification, transport and slaughtering methods. The standards also cover the specifications for differents types of fish and 2 annexes for products and methods used for controlling diseases and feeding. The text can be requested from info@caae.es or comuni@caae.es
This regulation includes standards for organic production and organic proceesing of farmed fish. There are no such standards in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Andalusian organic fish farmers and processors market fish with this organic standard.
Aquaculture, wild-harvest - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Operators should take measures to ensure that wild, sedentary aquatic species are collected only from areas where the water is not contaminated by substances prohibited in these standards.(2.4.5)
IFOAM specifies necessary measures for collecting wild aquatic species whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover this. Products from wild harvest are expected to be free of residues or contaminants; this is a consumers expectation of organic food.
Beekeeping, colonies - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Colonies must not be united routinerary and queens must not be systematically replaced with the purpose of increasing the honey production. (DI production standards, 4.2 Methods for increasing Honey Production)
The DI standard is more detailed. The above mentioned methods to increase honey production are not prohibited by the EU Regulation 2092/91. It is a principle of Demeter beekeeping, that bees are kept in close accordance with their nature. "Bee keepers working in the context of biodynamics orientate themselves primarily towards meeting the natural requirements of the colony. Management is so structured that the bee is able freely to unfold its true nature."
Beekeeping, feed - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Any surpluses from the winter feed must be removed from the hives before the start of the collecting period. During the season only BIOLAND honey can be used as feed for the colonies. BIOLAND certified feed components must be used. If these are not available, feeding stuffs of organic origin can be used. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.5 Feeding Bees)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more detailed by requiring surplus feed to be removed. This is not required by the corresponding EU Regulation 2092/91, however there is a requirement for feeding to be stopped at least 15 days before the beginning of the next flow of nectar or honey dew. The preference of feeding stuffs of BIOLAND quality is not regulated by the EU Regulation. In order to avoid adulteration of the honey to be harvested with remaining feed made from sugar.
Beekeeping, feed - Demeter International 2004
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Winter feed must contain at least 10% of honey; herb tea (camomile) and salt should be added. All feed components should be of biodynamic origin. The same feed can be used if feeding the colonies is necessary before the first nectar flow of the season, as well as to strengthen swarms and the colonies where the swarms come from. During the season only honey of Demeter quality is admitted for emergency feeding. Stimulative feeding is not permitted. (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 4.5 Feeding)
The DI standards are more precise. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 honey from the same unit is to be used for feeding the bees if necessary; however feeding with organic sugar can be (and is) admitted by the authorities of the member states. This is also possible during the season, if the feeding is realized between the harvest of honey and 15 days before the next period of nectar or honeydew flow. Honey and pollen must be left in the hives at the end of the season. A certain percentage is not indicated. Biodynamic quality is not regulated by the EU Regulation. It is a principle of Demeter beekeeping, that bees are kept closely in accordance with their nature. Honey is the natural feed for bees. "Bee keepers working in the context of biodynamics orientate themselves primarily towards meeting the natural requirements of the colony. Management is so structured that the bee is able freely to unfold its true nature". (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 1.Validity and basis)
Beekeeping, feed - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
If necessary, the colonies can be fed. The winter feed should consist of at least 10% of honey from own production. In addition organic sugar can be fed. Adulteration of honey with remains of winter feed must be excluded. During the season only organic honey (with preference NATURLAND certified or equivalent) can be fed. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.4. Feeding)
The NATURLAND standard is similar to the EU Regulation 2092/91, but more precise by determining a certain percentage (at least 10%) of honey in the winter feed and by admitting only honey as feed in between the periods of nectar flow in one season. To provide healthy and natural feed to the bees while at the same time considering the economic needs of the beekeeper. To avoid adulteration of the honey to be harvested.
Beekeeping, general requirements - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Bio AUSTRIA General Standard for bee-keeping is basically the requirement of the EU Regulation 2092/91 including some more detailed points: hive protection, management of colonies, building and storing of honey combs, wax processing, processing of extracted honey, honey storing and analysing, bees health. Additionally to the followings of the standard there must be made a wax analysis (mixed sample of hives medium walls and wax stocks) of residues of inadmissible Varroa- and wax moth-pesticides. • Honey must not be kept in containers made of synthetic substances (instead of stainless steel), because even food proved synthetic substances seem to emit softening agents which are supposed to be absorbed by honey changing the scent of it. • The residues must not be more than 0.5 mg/kg wax per active substance which corresponds to the provable limit. • In general there are big residue problems (the average values of wax are between 1.7 mg and 6 mg Apistan/kg, other chemicals can have much higher values). • Thymol (against Varroa) is not permitted because the residues in honey change the scent of it. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.18)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it provides analysis of wax for Varroa and wax moth control substances which are forbidden in organic agriculture. Residues may not exceed 0.5 mg/kg wax per substance. Further rules are specifications to the EU Regulation 2092/91 for bee keeping. Principle of care/precaution. No justification was provided by the standard-setting organisation.
Beekeeping, harvesting honey - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Only mature honey can be extracted from the hive. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.3 Honey, 4.10.3.1 Harvest)
The BIOLAND standard is more precise. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly require only mature honey to be extracted. However there is a general requirement of an adequate harvest of bee products. In order to ensure the high quality of the honey and to avoid problems arising as a consequence of i.e. a high water content of the honey.
Beekeeping, harvesting pollen - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
This chapter regulates in detail the collection of BIOLAND pollen. There are detailed provisions concerning the character, placement and cleaning of facilities for pollen, the extraction and the handling of the harvested pollen. Among others: It is important, that enough pollen for the bee's own supply is left in the hive and that bees are not injured while stripping off the pollen. The pollen has to be protected from negative impacts caused by climatic influences or inappropriate handling and processing (i.e. temperature of drying air). It must be stored in a cool, dark and dry place. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.4 Pollen, 4.10.4.1 Pollen trap; Bioland production standards, 4.10.4.2 Processing; Bioland production standards, 4.10.4.3 Packing and storage)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the harvesting of pollen in detail. There is only the general requirement of adequate handling of bee products during harvest, processing and storage and to leave an extensive quantity of pollen in the hives at the end of the season. To avoid major disturbances of the colonies and to respect their integrity. To guarantee BIOLAND pollen to be a high quality product.
Beekeeping, harvesting pollen - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Care must be taken not to injure the bees when gathering pollen. The holes in the pollen comb should preferably be round. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.5.Beekeeping practice, breeding, increasing stocks)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate this aspect. To care for the well-being of the animal.
Beekeeping, hive construction - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The hives must be constructed using mainly natural materials and substances. Harmful types of glue, painting or varnish is prohibited. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.2 Hives)
The BIOLAND standard is similar but more precise in explicitly excluding the use of chemical synthetic substances for the construction of bee hives. To avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Beekeeping, hive treatment - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The interior of the bee hives can only be treated with beeswax, propolis, plant oils or heat. For hygienic treatment heat, acetic acid, BT preparations (Bacillus thuringiensis) can be used. In case of acute infection caustic soda and organic acids can be used with subsequent neutralisaion with organic acids. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.2 Hives)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. Less products can be used for cleaning and disinfection of bee hives. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the products listed in Annex II B can be used to protect the hives from pest. Substances allowed for cleaning and desinfection are listed in Annex II E: Potassum and sodium soap, Water and steam, Milk of lime, Lime, Quicklime, Sodium hypochlorite (e.g. as liquid bleach), Caustic soda, Caustic potash, Hydrogen peroxide, Natural essences of plants, Citric, peracetic acid, formic, lactic, oxalic and acetic acid, Alcohol, Formaldehyde, Sodium carbonate. To avoid contamination of bee products with objectionable substances.
Beekeeping, hive treatment - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The interior of the hives can only be treated with beeswax and propolis of Demeter quality. On the exterior only non-synthetic and ecologically safe wood preservatives can be applied. For cleaning and disinfection only heat is allowed. (DI production standards, 3.1 Interior Treatment; DI production standards, 3.2 Exterior Treatment; DI production standards, 3.3 Cleaning and Disinfection)
The DI standard is more detailed. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 more substances are allowed for internal and external treatment and for cleaning and disinfection of the hives. Products of Demeter quality are not regulated. Natural substances are preferred. To avoid contamination with objectionable substances is another criterion.
Beekeeping, hive treatment - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
For the external treatment of hives only natural substances are permitted. In case of acute infection, caustic soda can be used for disinfection. Combs can only be treated with acetic acids and BT preparations. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II: 2.1. Treatment of the hives 2.2. Cleaning and disinfection 3. Wax and honeycombs)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailled by allowing only natural substances for the external treatment of hives. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 all the substances listed in the annex II B can be used to protect hives, frames and combs. For disinfection all the products listed in annex II E can be used. To avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Beekeeping, natural colonies - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Colonies must have the opportunity to construct natural combs. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.3 Wax and Honeycombs)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require the natural construction of combs. To enable the bees to carry out their natural behaviour.
Beekeeping, natural combs - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Bees must be able to freely and naturally construct the combs in the brood area. Waxen foundations can only be used for the combs in the supers. The brood area must not be divided. Separation barriers as part of the management system are not allowed. (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 4.4 The Comb; DI standards for beekeeping and hive products,4.4.1 Combs in the Brood Chamber; DI standards for beekeeping and hive products,4.4.2 Combs in the Supers)
The DI standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require the natural construction of combs. Furthermore it does not prohibit the brood area to be divided or the use of barriers in the system. The comb is integral to the beehive. The colony is an entity and must not be divided. It is a principle of biodynamic beekeeping, that bees are kept closely in accordance with their nature. Beekeepers working in the context of biodynamics orientate themselves primarily towards meeting the natural requirements of the colony. Management is so structured that the bee is able freely to unfold its true nature. DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 1. Validity and basis)
Beekeeping, natural combs - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The wax should be continuously renewed. The colonies should have opportunities to natural construction of honeycombs. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.3. Wax and honeycombs)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require nor recommend the construction of natural honeycombs or continuous wax renewal. Accumulation of residues in the wax should be avoided. The construction of honeycombs is a vital element of the natural behaviour of bees.
Beekeeping, origin of bees - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
In general only bees of BIOLAND certified origin can be brought in. In case of unavailability, bees from other certified organic operations can be purchased. Conventional queens and swarms can be brought in annually in a quantity of up to 10% of the existing stock. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.9 Purchase of Additional Bees)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more precise by requiring the preference of BIOLAND origin for bees to be brought in, which is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. The provisions concerning bees from conventional origin to be brought in are identical with the EU Regulation. To ensure BIOLAND quality throughout the whole production chain.
Beekeeping, origin of bees - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Colonies and queens to be brought in must come from Demeter certified beekeeping. In case of unavailability, certified organic colonies and queens can be brought in. Other colonies can only be brought in without combs. (DI production standards, 4.1.1 Buying-in of Colonies and Queens)
The DI standard is slightly more detailed. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 approval can be given to bring in complete conventional colonies in extraordinary cases (high mortality, health reasons, catastrophy). These colonies have to be converted. Colonies and queens of Demeter quality are not regulated. In order to support independence from the continuous introduction of bees from elsewhere. To ensure Demeter quality throughout the whole production chain and avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Beekeeping, origin of bees - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Only colonies and queens from certified organic origin (NATURLAND or equivalent, if available) and free from contamination with substances, prohibited by the NATURLAND standards, can be brought in. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.7. Brought-in bees)
The NATURLAND standard is similar but slightly more precise by requiring NATURLAND certified colonies (or equivalent) if available. To ensure NATURLAND quality throughout the whole production chain.
Beekeeping, origin of wax - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
New foundations must be made from BIOLAND certified wax, generated from naturally built honeycombs or caps. It must be free from residues of prohibited insecticides. Wax must not have had contact with other chemicals. If no BIOLAND certified wax is available to exchange the wax during the conversion period, residue-free wax of conventional origin (from natural combs and caps) can be used. The use of plastic foundations is prohibited. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.3 Wax and Honeycombs; Bioland production standards, 4.10.5 Conversion)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the handling of wax after harvest. Plastic foundations are not mentioned. The EU Regulation does not regulate the use of wax of BIOLAND certification. To ensure the wax to be free from contamination with harmful substances. A continuous renewal of wax is required in order to avoid the accumulation of residues in the hive.
Beekeeping, origin of wax - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Wax brought in must be generated from natural combs or caps and preferably come from Demeter certified beekeepers. (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 4.4.3 Origin of wax)
The DI standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate wax of Demeter quality, but allows the use of conventional wax from caps, if organic wax is not available. To ensure Demeter quality throughout the whole production chain and to avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Beekeeping, origin of wax and conversion - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Any wax to be introduced into the colonies must preferentially come from NATURLAND certified beekeepers. In case of proven unavailability certified organic wax or residue free conventional wax generated from caps can be used. Plastic foundations are not allowed. During the conversion period, the wax has to be replaced by organic wax respectively wax free from residues. For the extraction of wax, the use of solvents, bleaches or other additives is not allowed. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.3. Wax and honeycombs)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed by requiring NATURLAND certified wax if available and by explicitly requiring an analysis to prove the innocuousness of conventional wax. Moreover the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not prohibit the use of plastic foundations. Harvesting and processing of wax are not regulated in detail. There is however the general requirement of careful and adequate extraction, processing and storage of beekeeping products (Annex IC.7.7). To avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Beekeeping, preparation of honey - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Honey may not be heated to more than 40°C. If possible, the honey should be filled into containers before its first consolidation. Honey must be stored in a cool, dark and dry place and it must not be filtered with pressure. Containers used for selling honey must be returnable. Any containers used must be made of material legally permitted for foodstuffs. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.3.2 Processing)
The BIOLAND standard is more precise. In the EU Regulation 2092/91 there is only the general requirement of an adequate handling of bee products during extraction, storage and processing. There is no regulation on the containers for honey. In order to ensure the high quality of BIOLAND certified honey, to avoid contamination caused by the containers and to enhance direct recycling of containers.
Beekeeping, processing of wax - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Wax must not come into contact with solvents, thinners, bleaching agents or other similar materials. Equipment and containers used must be made of non-oxidising materials or with nonoxidising coating. (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 4.4.4 Wax Processing)
The DI standard is more precise. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly refer to wax processing, but contains a general requirement for the careful and adequate processing of bee products. To avoid contamination with harmful substances and to ensure the high quality of Demeter wax.
Beekeeping, production and handling products - US NOP 2002 Apiculture products may be certified to the existing NOP regulations which will be amended in future rulemaking to cover any unique production and handling requirements. NOP does not have specific provisions on apiculture. The EU Regulation 2092/91 has specific provisions. The NOP intends to provide standards for categories where the Act provides the authority to promulgate standards. These standards will be build upon the existing final rule and will address only the unique requirements necessary to certify these specialized operations.
Beekeeping, repellent/calming synthetic chemicals - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
No chemical synthetic materials may be used to calm or drive away the bees. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.4 Calming and Driving away Bees)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more precise. The prohibition of chemical synthetic repellents in the EU Regulation 2092/91 is limited to the purpose honey extraction. In order to minimise disturbance to the bees.
Beekeeping, repellent/calming synthetic chemicals - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The use of smoke should be reduced to a minimum. Smoke should be produced with preference from natural materials and chemical / synthetical repellents are not admitted. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.5.Beekeeping practice, breeding, increasing stocks)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate the materials used to produce smoke, and the prohibition of synthetic repellents is restricted to the act of harvesting honey. To avoid contamination with harmful substances and to minimize the disturbance of the bees.
Beekeeping, reproduction - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Natural reproduction methods are to be preferred and the swarming instinct has to be considered. Artificial insemination is only allowed in specific cases and after approval has been given by BIOLAND. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.8 Bee breeding)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The corresponding EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to breeding methods for bees. The preference of natural reproduction methods is a principle of the BIOLAND Association. The objective of the breeding is the keeping of varroa-tolerant bees in a manner suited to the ecological conditions. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.8 Bee breeding)
Beekeeping, reproduction - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Propagation of the colonies and selective breeding must be based on the swarming instinct of the bees. Artificial queen breeding, instrumental insemination and genetic engineering is prohibited. (DI production standards, 4.1 Colony Increase and Selective Breeding)
The DI standard is more detailed. Apart from the exclusion of genetic engineering, no specific requirements are indicated regarding the breeding techniques and propagation methods for bees in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Bee keepers working in the context of biodynamics and orientate themselves primarily towards meeting the natural requirements of the colony. Management is so structured that the bee is able freely to unfold its true nature. Swarming is a vital element of the natural behaviour of the bees. It contributes to the fortification of the bee hive, which is an important aim of Demeter beekeeping.
Beekeeping, reproduction - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Natural methods for breeding and reproduction are to be preferred. For the propagation of colonies, the swarming instinct should be taken into account. Artificial insemination of queen bees for breeding purposes needs approval by NATURLAND. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.5.Beekeeping practice, breeding, increasing stocks)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate the propagation of colonies. Swarming instinct and artificial insemination are not mentioned. In order to use the natural disposition to reproduction for the propagation of colonies and make it more natural.
Beekeeping, reproduction - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 It is prohibited to clip the wings of the queen bee or to use artificial insemination in beekeeping. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 15.2.8. Soil Association standards prohibit the use of artificial (instrumental) insemination in bee keeping. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include this prohibition. The precautionary principle argues against pervasive use of instrumental insemination because the long-term consequences are unpredictable. Instrumental insemination of queen bees may reduce the diversity of the gene pool among honeybees as it involves the male spermatozoa of only one male rather than of 10 to 20 males in natural queen bee fertilisation. Traits may be selected for, such as productivity or resistance to specific diseases, but other useful traits could be lost.
Beekeeping, siting of apiaries - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The siting of the apiaries must ensure that considerable contamination with objectionable substances is not to be expected. In case of suspicion, the bee products must be analysed and consequences must be taken. The colonies may not be placed on a conventionally farmed field. Specific approval by BIOLAND is required if colonies shall be placed outside the area, controlled by BIOLAND (Germany, South Tyrol). For harvesting honey from agricultural crops, organically cultivated crops are to be preferred. Nectar and pollen must not be intentionally collected from intensively managed conventional orchards. Pollen cannot be harvested from crops that have been treated with agrochemicals while flowering. Bee products harvested from areas, that have been declared as unsuitable for organic apiculture cannot be marketed with reference to the organic production method. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2 Keeping of the Bees, 4.10.2.1 Location of the Bee Colonies)
The BIOLAND standard is similar to the corresponding EU Regulation 2092/91. It is more precise in excluding the use of certain conventionally farmed crops for the collection of pollen and nectar (intensively farmed orchards and crops, that have been sprayed while flowering). To avoid contamination of bee products with objectionable substances, but at the same time enabling organic apiculture in Germany.
Beekeeping, siting of apiaries - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Apiaries shall be sited with preference on biodynamically or organically managed or uncultivated land. The biodynamic preparations should be applied regularly in the surroundings of the hives. (DI production standards, 2. The Siting of Apiaries)
The DI standard is similar. The EU Regulation 2092/91, however, does not regulate the application of the biodynamic preparations. The application of the biodynamic preparations is a vital element of Demeter certified agricultural production.
Beekeeping, siting of apiaries - FI Governmenal Regulation on organic animal production 2000 Bee keeping may not take place within six kilometres of a sugar factory, dumping site, refuse burning facility or road trafficed more than 6000 vehicles per day. The standard is more precise in excluding possible sources of contamination. Above mentioned facilities are considered to bear contamination risks to organic beekeeping. The Member States may designate regions or areas where beekeeping complying with the EU Regulation 2091/91 is not practicable.
Beekeeping, siting of apiaries - NO Governmental Regulation 2005.
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
In addition to the requirements in EU Regulation 2092/91 the conventional cultivation of rape or turnip rape in the flight/collection area should not represent more than 5% of the arable land within a radius of 3 km of the bee hive.
EU 2092/91 does not specify maximum percentage limits of special cultivars/crops in relation to the total arable land area. Rape or turnip rape can be contaminated with GMO. The standard setting body wishes to minimalize the risk of contamination.
Beekeeping, siting of apiaries - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Apiaries must be sited on organic land. During flowering and when bees are not dormant, the apiaries must be sited where there is access to bees normal feed resources, where nectar and pollen resources consist essentially of organic crops or uncultivated land within a 4-mile radius around the site (or less with evidence of organic integrity of the honey), and where there is sufficient distance from sources of non agricultural pollution. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 15.4.3, 15.4.4 and 15.4.6. Soil Association standards contain further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. In Soil Association standards for organic honey production and bee keeping, a radius of 4 miles is required around the apiary site, within which nectar and pollen sources must consist essentially of organic crops or uncultivated land during periods of flowering and bee activity. Soil Association permission may be given for a smaller radius if evidence can be provided of the organic integrity of the honey, such as pesticide residue analysis of the honey and land management information about the surrounding land. In EU Regulation, this radius is 3 kilometres and there is no mention of provision of extra information. The larger area of organic crops or uncultivated land required around an apiary by the Soil Association standards is intended to ensure that the honey will contain the minimum possible amounts of residues of any prohibited agricultural inputs. For this purpose, some flexibility regarding the required area is provided on condition that evidence is given to prove the lack of such residues and of sources of prohibited inputs near the apiary.
Beekeeping, siting of apiaries and labelling - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Contamination of bee products with objectionable substances to a degree, greater than what is to be expected from the general pollution of the environment has to be excluded by choosing an appropriate location for the apiaries. Contaminated products and honey varieties consisting of one single intensively farmed conventional crop cannot be marketed with reference to NATURLAND. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.1. Location of the colonies)
The NATURLAND standard is similar to the provisions of the EU Regulation 2092/91, however it is more precise in the aspect to exclude honey from intensively farmed conventional crops from being sold with reference to Naturland. This is to guarantee the innocuousness of the Naturland product. In Germany, rapeseed, which is a very attractive plant for bees and beekeepers is usually cultivated the intensive conventional way.
Beekeeping, veterinary treatment - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Chemical synthetic medication is prohibited. To control the varroa mite organic acids (lactic acid, formic acid, oxalic acid) can be used in the time span between the last harvest and January the 15th of the following year (applicable to productive colonies). Oxidation of metals that can provoke contamination with residues is to be avoided. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.6 Bee Health)
The BIOLAND standard is more precise. Less products can be used for veterinary treatments of bees and the treatment of productive colonies against varroa is restricted to the winter period. Furthermore the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to residues of metal oxidation. In order to avoid contamination of bee products caused by veterinary treatment, and to enhance an adequate handling of bee colonies, that will contribute to strong and healthy colonies, avoid health problems and assist the development of varroa tolerance.
Beekeeping, veterinary treatment - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Colonies can only be treated with the substances listed below and the treatment is only permitted during the period after the last honey harvest until up to 6 weeks before nectar flow begins. For treatment against varroa mite and in accordance with EU Regulation: lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, herbal teas, essential oils (e.g. thymol preparations: only during the period after the last honey harvest until up to 12 weeks before nectar flow begins. The duration of the application must not be longer than 8 weeks.), biological technical and physical methods (e.g. use of heat). (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.6. Health of the bees)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed, restricting the treatment to a certain period. To avoid contamination of bee products with objectionable substances like residues from veterinary treatment.
Bio Austria General Standard 2006: further regulations for processing of vine When the production of wine is made from organically grown grapes resource and energy intensive procedures are to be avoided. Organic waste resulting from wine production must be recycled and returned to the soil. Waste water may not result in environmental pollution. The Bio Austria General Standard allows 3 oenological practices and describes positive lists for treating agents for must, wine and also for cleaning and disinfection. In addition there are rules for packaging and labelling. The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EEC regulation 2092/91 which does not cover the processing of vine. In case of wine of organic grapes there is a lack of legal rules. The declaration of wine needs to describe the oenological practices. This creates transparency and ensures consumer confidence.
Bio Austria Rules: 1. Full farm conversion Conversion of the entire holding is a prerequisite for the certification as an organic farm of Bio Austria. Beekeeping and fish farming are the only exceptions, and may be practiced conventionally. The Bio Austria are stricter as they do cover the whole farm and not just the production unit, as defined in EEC Regulation 2092/91 as littlest unit to convert (annex I B 1.5 ff) and Annex III A.1. §. 3 which defines the requirements for certification of the production unit, which can farmed by the same company/farm. Therefore it is not necessary to convert the whole farm. The main reason is to create high confidence by consumers (exclusion of fraud and mistakes).
Biodiveristy, landscape - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Structuring elements of the landscape (i.e. hedges, borders, humid areas, oligotrophic grassland) must be preserved or recreated, if required. This applies especially to large cropping units. (NL standards on production, Part B.; I.5. Landscape management)
The NATURLAND standard is broader. This aspect is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. This aspect refers to the ecological principle of organic farming. Structuring elements in the landscape, providing habitats for animals (birds, insects, small mammals among others)and plants will increase biodiversity and contribute to a balanced ecosystem. Naturally preserved buffer zones in the neighbourhood of ecologically sensitive areas (such as rivers, lakes, etc.) will help to avoid disturbing impacts on these ecosystems.
Biodiversity, landscape - CH Bio Suisse Standard 2005 BIO SUISSE requires diversification within the agricultural land area of the farm and requires 7% of the farm land to be fostered as ecological diverse areas. Furthermore, 5 % of the fodder areas have to be farmed on a a low intensity level. The requirement of 'compensatory ecological habitats' is a very specific BIO SUISSE standard. No similar pargraph is quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. To support refuge areas for beneficial organisms matches the holistic approach of organic farming, which is keen to take advantage of a sound and well balanced micro-ecosystem. The 'compensatory ecological habitats' should enhance a natural balance between noxious and benefical organisms. Furthermore ecologically diversified areas contribute to maintaining genetic and biotic diversity and contribute to landscape attractiveness.
Biodiversity, landscape - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
DEMETER requires a vast diversification within the farm and requires at least 7% of farm land being dedicated to ecological diversified areas.
The requirement of 'compensatory ecological habitats' is a very specific DEMETER standard in Switzerland, as this requirement is also required by the government from all Swiss farms which get direct payments. No similar pargraph is quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. A diversified landscape underlines the individuality of the farm and supports the prosperous development of beneficials within the farm considered as an organism.
Biodiversity, landscape - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
7% of the arable land in a farm must be dedicated to landscape diversification.
The requirement of 'compensatory ecological habitats' is a very specific Swiss standard. No similar paragraph is quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. To support refuge areas for beneficials matches the holistic approach of organic farming, which is keen to take advantage of a sound and well balanced micro-ecosystem. The «compensatory ecological habitats» should enhance a natural balance between noxious and benefical organisms. Furthermore ecologically diversified areas contribute to maintain genetic and biotic diversity and contributes to the landscape attractiveness.
Biodiversity, landscape - CZ KEZ Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
KEZ requires a diversification within the agricultural area to preserve biodiversity and prohibits removing of natural ecosystems.
The requirements of minimal area in the natural state, suitable area for habitat and shelter for wild animals, conservation of biodiversity and natural ecosystems and biocorridors are a very specific requirements of KEZ Standards. No similar paragraphs are quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Ecologically diverse areas contribute to maintain genetic and biotic diversity and contributes to landscape attractiveness.
Biodiversity, landscape - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Operators should take measures to maintain and improve landscape and enhance biodiversity quality.(2.1.)
Where as IFOAM requires a significant portion of the farm to be dedicated to facilitate biodiversity, no similar pargraph is quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. A diversified landscape underlines the individuality of the farm and supports the prosperous development of beneficials within the farm considered as an organism.
Biodiversity, landscape - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 Each farm must provide extensive areas for biodiversity protection; the minimum area devoted to these activities is 5% of total farm acreage. Grazing must be planned in a way which does not harm wild flora and fauna species. Burning out of old grasses and fallow land is forbidden.(1.1.) The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover this area. Organic farming should actively contribute to landscape and biodiversity protection. EKOLAND farmers found it important to keep 'green' image of the association.
Biodiversity, landscape - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There are a number of recommendations and requirements concerning environment management and conservation of landscape features, semi-natural habitats and wild species on the farm. Soil Association standards recommend that organic management should aim to achieve a productive, balanced and varied agro-ecosystem with high standards of conservation management and co-operation with conservation bodies. Producers must comply with all relevant legislation and must not plough, reseed or drain any area identified as a 'regionally or locally important wildlife site' by a county Wildlife Trust or County Environment Records Centre. Producers must not in any way damage statutory 'recognised sites', of which the types are listed. Producers must not clear vegetation or crop wastes or stubbles by burning. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.5.1-4.5.5.)
Soil Association standards contain detailed recommendations and requirements to support the agro-ecosystem whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include any specific recommendations or requirements relating to environmental management or conservation. The Soil Association Standards use best practice recommendations from other UK conservation bodies, added to some UK agricultural regulations, to explain conservation principles and outline best environment management practice to ensure that organic producers will produce optimum outcomes for landscape features, semi-natural habitats and wild species on the farm.
Biodiversity, landscape - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There are specific recommendations and requirements for managing semi-natural habitats, trees, woodland, farm buildings and water resources. Soil Association Standards include detailed management recommendations and requirements, in separate sections, for semi-natural habitats, trees and woodland, farm buildings, and water resources. For each of these categories, the standards explain the main issues, including the wildlife and other conservation benefits, the recommendations for best practice management, and the basic requirements that producers must adhere to. The exception to this is for water resources, for which there are basic requirements but no recommendations. Soil Association Certification Limited is currently proposing a more detailed set of new recommendations and requirements for management of watercourses, water resources, soil and ground water, surface water, storage and abstraction, and irrigation. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.5.18-4.5.31.)
Soil Association standards contain detailed recommendations and requirements not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation includes no specifically relevant requirements or recommendations. Semi-natural habitats, trees and woodland, farm buildings, and water resources are all important for wildlife and conservation management.
Biodiversity, landscape, cultural heritage plan - SE KRAV Standards 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The standards are requiring that all famers shall have a plan for the management of nature and cultural heritage. This is a plan which identifies areas with rich biodiversity and important cultural heritages on the farm. It also gives advice for how these should be handled to be conserved and enhanced.(KRAV Standards paragraph 3.1.8).
This is an additional requirement which is not covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Biodiversity is an important area in organic agriculture. There has been an difficulty to cover the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity and also of cultural heritages. This standard has been agreed upon after a wide stakeholder consultation.
Biodiversity, viticulture - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Every vintner (wine producer) is obliged to plant and tend reasonably a part of its vineyard area an ecological niche. Efforts should be made for the niche to become at least one percent of the vineyard area. The ecological niches must, in order to interrupt the mono-culture, be distributed throughout the area. The situation of the surroundings and communal measures for nature conservation have to be considered. (Bioland production standards, 5.6.4 Ecological Niches)
The BIOLAND standard is broader. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require ecological niches to be created. In order to increase biodiversity in a monocultural cropping system.
CH BIO SUISSE 2005: Fertilization general principles
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Appropriate rotation schemes and fertilisers produced from farm yard manure should enhance soil fertility
General priciples are identical with the EU regulation Organic farming should be performed to the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply
CH BIO SUISSE Standard 2005: Plant protection products - Metaldehyde Metaldehyde is not listed in the positive list of BIO SUISSE. Metaldehyde is listed on the positive list in the annex II A (Pesticides, III. Substances to be used in traps and/or dispensers) The use of metaldehyde, which is a chemically-synthesised product is seen as a contradiction to the principle of organic farming not using synthetic pesticides in plant protection.
CH BIO SUISSE Standards 2005: Conventional fodder
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Animals should be fed with organic fodder produced on the own farm.
BIO SUISSE and EC regulation rule the use of non-organic fodder in an equivalent way The use of conventional fodder is limited strictly in order to maintain credibiltiy. These percentages will be further reduced after 2005 both in the EU and in Switzerland. (New text will be decided Mid of 2005)
CH BIO SUISSE Standards 2005: Disease prevention and veterinary treatment
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Natural remedies and healing methods have first priority to treat animals diseases.
The requirements of BIO SUISSE and EC are equivalent The use of synthetic allopatic treatments should be kept to a minium to avoid residues of veterinary drugs in the products and to favour the preventive approach.
CH BIO SUISSE Standards 2005: GMO in animal fodder Any genetically modified organisms or of their by-products are prohibeted in the fodder. BIO SUISSE rules the presence of GMO identical as the EEC regulation which quotes as follows: 'Feedingstuffs, feed materials, compound feedingstuffs feed additives, processing aids for feedingstuffs and certain products used in animal nutrition must not have been produced with the use of genetically modified organisms or products derived therefrom'... Genetic manipulation and produce gained from GMOs are not in line with the organic principles.
CH BIO SUISSE Standards 2005: Growth regulators
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Any kinds of growth regulators are prohibited.
None of the positive lists in the ANNEX to the EC regulation list any growth regulators, therefore none are admitted either. The use of growth regulators are considered as a too heavy maniplutaion of the the plants.
CH BIO SUISSE Standards 2005: Hydroponics
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Any hydorponics or soil independent (soil-less) production is prohibited.
EC regulation does prohibit any hydroponic or soil independent production as Bio Suisse does. BIO SUISSE considers the soil as important medium for sound organic agriculture. Hydroponic systems are artificial systems independent from the soil - therefore they do not correspond with the basic principles of organic farming.
CH BIO SUISSE Standards 2005: Hydroponics
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Any hydorponics or soil independent (soil-less) production is prohibited.
EC regulation does prohibit any hydroponic or soil independent production as Bio Suisse does. BIO SUISSE considers the soil as important medium for sound organic agriculture. Hydroponic systems are artificial systems independent from the soil - therefore they do not correspond with the basic principles of organic farming.
CH BIO SUISSE Standards 2005: Milk for offsprings Young mammals must be fed with natural milk, preferably mother's milk. All mammals must be fed with natural milk during a minimum period of time. Bio Suisse and EC regulate the area of feeding milk similar. BIO SUISSE is less strict for the duration of feeding milk for the species sheep and goats (only 35 days compared to 45 days for sheep and goat in the EC Regulation). The time span to feed natural milk to offsprings is adapted to the minimum need according type of animals/species.
CH BIO SUISSE Standards 2005: Milk for offsprings
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Young mammals must be fed with natural milk, preferably mother's milk. All mammals must be fed with natural milk during a minimum period of time.
BS and EC regulate the area of feeding milk similar. BIO SUISSE is less strict for the duration of feeding milk for the species sheep and goats (only 35 days compared to 45 days for sheep and goat in the EEC Regulation). The time span to feed natural milk is adapted to the minimal need of each type of animal/species.
CH BIO SUISSE Standards 2005: Milk for offsprings Young mammals must be fed with natural milk, preferably mother's milk. All mammals must be fed with natural milk during a minimum period of time. BS and EC regulate the area of feeding milk similar. BIO SUISSE is less strict for the duration of feeding milk for the species sheep and goats (only 35 days compared to 45 days for sheep and goat in the EEC Regulation). The immune system of the calve is strengthened by feeding mothers milk containing antibodies. By the interaction of the calves salvia and the udder, the immune response of the mother can even respond to specific calves infections and is releasing the needed antibodies with the milk.
CH BIO SUISSE Standards 2005: Noxious weed control
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Noxious weed can be controlled mechnically or by crop rotation; any other measures are prohibited.
Even plant extracts or fungi with herbicide effect are not admitted by BIO SUISSE standard, whereas EC regulation lists the latter in the positive list of ANNEX II B, as 'Microorganisms approved for pest control' such are: Bacillus thuringensis, Granulosis virus, etc. No restrictions concerning the target organism are listed, therefore these organisms are applicable for the control of noxoius weeds. Generally a problem with noxious weeds indicates inappropriate crop rotation or lack in soil management: Therefore the problem should be addressed with improved rotation and soil management and not with hericides of any kind. Currently the issue of a possible use of certain weed control agents, not allowed until now, is going to be discussed within BIO SUISSE based on a working paper of FiBL. There is no decision made yet (September 2005)
CH BIO SUISSE Standards 2005: Organic production unit
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png
Full farm conversion of the whole operation to organic is required by BIO SUISSE and is applied for arable land, perennial crops and animal husbandry all the same.
BIO SUISSE standards do not allow a split production of individual production branches in the farm. Organic and conventional production activities by the same farm manager is excluded. The EC regulation does allow split production (conventional and organic by the same manager). In order not to jeopardize the credibility of organic farming in the consumers perception and in order to minimize the danger of fraud in the farms, BIO SUISSE insists in full organic management of all areas in an operation.
CH BIO SUISSE Standards 2005: Origin of the animals Animals must be reared in compliance with the standard all their life. To increase herd size exceptions are possible. No deviations to EC regulation. Animals have generally to be reared their whole life organically for reasons of credibility in the consumers perception.
CH BIO SUISSE standards 2005: Green house production
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Heating of green houses is prohibited in winter time
Due to environmental aspects of saving energy, BIO SUISSE restricts the heating of green houses. EC does not cover green house production as specific area, therefore no restrictions are made In order to safe non-renewable resources, the heating of green houses should not occur during winter time
CH BIO SUISSE standards 2005: Livestock breeding
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Artificial insemination is allowed, but all other forms of artificially influenced reproduction techniques are forbidden.
EC regulation and BIO SUISSE standard are equivalent. Organic farming considers embryo transfer and other reproduction techniques with the exception of artificial insemination as not compatible with the basic principles of organic animal husbandry.
CH Bio Suisse Standards: Fertilization - Brought-in farmyard manure Farmyard manure must origin from organic farms. If not available from organic farms not more than 50% of the necessary Nitrogen and Phosphorous (P205) may origin from non-organic farms, which are managed according the integrated production standard and additional ecological requirements as defined by Swiss Government. However at least 50% of manure produced on the farm must be used on farm. If farmyard manure is sold to other farms, these must be certified organic farms. The distance for transporting manure and slurry is restricted to 20 - 80 km depending on the kind of manure. EEC regulation does not limit the export of farm yard manure to other farms. There is only a maximum stocking rate for farmyard manure to an equivalent of 170 kg N/ha. No limits for transporting manure to other farms are foreseen in the EEC regulation. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with selfsufficiency in fertilizer supply; but no excessive manure should be produced.
CH DEMETER Standards 2005: Conversion of livestock and livestock products
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
As soon as all fodder-plots are fully converted to DEMETER, animals are considered as DEMETER as well. The conversion period is at least 3 years for crops and fodder production.
DEMETER Standards require a transition period of at least 3 years for their plots. Since animals may only origin from allready certified DEMETER or organic farms, the rules are equivalent to the EEC regulation 2092/91. No justification was given by the standards owner.
CH DEMETER Standards 2005: Fertilization intensity
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The maximum amount of nitrogen that may be supplied by way of the manures used, averaged over the crop rotation, may not exceed the amount that would be produced by those animals which the farm could support from its own fodder production (max. 2.0-2.5 LSU equivalents/ha based on the total area of the farm or less). The use of commercial organic manures is limited to this level as well.
Limits for the use of fertilizers are restricted not only for farm yard manure but summed up for any fertilizers used in the farm, whereas the EEC regulation sets limits only for farmyard manures used (170kg Nitrogen/ha), but any commercial fertilisers may be applied with no limit. The production of fodder and crops should be in balance with the animals kept on the farm and their production of manure. In order to keep this balance and to avoid excessive use of fertilizers DEMETER limits the use of nutrients to the effective need by the crops.
CH DEMETER Standards 2005: Free range areas: Poultry
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
For chicken only free-range management is allowed. DEMETER requires permanent access to out-door excercise or a "wintergarden" (covered area with outdoor climate). For poultry the plots for outdoor run must be switched periodically (for sanitary reasons).
DEMETER is more detailed than the EC Regulation. EC Regulation requires permanent access to out-door exercise for poultry, at least during 1/3 or their lifetime but the switching of areas is not required. The requied area is 4m2 per laying hen as outdoor run ( DEMETER requires 5m2). Permanent access to an ourdoor run is considered as an essential need for farm animals. Periodic changing/switching the outdoor area reduces risks of parasites.
CH DEMETER Standards 2005: GMO in animal fodder
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Any geneticaly modified organisms or any of their by-products are prohibited in the fodder. Feeding of conventional fodder is prohibited by DEMETER Standards.
DEMETER rules the avoidance of GMO similar as the EC regulation DEMETER does not allow any conventional fodder, therefore the quality insurance system is slightly more strict. Since fodder must be from bio-dynamic source or of organic source: GMO compounds are excluded by these sources.
CH DEMETER standards 2005: Fertilization intensity: Manure Export
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The aim is to create the operation as an organism, which is a closed circle of nutrients and crop and fodder production - neither fodder nor fertilisers should be imported or exported. The operation is expected to be balanced in this regard. If at all, manure can only be exported to other organic units complying with the maximum stocking rate. For transporting manure the maximum distance of the Bio Suisse regulation is applied, which requires not more than 20-80km transport distance depending on the kind of manure.
DEMETER is striving for a balanced autonomous operation based on own fodder and fertilizer production (excessive manure does not occur in these operations). EC regulation limits the farm yard manure used on the own farm to 170kgN/ha solely. Excessive manure still can be exported with no restriction. The balance between farmyard manure produced on the own farm and the nutrients required by plant production is essential for a sound and sustainable organic production method. The need of manure export does not occur on DEMETER farms - the opposite is more often the case.
CH DEMETER standards 2005: Metaldehyde prohibition
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The application of metaldehyde (slug control) is prohibited by DEMETER standards.
Metaldehyde is listed on the positive list in the annex II A (Pesticides, III. Substances to be used in traps and/or dispensers) of the EEC regulation, whereas it is not allowed according to DEMETER standards. No justification was provided by the standards owner.
CH DEMETER standartds 2005: Fertilization - brought-in farm yard manure
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Imported organic farm yard manures may not exceed 50% of the quantity which is needed for the crops on farm. Commercial mineral and organic fertilizers are accepted but restricted according to their quality and origin and should undergo composting.
EEC Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the import of commercial fertilizers, where as DEMETER does limit this application to the max. LSU equivalent and to a maximum distance for transporting farm yard manure. Own animal husbandry is an important factor in a farm organism as definied by DEMETER. The lack of own animals should not be underlined by importing manures: instead own animal husbandry should be established. Further more, imported fertilizers can only be applied if used in combination with composted or prepared animal fertilizers.
CH Regulation 2005: Fertilization - brought in farm yard manure
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The source of brought-in manures is restricted by the positive list of admitted fertilizers in organic farming. For export of manure from the own operation of more than 1 LSU/year, a contract must exist with the farm receiving this manure. This farm must be managed according ecological principles and can not exceed adequate nutrient limits as set by the legislation.
Import of farm yard manure and compost can only occur if a contract exists with the exporting farm and nutrient needs of crops are not exceeded (evidence must be provided by calculation). The EEC regulation limits the nutrient input of farm yard manures to 170kgN/ha in general, not regarding the amount of commercial fertilizers already applied in the farm. No contracts are necessary between the exporting and the importing farm neither. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced nor applied
CH regulation/ordinance 2005: Fertilization intensity
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The amount of nutrient input must be justified by soil quality and need of crops: evidence must be provided on the level of nutrients used on the farm. In no case 2.5 LSU/ha shall be exceeded.
Limits for fertilizer use are restricted not only for farmyard manure but summed up for any fertilizers used in the farm, whereas the EEC regulation sets limits only for farmyard manure (170kg/ha) but any commercial fertilizers may be applied with no limit. In order to avoid excessiv use of fertilizers and successive contamination of environment by washed off nutrients, Swiss Ordinance limits the nutrient input to the level of effective need by the respective crops.
CH regulation/ordinance 2005: Fertilization: general principles
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The fertility and biological activity of the soil shall be maintained and, if possible increased.
General priciples are identical like in the EEC regulation Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply.
CH regulation/ordinance 2005: Methaldehyde prohibition
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The application of metaldehyde (slug control) is prohibited
Metaldehyde is listed on the positive list in the annex II A (Pesticides, III. Substances to be used in traps and/or dispensers) whereas the Swiss Ordinance does not allow the use of this product. The exclusion of metaldehyde contribute to the credibility of organic farming. It helps promoting alternatives means against slugs.
CH regulation/ordinance 2005: Noxious weed control
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Noxious weed can be controlled mechanically or by crop rotation. The use of growth regulators, wilting products and herbicides are not permitted.
Even plant extracts or fungi with herbicide effect are not admitted by the Swiss Ordinance, whereas EEC regulation 2092/91 lists the latter in the positive list of ANNEX II B, as 'Microorganisms approved for pest control' such are: Bacillus thuringensis, Granulosis virus, etc. No restrictions concerning the target organism are listed, therefore these organisms are applicable for the control of noxoius weeds. Generally a problem with noxious weeds indicates inappropriate crop rotation schemes or lack in soil management: therefore the problem should be addressed with improved rotation and soil management and not with herbicides of any kind.
CZ KEZ Standards 2005: Conversion period of fish and aquatic animals
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
EEC regulation doesn´t regulate conversion period of fish and aquatic animals farming. The standard-setting body could not give a justification.
CZ KEZ Standards 2005: Health management of fish and aquatic animals
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
EEC regulation doesn´t regulate fish and aquatic health management. The standard-setting body could not give a justification.
CZ KEZ Standards 2005: Metaldehyde The use of metaldehyde for plant protection is not allowed at all, even not in traps. Other allowable fertilizers and chemical products for plant production and plant protection are identical with EC Regulation Annex II. Metaldehyde is not allowed in KEZ private standards for organic farming whereas the EEC Regulation Annex II/B/III permits metaldehyde in traps containing a repellent for higher animal species; only during a period expiring in March 2006. Restriction of the use of metaldehydes prevents contamination of nutrient cycling.
CZ KEZ Standards 2005: Nutrition of fish and aquatic animals
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
EEC regulation doesn´t deal with nutrition of fish and aquatic animals. The standard-setting body could not give a justification.
CZ KEZ Standards 2005: Requirements for processing of organic textile fibres
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Standards require: to keep a record of processing in detail (use of all raw materials, consumption of water, energy, waste waters, disposal of waste), to draw up a plan for reduction of negative impacts on the environment, effective waste water treatment and further detailed requirements set out in Annex 4. See KEZ Standards, Part IV, Article 28.and Annex 4.
EEC Regulation doesn´t deal with fibre production. KEZ Standards take into consideration all possible fields of organic agricultural production.
Certification, application - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
§ 205.401- § 205.402 Application for certification. 1. The application must include the following information: - An organic production or handling system plan - The applicant's data such as name and address - Details on previous applications/certifications 2. Upon acceptance of an application for certification, a certifying agent must: - Review the application to ensure completeness and determine whether the applicant complies with the applicable requirements of subpart C; - Verify that any non-compliances of previous applications are solved - Schedule an on-site inspection
US require notification of previous applications and the outcome whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Procedures of applications are slightly different since for US a production or handling plan must be submitted with the application and reviewed before inspection, whereas in the EU the full description of the unit must be drawn up when the inspection arrangements are first implemented. EU is more specific in declarations which have to be signed by operators.. No justification was available.
Certification, foreign products - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
When KRAV is doing inspection and certification outside Sweden all relevant parts of the KRAV standards apply. When the standards are not applicable due to other circumstances exceptions can be made if the exceptions comply with the IFOAM Basic Standards or EU Regulation 2092/91. KRAV can also issue special guidelines or instructions to ensure an ecologically sustainable production. As far as possible local organisations for organic farming, conservation and environmental protection shall be consulted(KRAV standards chapter 18).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 article 11.1 it is stated that the production system shall be obtained to equivalent rules (to inside the EU). The KRAV standards are more elaborate as there is a possibility to involve local expertise in what is applicable and what can be an ecologically sustainable production.
Certification, general requirements - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
§ 205.400 General requirements for certification. A person seeking to receive or maintain organic certification must: (a) Comply with the Act and applicable organic production and handling regulations of this part (b) Establish an organic production or handling system plan (c) Permit on-site inspections (d) Maintain all records applicable to the organic operation for not less than 5 years (e) Submit the applicable fees (f) Immediately notify the certifying agent concerning any: (1) Application, including drift, of a prohibited substance (2) Change in a certified operation that may affect its compliance with the Act and the regulations in this part
They are no differences in the basic principles, however the US is more specific in the details compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU does not define drift as a non-compliance with the Regulation and does not require notification of drift. However drift is subject to different interpretations in the EU. If the outcome of the investigation reveals that the presence of the detected prohibited substance is the result of an intentional application, the certified operation will be subject to suspension or revocation of its organic certification and/or a civil penalty. In cases of unintended drift the specific crop may not be sold as organic, but the organic status of future crop years are not affected since organic certification is a production claim, not a content claim.
Certification, general requirements - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
§ 205.404 ? 205.406 Certification If the certifying agent determines that the operation is in compliance with the rules, he shall issue a certificate. In case of non-compliances the operator shall receive a description of each non-compliance and the facts upon which the notification of non-compliance is based. In a notice of denial, suspension or revocation of certification, the rights to reapply, request mediation or filing an appeal must be stated. To continue certification an updated organic production or handling system plan must be submitted and an annual inspection conducted.
US defines details of certificate, in EU Regulation 2092/91 this issue is covered by reference to EN 45011. In US certification continues in effect until surrendered by the organic operator or suspended or revoked by the certifying agent or authority. This is not defined in EU. US describe procedural details for granting, denial and continuation of certification. EU is less detailed. EU requires in case of manifest infringement to prohibit marketing of organic products for a period to be agreed with the competent authority. US allows for immediate re-application after denial of certification but requires 5 years before re-application following revocation. US requires annual update of production or handling plan, this is not specified by EU. No justification was available.
Cleaning agents - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Cleaning agents used for cleaning of all kind of facilities and equipment (areas for production, processing, handling and storages) shall be eco-labeled if available. If there is no environmental labeled product avaiable the Precautionary Principle shall be used. (KRAV Standards paragraph 2.12.10.)
In EU Regulation 2092/91 there is a list of products allowed for cleaning and disinfection of buildings for animal husbandry but not for areas for storing, handling or processing. The standards requires the use of the most environmental friendly product whenever possible in all kind of production. In Sweden there are two systems for eco labelling of cleaning agents, mainly for use in private homes but some are also for professional use.
Cleaning, disinfection and pest control - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
KRAV has a whole range of standards for handling cleaning, disinfection and pest control in all areas were organic products are produced, handled, processed and stored. The operators shall first of all work with precautionary measures and also do a risk assessment to foresee and prevent problems. The operator shall carry out sanitary and building measures to minimise potential problems. Cleaning of facilities is stressed. For chemical products used which may be of possible danger to human health or environment the products less harmful shall be used (this is a Swedish legal requirement). For disinfection and pest control in storages, handling and processing facilities, mechanical methods shall be preferred. If these are not effective physical methods can be used, after that biotechnical methods can be used and as the last option chemical methods can be used when the other methods are considered impossible. Organic products should not be contaminated by the disinfection or pest control methods and all activities have to be documented. (KRAV Standards paragraph 2.12.9 - 2.12.11).
Cleaning, disinfection and pest control is covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91 to the extent of reducing the risk for contamination of organic products but the more thorough stepwise approach of working with precautionary measures and risk assessment is not covered. The step by step system avoiding the use of chemicals for disinfection and pest control is also not covered. Cleaning, disinfection and pest control are areas were it is a risk for contamination of organic products by the substances used. Through a good management system the use of problems can be reduced considerably. The substances used for fumigations and other pest control efforts are often toxic and have other environmental effects.
Collection of wild plants - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
The collection of wild plants is regulated in detail. In particular the following are required: A complete description of the gathered area, of the gathering activities, of storing and processing. Proof that no unauthorized auxiliary inputs for organic agriculture have been used in the three previous years; Prove of ecological harmlessness (stability of the habitat and biodiversity). There must not be any sources of emission/contamination in the respective area and in the neighbourhood. Collectors must have a sound knowledge of sustainable gathering.
Specific requirements on wild collection are detailed in the standard of BIO SUISSE. EU Regulation 2092/91 rules the area more generally and accepts the collection of wild plants if no disallowed substances are applied and if the collection is done in a sound manner. Areas can be treated with substances and measures approved in the EU Regulation whereas BIO SUISSE does not accept any treatments of the natural habitats by men, even not substances allowed in Annex II. Since wild habitats are very vulnerable, BIO SUISSE standards indicate the most important parameters to be respected before approval . In order to draw a clear line against organic produce from farms, no treatments, even not with allowed products, are allowed in wild collection..
Collection of wild plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Wild grown plants collected for human consumption can be labelled with the BIOLAND trademark and the indicated as from wild collection, when; the area of collection has not been contaminated, is clearly defined, registered and (in general) situated in a region that is attended by BIOLAND, and the extraction of the plants does not negatively affect the local ecosystem. BIOLAND certified products from wild collection must be clearly labelled as such. (Bioland production standards, 3.10 Wild Collection)
The BIOLAND provisions are more specific and require the collection area to be free from the direct influence of any sources of pollution. BIOLAND labelling requirements are also more detailed than under EU Regulation 2092/91 where there is no specific provision for the labelling of organic products collected from wild collection. To ensure the innocuousness and high quality of BIOLAND products. To increase transparency for the consumer.
Collection of wild plants - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Wild grown collected products that are to be marketed with reference to organic certification must not be contaminated. (NL standards on production, Part B.IX. Wild grown products 2)
The NATURLAND standard is more precise. In the EU Regulation 2092/91 no specific provisions for the exclusion of contamination of wild products are given and no regular analysis are required. This is to ensure the organic integrity of the product.
Collection of wild plants - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The operator should provide for maintenance and sustainability of the ecosystem when harvesting or gathering the products.
Specific responsibilities of the operator are detailed in the Codex Alimentarius requirements, while the EU regulation 2092/91 rules this area in a more general way. Wild habitats are very vulnerable: Codex Alimentarius requirements to indicate the most important parameters to be respected before approval may occure to grant sustainability.
Collection of wild plants - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The operator should ensure maintenance and sustainability of the ecosystem when harvesting or collecting the products.(2.4.)
Specific responsibilities of the operator are detailed in the IFOAM requirements, while EU Regulaation 2092/91 regulates this area in a more general way. Since wild habitats are very vulnerable, IFOAM requirements indicate the most important criteria to be respected, including the operator, before approval may be granted.
Collection of wild plants - SI Rules 2003
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
SI Rules (Art. 16) have further requirements to the general provisions mentioned in the EU Regulation (Annex I A, 4); that the collection areas are accurately established, and inspection in accordance with these rules can be carried out in the designated areas. SI Rules also specify the authority to agree that the collection does not affect the stability of the natural habitat etc.; namely the Institute for Protection of Natural and Cultural heritage.
Provisions for the collection of plants in natural areas in SI Rules 2003 are more specific than in the EU Regulation 2092/91 regarding the identification and inspection of the area of collection and it is also specifying the authority to agree on harmlessness of the collection for natural habitat/species. Additional specifications should enable a better control of collection in natural areas and prevent damage to nature.
Collection of wild plants - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Harvesting of wild plants for sale as organic must meet organic standards, comply with the law, not endanger species nor disturb habitat stability, not be on land recently contaminated with prohibited inputs, and must be sufficiently distant from sources of prohibited inputs or pollution. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 9.1.4 - 9.1.11. Soil Association standards are more detailed than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards require that wild harvesting of crops for sale as organic must comply with the organic standards and with the law, must not be of species defined as "critically endangered" in the World Conservation Union red list, and must be on land at least 10 metres from non organic agriculture and 50 metres from non agricultural pollution sources. The land should be accessible to inspection, and should be identified on maps with the organic certification application. EU Regulation does not have these requirements. The Soil Association standards on wild plant collection are intended to minimise the risk that the wild harvesting of plants may result either in contamination of organic products or damage to semi-natural habitats and endangered species. They seek to ensure that organic standards are fully effective for organic wild harvested products.
Collection of wild plants, buffer zones - CZ KEZ Standards 2005 Minimum distance (25 meter) from conventional area is required for collecting plants and their fruits in the wild . KEZ standards are more specific with regard to Annex I/A/4 than EU Regulation 2092/91. KEZ Standards require minimum distance from conventional used area and potential sources of pollution besides them. Minimum distance prevents the risk of contamination.
Collection of wild plants, buffer zones - Italian Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
For harvest of wild and spontaneous growing products, the Italian Organic Standards (IOS) requires that collection areas shall be located at a distance of at least 100 m from conventionally run fields and 200 m from high-traffic roads. Regarding the the distance from other pollution sources, the inspection and certification body shall establish the minimum distance on a case-by-case basis.
Italian Organic Standards detail distances required between collection areas and pollution sources. Whereas, EU Regulation 2092/91 is less detailed on wild and spontaneous growing products. Harvesting of wild and spontaneous growing products such as mushrooms and medicinal herbs, are an important production in many Italian regions. As a consequence a set of more detailed rules are needed to avoid misinterpretation.
Collection of wild plants, buffer zones - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The KRAV standards for wild collection requires 25 metre buffer zones to roads (if there is more then 3000 vehicles per day), and to land which has been treated with chemical fertilisers or pesticides. The standards also set a maximum limit for caesium levels in land from which berries and mushrooms are collected (KRAV standards paragraph 8.1.6).
Contamination risks in wild collection are not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. It is important for consumers trust in organic products that there are as little contaminants as possible. Sweden has problems with contamination of caesium after the Chernobyl accident.
Collection of wild plants, education - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Persons who gather or pick wild products should have access to maps of the approved areas for collection so that all collection is done only on these areas. All information, instructions and standards should be available in a language which the collectors understand at the delivery station (KRAV standards paragraph 8.1.9).
This is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. It is important that collectors have maps and understandable information, instructions and standards to minimise the risk for collection on non-allowed areas or in the wrong way.
Collection of wild plants, harvesting methods - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Harvesting of wild plants for sale as organic must be conducted at the best time of year. It must include only the appropriate parts of the plants, and a number of details are included regarding different types of plants. Sufficient mature plants must be left for the survival of dependent wildlife, damage to other species and to the habitat must be avoided, and samples must be kept of every batch harvested. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 9.3.)
Soil Association standards are more precise than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association wild plant harvesting standards include specifications regarding appropriate timing, the parts of plants that may be harvested, and appropriate replanting. It is specified that enough mature plants must be left for wildlife that depend on them, that damage must be avoided to other species, that beneficial relationships among plant species must be respected, erosion must be avoided, and samples of harvested batches must be kept. EU Regulations do not contain these requirements, only maintaining that the areas concerned must not have been treated with prohibited inputs for the previous 3 years, and that the harvesting does not affect the habitat stability or the maintenance of the species harvested. Soil Association standards on wild plant harvesting are intended to maximise the quality of the product and to minimise the risk of damage to the species harvested or to other species in the same habitat. The intention is to provide a comprehensive set of rules for organic wild plant harvesting, rather than merely a brief statement of intent.
Collection of wild plants, management plan - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
A wild harvesting management plan, agreed with Soil Association, is required and must be adhered to. It must include the harvest areas, personnel, times, quantities, species, environmental management, etc. There are a substantial number of further details set out in Soil Association standards regarding various aspects of the wild harvesting management plan and its implementation. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 9.2.)
Soil Association standards include a set of rules not contained in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards for wild plant harvesting require the agreement, implementation and monitoring of a wild harvesting management plan. This must include harvest areas, personnel, times, quantities, species, quality, making good procedures, environmental management, etc. EU Regulation does not require any similar type of wild harvesting management plan. Soil Association standards' requirement for a comprehensive and detailed wild harvest management plan is intended to maximise the quality of the product and to minimise the risks of unsustainable damage either to the species harvested or to other species in its surrounding habitat.
Common land use - NL Skal Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Common land in the Netherlands is defined as land owned by an organisation that manages it, according to the EU Regulation on organic farming. These organisations are Staatsbosbeheer, Natuurmonumenten Nederland en De Provinciale Landschappen. They have to approve their appropriate land keeping with a certificate. Rule Text: Annex I, part B 1.8: By way of a second derogation from this principle, animals reared in accordance with the provisions of this Regulation may be grazed on common land.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 says nothing about a certificate indicating the provisions of the regulation. Use of non-organic land should be avoided. These certificates prevent the use of chemicals etc.
Conservation, farm plan - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Producers should keep a farm conservation plan, designed with professional help, and they must map all the main landscape features, wildlife habitats and historical features on the holding. The standards require the producer to map all the recognised wildlife habitats and landscape sites, and the archeological and historical features on the holding, and to formally revise the map every 5 years. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.5.6-4.5.8.)
Soil Association standards contain recommendations and requirements not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards recommend that producers should keep a constantly updated whole farm conservation plan, drawn up with the help of a professional advisor. EU Regulation does not contain recommendations or requirements for a farm conservation plan. The Soil Association recommendations are meant to encourage best practice and optimal outcomes from the conservation management. The requirement to map the main habitats and features is also a requirement of the main funding scheme for organic farmers in England to ensure a basic level of conservation management on organic farms.
Conservation, field boundary management - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There are detailed recommendations and requirements regarding field boundary management. Soil Association Standards contain detailed recommendations for the management of field boundaries, starting with an explanation of their main functions and conservation benefits and continuing with more practical advice on their management. The standards require that producers must manage river banks to minimise soil erosion and nutrient run-off, must obtain Soil Association permission to remove hedges, banks, ditches or walls, or to trim hedges annually (e.g. for road traffic safety or wildlife benefits). Producers must not trim hedges during the bird nesting season. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.5.9-4.5.17.)
Soil Association standards contain recommendations and requirements whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include any recommendations or requirements for field boundary management. Soil Association Standards give detailed recommendations for hedge management encourage best practice among organic farmers to optimise the outcomes of their field boundary management for wildlife and for landscape visual impact. The requirements and prohibitions ensure a basic level of positive boundary management and prohibit the worst types of management. In England, these requirements are mostly required by the main organic farming funding scheme.
Conservation, primary ecosystems/forests - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Land with primary ecosystems, such as virgin rainforest, must not be cleared for organic production. Soil Association Standards prohibit the clearing of primary ecosystems for conversion to organic production. They define 'primary ecosystems' as ecosystems that have not been 'disturbed by man's activities', and they give the example of virgin rainforest. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Glossary and Paragraph 4.1.4.) Soil Association standards contain a rule not included in EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation does not contain this prohibition. Soil Association standards are intended to ensure that no primary ecosystems will be damaged or destroyed in order to clear land for organic production.
Conservation, primary ecosystems/rainforests - SE KRAV Standards 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Clearing of primary ecosystems as rainforests, wetlands and primary grassland is prohibited (KRAV Standards paragraph 3.1.6).
The previous vegetation cover on land used for agriculture is not covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91. From nature conservation perspective this is an important area where agriculture is a risk factor. The conservation of rain forests in particular is a concern of many consumers.
Conservation, primary ecosystems/rainforests - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Clearing of primary ecosystems is prohibited.(2.1.2)
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not address this matter. Clearing of primary or high value conservation areas is an increasing problem in agriculture. Organic farming loses its credibility if such systems are cleared in order to establish organic plots instead.
Conservation, soil and water - CZ KEZ Standards
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
KEZ Standards define principles of environmental friendly farming in relation to the soil and water resources.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not deal with irrigation, salination of soils, rainwater recycling, monitoring of water consumption or stubble burning of vegetation. These paragraphs are completely in accordance with principles of environmental friendly management.
Conservation, soil and water - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 Farmers should undertake activities to protect soils from degradation, e.g. compaction and erosion (including 'green fields' approach). They should minimise water use in production processes. (1.3.1. ? 1.3.3.) The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover the areas of water conservation and compaction of soils, while PL Ekoland has a paragraph on this topic. Soil and water are limited resources of vital importance to farming and the whole society and thus must be carefully used and protected.
Conservation, soil, water and air - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Water resources are not to be used excessively. It is not permissible to burn used plastic (e.g. foils and fleeces) in the fields. (Bioland production standards, 3.9 Air, Soil and Water Protection)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate the use of water resources and the burning of plastic while BIOLAND standards contain restrictions in these areas. In order to protect the natural resources and avoid negative impacts on the environment.
Conservation, water - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Operators should not deplete nor excessively exploit water resources, and should seek to preserve water quality. They should, where possible, recycle rainwater and monitor water extraction. (2.2.6)
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not address the matter of water depletion. Water is one of the most restricted common goods. Organic agriculture should use it in a sound manner to grant availablity for future generations.
Conservation, water, manure application - PL Ekoland 2005 The use of water should be minimised. Water should be protected from contamination. Careful storage of manures and application are one of the main priorities. The following minimum manure storage facilities are required: - minimum capacity for farm yard manure storage is 3m2 per Livestock Unit (not valid for farm with deep litter stables) - minimum capacity for liquid manure storage is 2m3 per Livestock Unit (not valid for farm with deep litter stables) - the maximum dose of manure must not exceed: 35 t of FYM per ha, 40 t of compost per ha, 30m3 of liquid manures per ha. The total dose of N applied on a farm must not exceed 170 kg per ha per year. - a derogation for the first two principles is available for farms in a difficult financial situation. This derogation expires on 25 October 2008 (1.3.4. ? 1.3.6.) The EU Regulation 2092/91 sets a limit for maximum N input only for farmyard manure (170 kg N/ha/year) and does not specify detailed storage rules and fertiliser doses for other commercial fertilisers. Water is a limited resource of vital importance to farming and the whole society and thus must be protected from contamination.
Contamination, GMO crops - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Genetically modified crops must not be grown on any holding in the same ownership or management as an organic holding. Applicants for conversion must inform the Soil Association if they have grown genetically modified crops in the previous three years. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 3.6.19. Soil Association standards contain a prohibition and a requirement not included in EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards prohibit the growing of any genetically modified crop on any land under the same ownership or management as an organic holding, and they require to be informed if an applicant for conversion has grown genetically modified crops in the previous three years. EU Regulation has no similar prohibition or requirement. The Soil Association standards aim to prevent any possible contamination of organic crops with genetically modified material by prohibiting the owner or manager of an organic holding. The requirement to be informed if an applicant has grown them in the previous three years would help them to be more vigilant if necessary in this aspect of inspection. Genetically modified organisms (GMO) are prohibited from use in organic farming because of the unpredictable nature of the technology, and the risks to health and the environment.
Contamination, GMO crops, location - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 The organic farmer must inform Soil Association of any genetically modified crop being grown within 6 miles of an organic crop under their inspection system. Soil Association will assess the risk of contamination of the organic farm and crops. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 3.6.20-3.6.22. Soil Association standards contain requirements not included in EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards require the organic farmer to inform them of any genetically modified crop being grown within 6 miles of the organic farm. Soil Association will assess the contamination risks and decide accordingly on further action. EU Regulation has no similar requirement. Although pollen from genetically modified crops can travel much further than 6 miles, the Soil Association have taken this distance as a reasonable cut-off point to identify possible contamination of organic farms and crops. Genetically modified organisms are prohibited from use in organic farming because of the unpredictable nature of the technology, and the risks to health and the environment.
Contamination, buffer zones - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
When chemical pesticides or chemical fertilisers are used on neighbouring land to organic farmland actions should be taken to minimise the risk of contamination. This can be an agreement with the neighbour about a buffer zone, establishing an own buffer zone or planting a windbreak. On a not fully converted organic farm there should be an internal buffer zone for land where chemical pesticides are used (KRAV standards paragraph 4.2.3 and 4.2.4).
In EU 2092/91 there are general requirements for reducing the risk of contamination but the KRAV standards are more specific. The risk for contamination from drift is an important issue. The risk varies depending on the neighbours farming activities. The establishment of a specified internal buffer zone in a not fully converted organic farm is necessary for both reducing drift and also to clearly separate organic and conventional farming.
Contamination, buffer zones, conventional agriculture - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Where organic crops are grown next to non-organic crops, there must be an effective windbreak if there is any risk of spray drift or other contamination. This buffer zone must be 10 metres wide, or increased to 20 metres if the organic crop is next to a sprayed orchard. Otherwise, there must be a buffer zone of specified width, within which the crops cannot be sold as organic. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 3.7.2-3.7.4. Soil Association standards are very precise. They require that, where organic crops are growing next to non-organic crops, there must be an effective windbreak if there is any risk of spray drift or other contamination. Otherwise, there must be a buffer zone, within which the crops cannot be sold as organic. EU Regulation 2092/91 states only that the organic unit must have land parcels and production that are clearly separate from non-organic units. Soil Association standards are intended to minimise health risks that may result from the contamination of organic crops with prohibited inputs by minimising the amounts carried onto the holding by the wind. To be more effective in this purpose, the minimum requirements to achieve it are specified, whereas EU Regulation leaves the purpose and the means open to interpretation.
Contamination, buffer zones, conventional agriculture, herbs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
If the growing area of herb production borders on a field that is cultivated conventionally, there must be a distance of at least 5 metres between fields (exception: threshed herbs). Bordering on conventional fields should be avoided if possible. Protective hedgerows are recommended.
While the Bio Austria General Standard requires minmal buffer zones the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have an explicit restriction for the distance to conventional fields. The main reason is to avoid residues of pesticides and to create high consumer confidence.
Contamination, buffer zones, highways, herbs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Locations of herb production near densely populated areas (cities) are to be avoided. The distance to highly used roads (highways, high-speed road, major streets [Bundesstrassen] must be at least 50 metres. Protective hedgerows are generally recommended in such cases.
The Bio Austria General Standard details buffer strips while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have a restriction for the distance to highly used roads. The main reason is to avoid residues of exhaust fumes (see “herb production with distance to conventional fields”) and to create high consumer confidence.
Contamination, buffer zones, medicinal plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
As a result of the special significance of medicinal plants, the location is especially relevant. The minimum distance to roads should be 50 m and to field paths 5 m if no suitable protective planting has been made. (Bioland production standards, 5.2.3 Selection of Location)
The BIOLAND standard has additional restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91, which requires the clear separation of the organic production facilities from any other production unit, but it does not indicate specific distances to roads. To ensure the innocuousness and high quality of BIOLAND certified herbs / medicinal crops.
Contamination, chlorinated hydrocarbons - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
For vegetables, fruits and grain there are limits for residues of chlorinated hydrocarbons. In principle the limit is 0.01 mg/kg, and in exception lindane 0.02 mg/kg. (This rule is an order of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus A 8 and therefore valid for vegetables of all organic farms in Austria, not only Bio Austria farms). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.6, 5.1.3)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have specific limits for residues in organic crops or produce in general, especially not for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Consumer protection.
Contamination, chlorinated hydrocarbons - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
For vegetables, fruits and grain there are limits for residues of chlorinated hydrocarbons. In principle the limit is 0.01 mg/kg, only for lindane the limit is 0.02 mg/kg. (This rule is an order of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus A 8 and therefore valid for vegetables of all organic farms in Austria, not only Bio Austria farms).
The EU Regulation does not have limits for residues in general, especially not for chlorinated hydrocarbons, whereas the Bio Austria General Standard sets limits for these residues. Consumer protection.
Contamination, farm machinery - SE KRAV Jan 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The KRAV standards require that machinery such as seed drills, manure spreaders and sprayers used in conventional farming have to be well cleaned before use in organic farming (KRAV standards paragraph 3.1.11).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 there is a general statement that precautionary measures shall be taken to reduce the risk of contamination by unauthorised products throughout the production chain, but not a more specific statement. There is a risk of using the same machinery in conventional and organic farming. To request separate machinery is seen as too difficult and expensive. Therefore thorough cleaning is requested.
Contamination, farm refuse - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Farms should be clean and neat. Plastics, scrap metal, paper, oils and other waste products should be sent for reuse, recycling or energy recovery. Materials and spare parts for machinery can be kept but should be in good order (KRAV standards paragraph 3.1.10).
The order on the farm itself is not covered by EU 2092/91. Organic farms should look neat and representative. It should be possible for consumers to visit every single organic farm and have a good impression. Old scrap metal, oils and plastic can be an environmental risk and a risk for animals on the farm.
Contamination, food residues - NL Skal Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
SKAL uses a case-by case approach in case of contamination of organic products. The method of organic farming is valued as highly important and should be included in cases of contamination. SKAL uses the following rules in case of contamination: 1. <0.01 mg/kg residue: the product can be sold as organic and is considered by the baby food standard as non-detectable. 2. >0.01 mg/kg residue, a case by case approach will be followed: There is cause for suspicion and the product will be blocked and after investigation the product can be sold as organic or has to be decertified. The decision will be made based on an interpretation of the laboratory and field circumstances.
SKAL Standards contain maximum residue levels for prohibited materials such as pesticides, but the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not use a case-by case approach with regard to contamination. This approach meets the interest of certifiers, operators (farmers, processors, importers) and consumers. Producers are held responsible to prevent contamination and should report all possible contamination risks, before yield. Besides, this way the method of organic farming is held more important than the end product, which is in some way a necessary protection for farmers.
Contamination, general requirements - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
KRAV standards for some issues cover the whole farm and not only the farmland. Chemical pesticides can not be used on gravel paths, roads and farmyards. Cultivation of GMO-crops is not allowed on the conventional part of a holding. Environmental adapted substances must be used in facilities (e.g. toilets) where the drainage is connected to manure storages where the manure will be used in the organic farming (KRAV-standards paragraph 3.1.6).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover areas on the farm that are not farmland. For manure there are general standards that it should not be contaminated. This standard is mainly applicable for partly converted farms. Spraying herbicides against weeds on the farmyard or growing GMO crops on the conventional part is not trustworthy on a farm with organic production. This is the fact even if there are no risks for contamination.
Contamination, heavy metals- SE KRAV Standards 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There are maximum limits for the amounts of heavy metals brought into farmland by the use of inputs (fertilizers, soil conditioners, chemical pesticides, herbicides) or indirectly by the use in animal husbandry (feed, feed minerals and medicines). Fertilisers and soil conditioners shall be analysed when there is a reason to expect high concentrations of contaminants (KRAV Standards paragraph 4.2.5 and 4.3.7). There are limits for lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel and zinc (Annex 3).
In the EU regulation 2092/91 there are limitations for the heavy metal content of composted or fermented household waste, fur and aluminium calcium phosphate, but not for the amounts of heavy metals brought into a farm, whereas the KRAV standards have a more general approach to the issue of heavy metal contamination of soil. There are increasing amounts of heavy metals in the agricultural nutrient circulation system. Organic agriculture is dependent on the soil and the nutrients in the soil to produce food and feed. There is also an increased risk for the use of not so well known fertilisers which will fulfil organic standards but where the heavy metal content might be too high. An organic farmer should have full knowledge about what is brought into the farm and in to the soil.
Contamination, pollution, highways - SE KRAV Standards 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Areas were plants are cultivated and products stored should be located so that the production is not contaminated and the value of the production is reduced as food or feed. Crop production for food shall not be situated closer then 25 meters from roads having more then 3000 vehicles per 24 hours (KRAV Standards paragraph 4.2.1)
There are general requirements in the EU Regulation 2092/91 about the risk of contamination of products in the inspection requirements in Annex III but not in the production rules. There is no regulation of the distance to roads or other pollution sources in the EU Regulation 2092/91. This is a standard which has strong consumer support. The concern about contamination from cars into fields and crops close to roads is substantial. There is little scientific research in this area which should be of concern not only for organic but also for conventional produce.
Contamination, preventing - CZ KEZ Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Standards prescribe a number of specific preventive measures to prevent any contamination such as; buffer zones for prevention of contamination from parallel or conventional production, minimum distances from the land of the organic farm for using of chemicals for plant protection and mineral fertilizers, types of material for coverings, mulches, insect netting etc. and their disposal, cleaning of technical equipment and machinery simultaneously used in conventional agricultural systems and keeping of operation log book for them. See KEZ Standards Part II., Chapter General provisions..., Article 1.
CZ KEZ Standards require detailed measures to prevent contamination. No similar paragraphs are quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. KEZ Standards try to prevent any possible contamination of soil or crops.
Contamination, preventing - CZ PRO-BIO Standards 2004 In case of new sites and land areas, it is necessary to consider previous use. If a pollution risk exists, soil and products have to be analysed. No similar paragraph is quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. It is necessary to exclude previous contamination of natural background of new sites/farms.
Contamination, preventing, buffer zones - US NOP 2002 § 205.202 Land requirements. Any field or farm parcel from which harvested crops are intended to be sold, labelled, or represented as "organic," must: (c) Have distinct, defined boundaries and buffer zones such as runoff diversions to prevent the unintended application of a prohibited substance to the crop or contact with a prohibited substance applied to adjoining land that is not under organic management. The US require buffer zones whereas the EU does not. A buffer zone must be sufficient in size or other features (e.g., windbreaks or a diversion ditch) to prevent the possibility of unintended contact by prohibited substances applied to adjacent land areas with an area that is part of a certified operation. As long as an organic operation has not used excluded methods and takes reasonable steps to avoid contact with the products of excluded methods as detailed in their approved organic system plan, the unintentional presence of the products of excluded methods should not affect the status of an organic product or operation.
Contamination, preventing, contaminated areas - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Areas that are contaminated with harmful substances from the environment or from previous use of the area cannot be used for the production of BIOLAND food products (Bioland article 3.2 Location and 7.10 Contamination tests).
The BIOLAND standard has an specific provision, which is not in the EU Regulation 2092/91, regarding the handling of contaminated areas, but there is just a general statement about the possibility for the authorities to prolonge the conversion period for certain areas taking into account the prior use. To guarantee the innocuousness of BIOLAND products.
Contamination, preventing, herbs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
If the growing area of herb production borders on a field that is cultivated conventionally, there must be a distance of at least 5 meters between fields (exception: threshed herbs). Bordering on conventional fields should be avoided if possible. Protective hedgerows are recommended. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.2.1.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have an explicit restriction for the distance to conventional fields. The main reason is to avoid residues of pesticides and to create high confidence by consumers.
Contamination, preventing, highways, herbs - AT BIO Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Locations of herb production near densely populated areas (cities) are to be avoided. The distance to main roads (highways, high-sped road, major street [Bundesstrasse] must be at least 50 meters. Protective hedgerows are generally recommended in such cases. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.2.1.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard has an additional requirement compared with the the EU regulation 2092/91 regarding the distance of herb plantations to main roads. The main reason is to avoid residues of exhaust fumes (see herb production with distance to conventionally fields) and to create high consumer confidence.
Contamination, processing, herbs - AT Austria General Standards 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Bio Austria General Standard has, in addition to the requirements of distance to roads and conventional fields, requirements for a fast preparation of fresh material, a fast and careful drying (normally not higher than 40 °C). The drying room should be a separate unit. The room may not contain any materials contaminated with harmful substances (e.g. treated particle board). It is forbidden to use direct heating with fuel oil, gas, coal, or wood, or dehydration through chemical additives. A batch record of drying temperatures is to be kept, which is to be made available during the annual inspection. The storage space must be protected from light, dry and as cool as possible. A humidity level of 60% and a temperature of 19 °C are recommended. Drugs must be inspected regularly and the storage areas kept clean. Storage areas are to be kept separate from processing areas. (BA-Rules chapter 4.2.2, 4.2.4, 4.2.5, 4.2.7, 4.2.8)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have such specific requirements for preparation, drying and processing of herbs, while the Bio Austria General Standard is quite detailed. The main reason is to reach high quality products and to create high consumer confidence through a very fresh preparation/processing and a drying with care and to avoid environmental pollutants.
Contamination, reducing, processing units - Italian Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Italian Organic Standards (IOS) for handling, processing, packaging and marketing of agri-food products define specific general requirements for the operators to follow. Particular attention is dedicated to avoiding cross-contamination between organic and conventional productions within the same processing unit.
The Italian Organic Standards (IOS) for handling, processing, packaging and marketing of agri-food products define specific general requirements for the operators to follow. EU Regulation 2092/91 has more general requirements for processing and packaging of organic products. Unlike crop and livestock production, mixed processing firms can be certified by the inspection body. Therefore it is important to put in place all possible measures to avoid cross-contamination between organic and conventional productions within the same processing unit.
Contamination, reducing, storage and transport - NL Skal Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
All contact with forbidden products should be avoided. This means that it is not allowed to store or transport the organic product in storage places or trucks where products are being used / have been used that are not mentioned in annex VI part A.
SKAL interprets the rule in a way that all prevention methods should be taken to avoid any risk of contamination, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not mention possible prevention methods. See EU Rule Text: Article 5 part 3 c), d) and part 5 d), e): The product contains no other products of non-agricultural origin, as mentioned in annex VI, part a" It seems easier to inspect the methods of storage and transport, than the contamination itself. Also because the contamination check can be too late (the product may be contaminated already).
Contamination, testing, spraying equipment - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Organic farms must have their spraying equipment tested every 4 years.
Whereas the Swiss Ordinance requires spraytests, EU Regulation 2092/91 does not rule this point of concern. As good agricultural practise also in organic farming all spraying equipment must work perfectly in order to avoid non adequate application of agricultural substances.
Conversion and labelling, animal products - DE Naturland Standards 2005 Animal products can only be marketed with reference to Naturland if the respective conversion period for the animal species has been complied with AND the farm has been in conversion for at least 12 months. (NL standards on production Part A.I.9. Labelling and marketing) The NATURLAND standard requires the farm to undertake at least a 12 month conversion period before marketing NATURLAND organic animal products, regardless of the (shorter) conversion period for certain animal products. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 these animal products (eggs, milk, pullets, pork, mutton and goat meat) can be marketed as organic after complying with the provisions of the regulation during at least the conversion periods of the animal species, which are identical to the specific periods mentioned by NATURLAND. A minimum conversion period of the farm (land) is not mentioned. This is required because of the stipulation to use animal feeding stuffs produced on the same farm in the diet.
Conversion and labelling, beekeeping - Demeter International 2004
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
At the beginning of the conversion period the requirements of these standards must be met with some exemptions regarding the management system of the hives. To the earliest one year after the last application of non allowed substances the beekeeper can be certified 'in conversion to Demeter'. During the conversion period, which may not last longer than three years, the wax must be replaced completely if it cannot be demonstrated, that the wax is free from residues of prohibited substances. (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 8. Conversion)
The DI standard is more complex regarding the certification status of 'in conversion to Demeter' for organic honey after the first year of conversion to Demeter. It limits the duration of the conversion period to three years. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 there is no upper limit for the extension of the conversion period. However, as parallel production is not allowed, no organic honey can be sold before the conversion of all the hives is completed. Regarding the replacement of wax, the EU Regulation does not mention zero residues as pre-requisite to use conventional wax. The maximum duration of the conversion period is limited in order to safeguard credibility of biodynamic farming. The replacement of wax is required in order to avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Conversion of land, livestock production - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
A conversion period of at least 2 full calendar years is required. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period is possible)
BIO SUISSE requires a conversion period of 2 years for pastures, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 permits a reduction of the conversion period for pastures down to 6 months for non-herbivore species if no disallowed substances have been applied to the respective plots This rule contributes to consumer confidence and makes inspection easier.
Conversion of land, livestock production - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
A conversion period of 4 years is required; crops may be sold with 'DEMETER' denomination in the fourth year of conformity with DEMETER standards. As soon as all plots with fodder production have completed the conversion period, also animal husbandry is considered as DEMETER. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period is possible). In case of a certified production according Bio Suisse Standards, DEMETER approval may occur in the second year of conformity with DEMETER Standards.
DEMETER requires a minimal conversion period of 4 years for pastures, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 permits a reduction of the conversion period for pastures down to 6 months for non-herbivore species if no disallowed substances have been applied to the respective plots. Essential agricultural knowledge and skills in the biodynamic mehod are important prerequisitites for successfull farming. To acquire this knowledge and to gain credibility in the consumers eyes, DEMETER strictly defines the beginning of conversion as starting with the first inspection and requires a four year conversion period.
Conversion of land, livestock production - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
A conversion period of at least 2 full calendar years is required. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period is possible)
The Swiss Ordinance requires a conversion period of 2 years for pastures, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 permits a reduction of the conversion period for pastures down to 6 months for non-herbivore species if no disallowed substances have been applied to the respective plots. This rule is contributing to maintain consumer confidence.
Conversion of land, livestock production - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The competent authority may reduce the conversion periods in the certain cases a) pasture, open-air runs and exercise areas used by non-herbivore species; b) for bovine, equine, ovine and caprine coming from extensive husbandry during an implementation period established by the competent authority or dairy herds converted for the first time; c) if there is simultaneous conversion of livestock and land used only for feeding within the same unit, the conversion period for both livestock, pasture and/or land used for animal feed, may be reduced to two years only in the case where the existing livestock and their offspring are fed mainly with products from the unit.
The rules for conversion are comparable with the EU Regulation 2092/91. Codex Alimentarius requires as well at least 2 years conversion period except for non-herbivores. For the latter, the competent authorities may decide upon the reduction of the conversion period, in the EU this iso one year for pasturages, open air runds and exercised areas, which can be reduced to 6 months, when the land concerned has not, in the recent past, received treatments with non-allowed products. Codex Alimentarius does not limit this to 6 months. The possibility for a certain regional flexibility on national level should be given.
Conversion of land, livestock production - UK Compendium 2005 As a derogation from the principle that all farmland and livestock enterprises must undergo the full conversion period, this may be reduced to 1 year for areas used for non-herbivorous livestock under certain conditions. These conditions are that the land in question has received no prohibited inputs for a year before the start of the conversion period and that authorisation is obtained from the inspection body. UK Compendium states that areas used for non-herbivorous livestock may have a reduced conversion period of 1 year only if they have received no prohibited inputs for at least 1 year before the start of the conversion period. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows a reduced conversion period of 1 year for any land used for non-herbivore livestock, and it allows this conversion period to be further reduced to 6 months if prohibited inputs have been absent for 1 year. UK Compendium aims to reduce the health risk to the consumer that might result from contamination of organic products with prohibited substances. This helps to verify the organic status of livestock products. It continues the historically more restrictive UK standards on organic livestock conversion periods. The amendment was requested by UK inspection bodies.
Conversion of land, livestock production - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Production of organic pigs or poultry may be started on land in the second year of conversion if it has received no prohibited inputs for at least 2 years (i.e. for 1 year before the start of conversion). The livestock concerned must have been fed no genetically modified feed for 12 months before the start of conversion. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.3.10, 13.1.2 and 20.2.2. Soil Association standards contain further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards state that areas used for production of organic pigs and poultry, with Soil Association permission, during the second year of conversion must not have received prohibited inputs for at least 2 years, and no genetically modified feed must have been fed to the livestock during the same period. EU Regulation places no such restriction on previous inputs or feeds. It allows a 1-year conversion period for any land used for organic, non herbivorous livestock, and further allows the conversion period to be reduced to 6 months if prohibited inputs have been absent for 1 year. In this case, the Soil Association is complying with the requirements of the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 2.1.2, except that UK Compendium does not include the prohibition regarding the previous feeding with genetically modified feeds. Soil Association standards' restriction on previous prohibited inputs is intended to reduce the perceivable health risk to the consumer that might result from contamination of organic livestock products with residues of prohibited inputs. In addition, the prohibition on previous genetically modified feeds is partly a precautionary measure to avoid the unpredictable consequences of unproven technology.
Conversion period - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The conversion period lasts 2 years, starting on January 1st. The Swiss Ordinance foresees the start for conversion only for January 1st of each calendar year and the application for conversion must be deposited by August 31st of the previous year (hereafter, no application of disallowed substances is allowed anymore). From Januray 1st of the first year of conversion, Swiss farms are allowed to market their produce with the claim 'in conversion to organic farming'
The Swiss Ordinance accepts a shorter conversion period for perennial crops than the EU Regulation 2092/91, which applies a zero year which leads to a total of 36 months in perennials and 24 months in annual crops. For reasons of credibility in the consumers eyes, the Swiss Ordinance strictly defines the beginning of conversion starting with the first year of inspection on the spot.
Conversion period - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The conversion of a farm with all its farming units must be concluded at the latest five years after beginning the conversion period for the first of the units. (NL standards on production A.I.8.Approval)
The NATURLAND standard has additional requirements. There is no upward limit for the duration of the conversion period in the EU Regulation 2092/91. In order to make the whole farm conversion easier while considering the individual situation of a farm (i.e. economic viability, running contracts, crop rotation) it should not be necessary to convert the whole farm at once. However, as parallel production is not allowed, there must be a time limit in order to ensure the whole farm conversion and safeguard the integrity of the organic farm.
Conversion period - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005 IFOAM standards require in general a period of at least 36 months for conversion. Depending on the previous land use, the conversion period can be reduced to 12 months. EU Regulation 2092/91 states that the minimum conversion period must be between 2 and 3 years: Generally a period of at least two years before sowing is required, or in the case of grassland at least two years before being used as an organic feedstuff, or in the case of perennial crops (excluding grassland) at least three years before the first harvest. IFOAM states at least 12 months prior to the start of the production cycle and in the case of perennials (excluding pastures and meadows) a period of at least 18 months prior to harvest However, where certain conditions are met the EU can make the minimum time 12 months. So in this respect there is some equivalency between both sets of standards. No justification was given.
Conversion period, CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
A conversion period of at least 2 full calendar years is required. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period possible)
BIO SUISSE accepts a shorter conversion period for perennial crops than the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU applies a zero year which leads to a total of 36 months in perennials and 24 months in annual crops. BIO SUISSE however foresees the start for conversion only for January 1st of each calendar year and the application for conversion must be deposited by August 31st of the previous year (hereafter, no application of disallowed substances is allowed anymore). From Januray 1st of the first year of conversion, BIO SUISSE farms are allowed to market their produce under the claim 'in conversion' BIO SUISSE standards were in force before EU Regulation was created. BIO SUISSE does not allow a reduction of the conversion period in any cases.
Conversion period, land for livestock production - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
IFOAM requires a conversion period of at least 12 months prior to pastures, meadows and products harvested therefrom being considered organic. Landless animal husbandry systems are prohibited. (5.1.)
IFOAM requires 12 months of conversion for pastures, whereas according to EU Regulation 2092/91 a reduction down to 6 months conversion period is possible for pastures and meadows. In the context that a converson period enables the establishment of an organic management system IFOAM requires the longer conversion period than EU for pastures.
Conversion period, plant production - NL Skal Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
SKAL has defined precisely the possibility to reduce the conversion period to only six months before cultivation starts. The owner of the land should officially approve that the soil is managed according to the EU Regulation on organic farming.
SKAL is only implementing the possibility of a derogation of the EU Regulation 2092/91, but does not make it more restrictive. The EU rule which is referred to is in Annex II, part B, 2.1.2: "By derogation from this principle, the conversion period may be reduced to one year for pastures, open air runs and exercise areas used by non-herbivore species. This period may be reduced to six months where the land concerned has not, in the recent past, received treatments with products other than those referred to in Annex II of this Regulation. This derogation must be authorised by the inspection authority or body." As the derogation must be authorised on national level, in this case by SKAL.
Conversion period, plant production - SI Rules 2003
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
In SI Rules, the conversion period can be shortened under the condition that the operator of the agricultural holding can provide a guarantee that the production (unit) has already been subject to organic inspection system for a minimum of 1 year before (SI Rules 2003 Art. 12).
In principle the conversion period in plant production is regulated in the same way as in EU 2092/91, however it provides less possibilities for shortening the conversion period. No other possibility for shortening the conversion period as mentioned in the EU 2092/91 is foreseen. This relates to the situation in 1999 when the first state-approved organic inspection body started to operate. The provision allowed those farms that have been already participating in private organic inspection and certification schemes before 1999 to shorten the conversion period.
Conversion period, start date - NL Skal Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
The conversion period starts at the date set by SKAL. This date will be the day that the contribution to SKAL is paid by the producer / farmer.
SKAL sets the start date by financial contribution to SKAL, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 says it has to be 2 years before sowing. See Rule Text: "Annex I, part a) 1.1: The principles laid down in Article 6(1)(a), (b) and (d) and set out in particular in this Annex must normally have been applied on the parcels during a conversion period of at least two years before sowing, or, in the case of grassland, at least two years before its exploitation as feeding stuff from organic farming, or, in the case of perennial crops other than grassland, at least three years before the first harvest of products as referred to in Article 1(1)(a)." A certain starting point has to be given.
Conversion, GMO crops - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 A 5-year period is required from the harvest of any previous genetically modified crop before the land where it was grown may become fully organic. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 3.6.17. Soil Association Standards contain a restriction not included in EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards require a 5-year period from the harvest of any previous genetically modified crop before the land where it was grown may become fully organic. EU Regulation has no similar requirement. Soil Association standards aim to minimise the risks of contaminating organic crops with genetically modified plant material by requiring an extended period for conversion of land after cultivation of genetically modified crops. Genetically modified organisms are prohibited from use in organic farming because of the unpredictable nature of the technology, and the risks to health and the environment.
Conversion, application of biodynamic preparations - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Manures and composts must be treated with the biodynamic preparations. A prerequisite for the certification of the farm as "In Conversion to demeter" (Biodyn) after 12 months of farming to these standards is at least one application of the spraying preparations (cow-horn manure and the horn silica), and the spreading of prepared manures on all areas of the enterprise. (DI production standards, 4. Biodynamic Preparations)
The DI standard has additional requirements than the EU Regulation 2092/91. There is no requirement about the preparation or application of the biodynamic preparations in the EU Regulation. It is stated however, that these preparations can be used for the activation of compost. The use of the biodynamic preparations in the manure and compost is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method.
Conversion, beekeeping - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The minimum conversion period for beekeeping is 12 months. Conversion must be completed at the latest after five years (exceptions are possible). Bee products can only be labelled with the BIOLAND trademark after the conversion has been completed. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.5 Conversion)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require the conversion period to be completed after a maximum of time. However, as parallel management of organic and conventional beekeeping is not allowed, honey cannot be labelled as organic before the conversion of all the hives is completed. To safeguard the credibility of BIOLAND certified organic beekeeping.
Conversion, crop rotation - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Fields starting organic conversion, which have grown a nutrient exploiting crop in the previous two years, such as cereals in the previous 2 years, must start the conversion with a fertility building phase of the crop rotation. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.2.5.) Soil Association standards are more detailed and have additional requirments than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association Standards require that fields entering organic conversion, which have grown nutrient exploiting crops must start the first rotation of their organic conversion with a fertility building phase. EU Regulation does not contain this requirement, but only a requirement for a multi-annual rotation, including legumes green manures or deep-rooting plants, as the primary means to maintain or increase fertility. This Soil Association requirement enforces best agro-ecological practice at the start of organic conversion. It reduces any possibility that a producer might try to produce a nutrient exploiting crop by applying nutrient inputs to land with low nutrient levels entering conversion. Thus, this rule functions both as a guide for the producer and as a safeguard against poor practice in in-conversion crop production.
Conversion, full farm - AT Bio Austria General Standards 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Conversion of the entire holding is a prerequisite for the certification as an organic farm of Bio Austria. Beekeeping and fish farming are the only exceptions, and may be practiced conventionally.
The Bio Austria General Standard requires the whole farm to be converted and not just a production unit, as defined in EU Regulation. According to the EU Regulation it is not necessary to convert the whole farm. The main reason is to create high consumer confidence(exclusion of fraud and mistakes).
Conversion, full farm - AT Bio Austria General Standards 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Conversion of the entire holding is a prerequisite for the certification as an organic farm of Bio Austria. Beekeeping and fish farming are the only exceptions, and may be practiced conventionally.
The Bio Austria General Standard covers the whole farm and not just a production unit. According to the EU Regulation it is not necessary to convert the whole farm. The main reason is to create high consumer confidence (exclusion of fraud and mistakes).
Conversion, general requirements - US NOP 2002 § 205.202 Land requirements. Any field or farm parcel from which harvested crops are intended to be sold, labelled, or represented as "organic," must: (a) Have been managed in accordance with the provisions of §§ 205.203 through 205.206 (b) Have had no prohibited substances, as listed in § 205.105, applied to it for a period of 3 years immediately preceding harvest of the crop (c) Have distinct, defined boundaries and buffer zones such as runoff diversions to prevent the unintended application of a prohibited substance to the crop or contact with a prohibited substance applied to adjoining land that is not under organic management. US requires 3 years with no prohibited materials prior to harvest, but does not require full implementation of organic practices during the entire conversion period. EU Regulation 2092/91 requires 2 years of organic management prior to sowing or 3 years before the first harvest in case of perennials. The EU requires inspection during the conversion period, whereas the US does not. The EU defines the beginning of the conversion period, for the US this is not relevant subsequently; there is no retroactive approval for the conversion period in the US. The Act does not require that land be under active organic management during the period prior certification and USDA do not believe such a requirement in these regulations is necessary. Such a requirement, for example, would necessitate some process for verifying that an operation is under active organic management, which would, in effect, require a certification-type decision a year before certification is granted and the operation can begin to label products as certified organic.
Conversion, grassland and labelling - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Grassland harvest can only be marketed with reference to NATURLAND, if it has been managed according the standards at least since 24 months before the beginning of the growing period. (NL standards on production Part A.I.9. Labelling and marketing).
The NATURLAND standard is more precise. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires 24 months of full organic management before the harvest of organic grassland, without considering the growing period. The standard-setting body could not give a justification. A former version of the EU Regulation (2002) was determining for this provision. The NATURLAND provisions are being adapted to such changes in the EU Regulation.
Conversion, inspection and monitoring - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 The organic conversion period may be reduced by up to 4 months, with Soil Association permission, only if the producer provides full records to prove that prohibited inputs were not previously used on the land for at least the period of the reduction. Conversion may be further reduced by up to 12 months with Defra permission, only if the same full records are provided and even then only if the land was in a recognised agri-environment scheme that prohibited all of the same inputs for at least the period of the reduction. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.3.7 and 4.3.8. Soil Association standards specify minimum periods as EU Regulation 2092/91 allows inspection bodies to do. Land must have been monitored by the Soil Association for at least 12 months before the crops may be sold as fully organic. EU Regulation does not include any minimum period for inspection body monitoring of land in conversion. EU Regulation allows the inspection body or authority to reduce the period of organic conversion if the land has been in an officially recognised agri-environment scheme that prohibits all the same inputs as those prohibited by organic standards or if the producer can prove to the inspection body that prohibited inputs have not been used for the period of reduction. Soil Association standards specify a limited reduction period of 4 months if the producer provides proof or 12 months if the land has been in an agri-environment scheme. The specified minimum period for inspection body monitoring of land in conversion is intended to avoid any consumer health problems that might result from the presence of prohibited input residues in organic products, and to ensure that farm system and environmental benefits of organic management will be effective when the land becomes fully organic.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005 For brought-in livestock not coming from organic farm operations special conversion periods apply, if these animals or products thereof are sold as certified organic. BIO SUISSE standard is identical with EU Regulation 2092/91 except for the transition period for poultry for meat production. Whereas BIO SUISSE requires only 56 days for fattening poultry, EU requires that poultry is reared 10 weeks according the standard before being sold as organic. The deviation is due to the fact, that poultry becomes too heavy when reared longer than 56 days and then does not meet Swiss market demands for broilers .
Conversion, livestock and animal products - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Animals of conventional origin have to be kept in compliance with these standards during the respective conversion period, before animal products can be sold with reference to BIOLAND / organic farming. For the different types of animals specific minimum periods apply in addition to at least 12 months of conversion of the respective land area for feed production. An alternative is the combined conversion of feed production area and livestock, which will last at least 24 months. Cattle, that has been born on conventional farms and reared with feeding stuffs, that are not permitted, can never be sold using the BIOLAND trademark. (Bioland production standards, 9.2.4 Use of Trade Mark for Animal Products, 9.2.4.1 Product related Conversion; Bioland production standards, 9.2.4 Use of Trade Mark for Animal Products, 9.2.4.2 Simultaneous Conversion of the Total Business)
The BIOLAND provisions contain further requirements in the case of single type conversion, because they require the animal specific conversion period in addition to the first year of conversion for the feed production area. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the minimum conversion periods for the animals (which are the same in both regulations) can apply regardless of the conversion of the land, if the animals can be fed according to the regulation from the beginning of the conversion period. The use of the BIOLAND trademark is not regulated. In order to be able to feed the animals with at least 50% of home grown feed which is no longer conventional feed.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Conversion of all animals shall be started within 4 years after the beginning of the conversion according to the Danish Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Section 2.1: Conversion to organic agricultural production. However, according to 'section 4.1.8 animals for own use within the limits of non-commercial animal production (see attached file) are allowed as long as there is no organic production of the same animal species on the farm. The number and type of animals must be rapported to the Plantdirectorate. The manure from the non-commercial animals is considered organic, when used on own farm.
According to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Agricultural Production, October 2006 it is generally required that all animals are converted and the conversion of them shall start within 4 years after the entering into conversion of the farm except for non-commercial animal production for own use. According to EU Regilation 2092/91 Annex IB, Article 1.6 rearing of conventional livestock may be allowed on an organic holding provided they are of a different species than the organic animals, and they are reared on units where the buildings and parcels are clearly separated from the buildings and parcels where the organic animals are reared. Organic farming is a land based activity with a holistic approach. It is not logic to convert one kind of animal production and not the other. Besides, the requirement reduces the risk of fraud. However, for non-commercial animal production where only few animals are kept for own use it may be reasonable to set less strict rules.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
When the first animal on the farm starts its conversion period, the farmer has 8 years to get all his animals certified organic (except for species which are not regulated by the French organic regulation).
French regulation requires that ultimately all animals on the farm be organic, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 accepts the presence of non organic livestock provided they are reared on units where the buildings and parcels are clearly separated from the organic units and different species are involved. Presence of organically and conventionally managed livestock on the same farm is not consistent (why let cows range freelly and not poultry, for example) and a source of potential fraud. But each farmer needs time to adapt his farm system and so eight years are given to satisfy this obligation.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - IFOAM Basic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
5.2 Length of Conversion Period Where existing animals on a farm are converted to organic they should undergo a one-time minimum conversion period at least according to the following schedule: Production Conversion period · meat: 12 months · dairy: 90 days · eggs: 42 days
With the expeption that EU Regulation 2092/91 requires six months in the case of animals for milk production (and IFOAM only 90 days) , the timeframes for conversion periods for animal products are equivalent. No justification was available.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
For certified products; meat, wool and hides the animals have to be raised according to the KRAV standards 2 months before the calculated birth of ruminants and 1 month for pigs. Animals present on the farm at conversion can be certified after 1 year. This also applies to conventional animals bought in later for breeding, milk or egg production (KRAV standards paragraph 5.1.5).
In EU 2092/91 conventional animals can be brought in to the operation and there is no requirement of organic management before birth. The conversion time is 12 months for beef, 6 months for sheep, goat and pigs for meat. For milk production it is 6 weeks, 10 weeks for poultry for meat and 6 weeks for egg-production. The overall goal is to only bring in organic animals but as this is not possible conversion times are needed. At initial conversion there are animals on the farm, to keep consumer trust and handle competition between farmers there is a need for strict conversion times.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - SI Rules 2003
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
SI Rules (Art. 13) state that the conversion period for land used in livestock production can be reduced, in the case that only livestock production on the agricultural holding is being converted; to one year for pastures, open air runs and exercise areas used by non-herbivore species, and to six months when the land concerned has been in compliance with the provisions of these Rules for at least two years prior, and when all other facilities are also in compliance with the requirements of the Rules (Art. 19.). Organic agricultural products or organic foodstuffs of animal origin must originate from animals that have been reared on an organic agricultural holding in accordance with these Rules for at least two months in the case of calves, and two thirds of their lifetime in the case of fish.
SI Rules 2003 (Art. 19) foresee the reduction of the conversion period under the same conditions as EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I B (2.1.2.), but limits this to the case where only livestock part of the production unit is being converted. It also specifies the length of organic rearing for selling the products as organic in the case of calves and fish, whereas EU Regulation does not. SI Rules also do not mention any derogations related to a transitional period until 31.12.2003 as the EU Regulation does in Annex I B (2.2.1. and 2.2.2.). Regarding transition periods: SI Rules were amended in 2003 so the transitional period 31.12.2003 was not an issue.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - UK Compendium 2005 During the conversion period, livestock, except poultry, reared for organic meat must be reared from birth as organic. If their offspring are to be used as organic meat animals, breeding ewes, female goats and sows must be managed as organic from mating. Breeding cattle must be managed as organic for at least 12 weeks before the birth of offspring to be reared for organic meat. There are other periods specified for other classes of livestock to be managed as organic if their products are to be sold as organic. UK Compendium specifies that, for offspring to be sold as organic meat, the breeding female must be in organic management after mating for small ruminants and pigs, for at least 12 weeks before birth for cattle, and all these offspring must be reared as organic from birth. EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that organic management must be for at least 12 months or three quarters of lifetime, whichever is longer, for bovines and equidae reared for meat, and six months for small ruminants and pigs. EU Regulation makes no mention here of the management of breeding females after mating. For milk production, UK Compendium requires that cattle must be in organic management for 9 months before the milk can be sold as organic, with organic feed management for at least 6 months. EU Regulation requires 6 months organic management for all milk producing animals. The UK Compendium livestock conversion rule aims to eliminate any possible consumer health risks that might arise from non-organic livestock management by ensuring that organic meat animals have been in organic management since birth, and even during their gestation. UK Compendium makes no mention of equidae because this is a class of livestock rarely used for food in UK. The amendment was requested by UK inspection bodies.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
There are a number of minimum conversion periods and detailed conditions regarding organic conversion of different classes of livestock: all mammalian livestock reared for organic meat must be managed as organic from birth; Permission for buying in non-organic chicks or pullets (with a plan detailing where organic young birds will be obtained in future). Soil Association standards additionally require that non-organic bought-in laying poultry must not have been caged nor had beak mutilations, and after 31st December 2005, they must have been reared to Soil Association veterinary and feed standards. In the following ways, the Soil Association complies with the standards set out in the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 2.2.1. Soil Association rules specify that, for offspring to be sold as organic meat, the breeding female must be in organic management after mating for small ruminants and pigs, and for at least 12 weeks before birth for cattle. For milk production it is required that cattle must be in organic management for 9 months before the milk can be sold as organic, with organic feed management for at least 6 months. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 11.1.1, 11.1.2, 12.1.1-12.1.6, 13.1.3, 14.2.1-14.2.3, 20.3.1, 20.3.2, and 20.4.2-20.4.4.)
Soil Association standards mean all mammalian livestock reared for organic meat must be managed as organic from birth. EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that organic management must be for at least 12 months or three quarters of lifetime, whichever is longer, for bovines and equidae, and six months for small ruminants and pigs. Permission for buying in non-organic chicks or pullets is conditional whereas EU Regulation do not include such a condition. Furthermore EU Regulation make no mention of the management of breeding females. EU Regulation requires 6 months organic management for all milk-producing animals (and not 9 months as Soil Association). The Soil Association livestock conversion rules aim to eliminate any consumer health risks from non-organic management by ensuring that mammals reared for organic meat have been in organic management since birth, and even during their gestation. It is also an animal welfare issue. In order to prevent organic producers from providing a market for industry sectors in which birds are mistreated, the standards aim to ensure that the market demand for organic young birds will grow and thus support growth of the organic chick and pullet production sectors.
Conversion, microbial levels - NL SKAL Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
When, in special occasions, the microbiological activity is at a very low level, caused by mechanical non-penetrable covering, organic farming can only start 6 months after appropriate management of the soil.
SKAL defines a norm for the time needed for microbiological activity to recover after covering, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 has not defined such a period. See EU rule text: "Annex I, part a) 1.2: However, the inspection authority or body may decide, in agreement with the competent authority, to recognise this retroactively as being part of the conversion period" Microbial activity is necessary for good organic farming systems.
Conversion, polluted soil - NL SKAL Standard 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
When the soil is chemically polluted, Skal will extend the period of conversion for as long as necessary to have no residues in the products.
Skal is more precise then the EU Regulation 2092/91 by defining when and how they will extend the period of conversion in cases of polluted soil. The EU rule Text ("Annex I, part a) 1.3) only mentions that the "the inspection authority or body may, with the approval of the competent authority, decide, in certain cases, to extend the conversion period beyond the period laid down in paragraph 1.1 having regard to previous parcel use." The risk of remaining residues in the soil from former use is seen as a justification to extend the conversion period.
Conversion, preconditions - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
If land area is likely to be contaminated with harmful substances, soil analyses must be realised prior to conversion to determine the actual contamination. Additional demands can be made with regard the conversion of contaminated area. (NL standards on production: Part A.I. Conditions to be fulfilled prior to the conclusion of a producer contract. Part B.III.Market gardening, 1.2-1.3.)
The NATURLAND standard is more precise by requiring soil testing where contamination can be expected (i.e. in intensively farmed greenhouses). In the EU Regulation 2092/91 there is just the general information that authorities can prolong the conversion period taking into account the former use of an area. This is to avoid the contamination of the organic crop with substances that have been applied before the beginning of the organic management.
Conversion, retroactive approval - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005:
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
A conversion period of at least 2 full calendar years is required. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period possible).
Whereas BIO SUISSE requires a two years conversion period beginning in the first year of inspection by an official inspection body, EU Regulation 2092/91 offers the possibility for retrospective approval in cases, where previous management methods are proved to be in compliance with the Regulation (approval as 'organic' after 6 months of first inspection for pastures or immediate approval for other plots if last conventional practice happened more than 3 years ago). The inflexibility in the conversion period is thought to increase consumer credibility. The Bio Suisse standards in this case comply with the Swiss government regulation.
Conversion, retroactive approval - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
A conversion period of 4 full calendar years is required; crops may be sold with 'DEMETER' denomination in the fourth year of conformity with DEMETER standards. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period possible). In case of a certified production according Bio Suisse Standards, DEMETER approval may occur in the second year of conformity with DEMETER Standards.
Whereas DEMETER requires a 36 months conversion period beginning with the first year of inspection by an official inspection body, EU Regulation 2092/91 offers the possibility for retrospective approval in cases where previous management methods are proven to be in compliance with the regulation. Essential agricultural knowledge and skills in the biodynamic method are important prerequisitites for successfull farming. To acquire this knowledge and to gain credibility for the method in the consumers eyes, DEMETER strictly defines the beginning of conversion as starting with the first year of inspection.
Conversion, retroactive approval - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The conversion period lasts 2 years, starting on the first of January.
With the exception for sprouts and mushroom production the Swiss Ordinance does not allow a shortening of the conversion period: While the EU Regulation 2092/91 offers the possibility for retrospective approval in cases, where previous management methods are proved to be in compliance with the Regulation (approval as 'organic' after 6 months of first inspection for pastures or immediate approval for other plots if last conventional measure happened more than 3 years ago). For reasons of credibility in the consumers eyes, the Swiss Ordinance strictly defines the beginning of conversion starting with the first year of inspection on the spot.
Conversion, simultaneous conversion of livestock and land - UK Compendium 2005 A complete production unit, including livestock enterprises, may be simultaneously converted to organic status in 24 months. However, cattle reared for organic meat must have been born to cattle managed organically for at least 12 weeks before calving, other livestock for meat must be the offspring of organically managed female stock, and livestock for organic meat must be fed mostly on products of the unit. Fully organic livestock may be bought or sold from the unit, but their products may not be sold as organic until completion of the latest 24-month conversion period among production units where they have been present. The UK Compendium adds an additional subsection stating that fully organic livestock may be bought and sold from a converting livestock unit, but that their products may be sold as organic only after 24 months from the latest conversion start-date of the units where they have been present. UK Compendium specifies again here, as in Paragraph 2.2.1, that for offspring to be sold as organic meat after simultaneous conversion, the breeding female must be in organic management after mating for small ruminants and pigs, for at least 12 weeks before birth for cattle, and all these offspring must be reared as organic from birth. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not contain this specification. The UK Compendium rule ensures some flexibility in the purchase or sale of organic livestock for the in-conversion holding, without compromising the organic status of livestock products. This additional subsection is a qualification to the statement that the derogation applies only to existing animals. UK Compendium's rule repeats its conversion rule on how animals for meat may be sold as organic, to eliminate possible consumer health risks for organic consumers from non-organic livestock management.
Conversion, simultaneous conversion, trading livestock - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Livestock complying with requirements of simultaneous conversion may be bought or sold by a farm in simultaneous conversion. They may be traded only once before finishing, except with special Soil Association permission, and their products may not be sold as organic until all buying and selling units have completed conversion. All relevant records and documentation must be kept at the farm, and transfer documents and trading schedules must be sent with traded livestock. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.5.6. Soil Association standards contain rules that are not specified in EU Regulation 2092/91. The Soil Association standards state that fully organic or in-conversion livestock may be traded from a livestock unit in simultaneous conversion, being bought or sold only once unless permission is sought, but that their products may be sold as organic only after the completion of conversion periods at all the units where they have been present. In this case, Soil Association standards comply with UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 2.3.1, except the Soil Association standards add the requirement for their permission to buy or sell an animal more than once on a unit in conversion. The EU Regulation on simultaneous conversion refers only to existing animals and does not include rules on the trading of livestock on holdings in simultaneous conversion. The Soil Association standards seek to allow flexibility for the producer, regarding the purchase or sale of livestock for the holding in simultaneous conversion, without compromising the genuine organic status of livestock products. The EU Regulation specification of existing animals could be interpreted to mean only animals already present on the holding, possibly implying that the derogation may not apply to brought-in animals that are already in-conversion or organic. The Soil Association's liberal interpretation of EU Regulation should be read in the context of the detailed UK rules on conversion periods for livestock.
Cosmetics and cleaning materials - FR Nature et Progres 2001
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
There are standards for organic cosmetics and cleaning materials. Nature et Progrès standards include mainly use of organic ingredients, forbid use of petrochemical molecules and synthetic constituents, ensure a high biodegradability of products, etc.
Nature et Progrès standards include standards for cosmetics and cleaning materials whiel the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. There is now a huge "organic" or "natural" cosmetics industry in Europe, but there are no EU rules or standards for these. If we want organic cosmetics to be really organic and avoid consumers being misled there is a need to define standards.
Crop rotation - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Any crop rotation must maintain long-term soil fertility and guarantee prosperous growth. The rotation must minimise the loss of nutrients by erosion or effluent water. A rate of 20% leguminous or soil building crops are required by BIO SUISSE and winter cover of at least 50% of arable land area. Cereals/grain legumes 67%, wheat and others not more than 50% to the rotation. Leguminous soil buildung crops must cover at least 25% of the share in the rotation. A break of at least one vegetation cycle is required before a crop of the same family shall be planted again.
Whereas BIO SUISSE regulates the crop rotation requirements in detail, the EU Regulation 2092/91 is more general in this area. A balanced and sophisticated crop rotation is crucial to maintain long term soil fertility, to enhance natural nitrogen level and humus accumulation. Therefore clear requirements are necessary to support this aim.
Crop rotation - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Crop rotation is mentioned in a general way in the preamble of the standard. Since all farms must have their own animal husbandry, rotation must include fodder and roughage production for these animals. However: all DEMETER farms have to comply with the Bio Suisse standards of crop rotation.
EU Regulation 2092/91 in general requires the rotation of green manures or deep-rooting plants in an appropriate multi-annual rotation programme with no minimal rates for specific soil enhancing crops. DEMETER farms are forced into a very diverse crop rotation scheme since they must produce fodder for their own animal husbandry. Since own fodder production and own animal husbandry is required, the crop rotation must be balanced with leguminous crops as well as other fodder crops in order to keep the farm self-sufficient in its fodder supply.
Crop rotation - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Sustainable soil fertility requires sufficient legumes and a high proportion of leaf crops in the rotation. (DI production standards, 3. Arable plant production)
The DI standard is slightly more precise in the aspect of how to design an adequate crop rotation. The prerequisite for good development of leaves, flowers and fruit/seeds is a vital living soil that allows good root penetration. The design of this growing area is of greater importance for the health of the plant than are individual plant husbandry measures.
Crop rotation - Italian Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The operator should adopt a rotation plan. The rotation should include crops belonging to different species, and should include at least an annual or perennial legume. The certification body may not authorize the growing of the same crop, in the same field, for more than two consecutive years (3 consecutive cycles for horticultural cultivations).
Compared with EU Regulation 2092/91 there are more detailed rules for crop rotation and specific requirements to avoid monoculture. Rotation is the base of soil fertility and therefore of organic agriculture. For this reason the IOS defines detailed guidelines for crop rotation.
Crop rotation - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 To satisfy nitrogen needs of the farm at least a 20% share of legume crops (as a main crop) should be grown on arable land. Catch crops should be grown on at least 20% of arable land acreage. (3.2.4) The EU Regulation 2092/91 demands the cultivation of legumes, green manures or deep-rooting plants in an appropriate multi-annual rotation programme, but does not specify minimal shares as the PL Ecoland standards do. One of the basic methods of soil conservation is properly designed crop rotation system.
Crop rotation - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Soil Association standards require that, where a crop rotation is possible, it must use a sequence where the fertility building and fertility depleting crops maintain a balance, it must include crops with various root systems, it must include a legume crop, and it must leave enough time between crops with similar pest and disease risks. Where the rotation is not to this standard and relies on inputs, the farmer must show that the rotation is improving, is reducing the inputs, and is making maximum use of legumes and green manures. At least 3 seasons must be allowed between outdoor crops of alliums, brassicas or potatoes, but successional crops in the same year are allowed. With permission, two crops of the same family may be grown in successional years followed by a 6-year break. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 5.1.10-5.1.13.)
Soil Association require: where a crop rotation is possible, it must follow a number of specified rules regarding the types of crop and their sequence in the rotation. EU Regulations 2092/91 requires that the soil fertility and biological activity must be maintained by a multi-annual rotation including legumes, green manures or deep-rooting plants, but the requirements for the rotation are no more detailed than that. The Soil Association standards on crop rotations are intended to ensure that the rotation will be an effective means of maintaining soil fertility and of controlling pests and diseases without the need for recourse to excessive or restricted inputs. The crop rotation specifications are intended to achieve maximum environmental benefits and minimum risks of environmental pollution or harm to biodiversity. The standards anticipate some of the most likely ways that rotations may be compromised by poor practice, and they include requirements and restrictions that aim to prevent these problems.
Crop rotation, certified land - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
It is not permissable to rotate the certified production. The operator can not remove certified organic land and bring in conventional land into the certification scheme without KRAVs approval (KRAV standards paragraph 4.1.8).
The rotation of organic and conventional land is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Farmers are not allowed to have an organic farming system and then remove organic fields from the certification to treat them with chemical pesticides or chemical fertilisers and then possibly bring them in again into organic production. There are occasions were it is appropriate to take out land to gain a more coherent organic part of a split production.
Crop rotation, legumes - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The minimum share of legumes in the crop rotation is 20% (with exemptions). (NL standards on production, Part B.I. Plant production 7.)
In the EU Regulation 2092/91 legumes are required in the crop rotation as a measure to maintain and increase the soil fertility. A minimum share is not indicated like it is in Naturland The incorporation of legumes in the crop rotation is a vital element to ensure the long-term fertility of the soil.
Crop varieties - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Species and varieties for BIOLAND plant production should be of high nutritional quality, resistant to diseases and adapted to the location. For agricultural production, typical local varieties have preference to hybrid varieties (applicable for arable cropping only). (Bioland production standards, 3.6 Seeds, Seedlings and Plant Materials, 3.6.1 Basic Principles)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation only requires the choice of appropriate species and varieties to control diseases, pests and weed pressure. 'Appropriate' is not further specified and preferation of non-hybrid types is not mentioned. In order to enable the farms own self-supply with seeds and the development of locally adapted types of seeds (arable cropping).
Cropping systems, prohibited - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Even cropping systems that do not rely on rotations must still comply with the methods of nutrient supply, weed, pest and disease control set out in the rules for crop establishment and growth, and they must not rely on outside inputs. Continuous arable rotations are prohibited. (Soil Association Organic Standards, Sections 4.6-4.11 and Paragraphs 5.1.14 and 5.1.15.)
Soil Association standards are more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards prohibit any cropping systems that rely strongly on outside inputs for nutrient supply, weed, pest and disease control, and any that are based on continuous arable rotations. EU Regulation does not include these specific prohibitions. The Soil Association standards are partly intended to prohibit hydroponic crop production, while allowing flexibility for other sustainable cropping systems. Hydroponic cropping systems rely on high levels of nutrient and energy input and are therefore considered unsustainable. The prohibitions on continuous arable rotations and on systems relying on outside inputs enhance the enforceability of the positive requirements for diverse, multi-annual rotation.
DE Bioland 2005: Origin of seedlings
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Seedlings must be produced on the farm itself or purchased from another organic farm (BIOLAND with preference). (Bioland production standards, 3.6.4 Seedlings)
The BIOLAND standard is more demanding. The correspondig EEC regulation does't require the on-farm production of seedlings. The handling of BIOLAND certified material is not regulated. To ensure BIOLAND quality throughout the whole production chain.
DE Bioland 2005: Propagation material: shoots and sprouts
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The propagation material used for shoots and sprouts must come from BIOLAND certified sources. In case of unavailability, other organically produced material can be used. (Bioland production standards, 5.3 Shoots and Sprouts)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EEC reg. doesn’t contain any specific requirement for the use of propagation material for shoots and sprouts. If the general provisions regarding the use of propagation material for plant production apply, material from organic origin must be used. If this is not available according to the national data base, permission can be granted to use conventional untreated material. In this case, the BIOLAND standard is stricter. To ensure the organic quality of the product, as in the production of shoots and sprouts, the young plant (sometimes including the seed) is consumed directly.
DE Bioland 2005: Pullet rearing
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The specific instructions for housing systems used for pullet rearing are concerning the maximum stocking density in relation to the stage of development of the animals (age / weight), the size of the scratching area, the characteristics of perching facilities and size of openings. Daylight is mandatory as well as a permanent accessible outdoor climate area for stocks of more than 200 animals or if the open air run covered with vegetation is less than 2.5m²/animal. If possible 1 cock shall be kept together with 100 hens. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.5 Poultry, 4.2.5.2. Young hens 4.2.5.2.1 - 4.2.5.2.3; Bioland production standards, 4.3 Dealing with animals, 4.3.2 Measures in the business)
The BIOLAND standard is much more detailed. The EEC regulation doesn't indicate specific instructions for rearing pullets at the moment. Consequently the general instructions concerning poultry housing apply. Specific rules are currently under development. In order to ensure the system to meet the specific needs of the animals, it must be adapted and appropriate to the animals stage of development. Consequently specific indications are needed. Chickens must have possibilities to „practise“ at an early stage of development the elements of natural behaviour in order to learn it. Disturbances in the behaviour of laying hens, which can lead to severe problems, shall be avoided. Robustness and a natural immunisation against the microorganisms being present on the farm shall be supported providing outdoor access in an early stage of development.
DE Bioland standards 2005: Medicinal plants - need of advice
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
In order to achieve the desired contents the choice of location, fertilising system, crop rotation and preparation should be adapted to comply as optimally as possible with the differing requirements of the individual species. The operator should, therefore, obtain advice prior to entering into the field of growing medical and aromatic plants. (Bioland production standards, 5.2.2 Advice on Production)
The BIOLAND standard has a broader scope. The EEC reg. doesn't refer to advisory services for organic operators. In order to avoid problems arising due to the specific challenges of organic herb cultivation.
DE Bioland standards 2005: derogations concerning animal housing
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The derogations concerning animal housing, which can be accepted according to the EEC reg. Annex I B, 6.1.5., 6.1.6.(tethering of cattle), 8.5.1. (open air run, poultry housing, open air run for poultry) require approval of BIOLAND. (Bioland production standards, 9.4 Commencement of Validity and Transitional Arrangements)
Additional approval of farmers associations (BIOLAND) is not regulated. In order to directly control the conditions on BIOLAND farms. It is important for the BIOLAND association to be aware of the situation on farms with derogations in order to influence and improve it.
DE Naturland 2005: maximum stocking rate
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The maximum stocking density for a NATURLAND farm is calculated by the equivalent of 1,4 dung units (equivalent to 112 kg N/ha and 98 kg P2O5/ha). (NL standards on production, Part B.II. Livestock production and Appendix 4)
The NATURLAND standard is more demanding. According to the EC reg. the maximum stocking rate is an equivalent of 170 kg N/ha (approx. 2.9 du/ha). To limit the input of nitrogen.
DE Naturland standards 2005: Preference of inputs of a higher certification level While purchasing means of production, preference is to be given to products certified by NATURLAND or another certification body, approved as equivalent. In case of proven non-availability, a product with a lower certification level can be bought. (NL standards on production Part A.II.3. Purchase of means of production and equipment) Private certification levels are not regulated by the EC reg. This is in order to ensure NATURLAND quality throughout the whole production chain.
Decertification of land, heavy metal content - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
KRAV can decertify farmland because of residues of undesirable substances such as pesticide residues and heavy metals (KRAV standards paragraph 4.2.2).
There are no provisions for decertification/non-acceptance of farmland due to contamination in EU 2092/91. If land is heavy contaminated it should not be used for food or feed production. For some substances testing of products is possible but when there are several contaminants this is difficult.
Definitions - US National Organic Programme 2002
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
NOP contains a detailled list of defined terms.
The NOP list of definitions is more detailed compared to EU Regulation 2092/91. NOP does not cover a definition of genetically modified organisms (GMO), however genetic engineering is covered under the definition for "excluded methods". The EU defines GMO's and GMO derivatives. The NOP definition of "excluded methods" does not address GMO derivatives. NOP re definitions of GMO's: "The emphasis and basis of these standards is on process, not product. We have specifically structured the provisions relating to excluded methods to refer to the use of methods. Including the products of excluded methods in the definition would not be consistent. With this approach to organic standards as a process-based system. For the same reason, we have retained the term, 'excluded methods', to reinforce that process-based approach. Further justifications for the definitions are described in the attached extract of the NOP "Entire Standards".
Demeter International 2005: Mushrooms
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There is a draft chapter for biodynamic mushroom production. It is however the intention to work out the mushroom production rules together with the mushroom producers once there will be a group of those: "Standards in this area are currently under development. Interested persons are requested to contact Demeter International, group for production standards directly." (DI production standards, 3.6. Mushrooms)
The EEC Regulation contains minimum standards for Mushroom production. see Summary.
Demeter International 2005: Origin of animals for fattening
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Animals brought in for fattening must be of Demeter or, if these are not available, from organic origin. (DI production standards, 5.7.B Animals brought in for fattening)
The DI standard is more demanding. According to the EEC reg. conventional poultry for fattening purposes can be brought in under certain circumstances. To ensure Demeter quality throughout the whole production chain.
Demeter International 2005: ruminants / equidae required
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The stocking rate is determined by the possibilities for fodder production, as dictated by climate and the local conditions. It is to take into account the maintenance and development of soil fertility. The minimum stocking rate has to be defined by the certification organisation in each country. The maximum stocking rate may not exceed 2.0 livestock units/ha, corresponding to a maximum of 1.4 manure units/ha, if feed is brought in. (DI production standards, 5.2. Stocking rate)
The DI standards is more demanding. Not only a maximum but also a minimum stocking rate is required. The max. stocking rate is lower than the one indicated in the EEC reg. Demeter farms must incorporate livestock, but it must be kept and fed in accordance with the given conditions of the site.
Demeter International 2005: shoots and sprouts
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The production of sprouts and shoots must use seeds, roots and rhizomes, which have been multiplied biodynamically. Material of conventional origin is not allowed. (DI production standards, 3.7. Sprouts and shoots)
The DI standard is more detailed: there is no specific provision for the production of sprouts and shoots in the EEC reg. If the general provisions regarding the use of seeds for plant production apply, plant propagation material from organic origin must be used. If this is not available according to the national data base, a permission can be granted to use conventional but untreated material. I this case, the DI standard is more strict. Biodynamically propagated plants can provide an optimum of the desired nutritional aspects.
EU SKAL standards 2005: PROCESSING - Processing inputs -meat
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
SKAL has included the following specific additives to Annex VI for meat processing only: Nitrates (E250 - until 1st of January 2006)), Sodium-lactate (Na), Potassium-lactate (K), Calcium-lactate (Ca), natural intestines, artificial intestines (for storage of sausages). "Article 3: According to the article it is permitted to add processing aids to annex VI, on the condition that the need is approved to and confirmed by the authority of the state. "
Norms for processing of products that are not within the scope of the EEC regulation must correspond as much as possible with the processing standards in the EEC-regulation. Exceptions are made for additives for cheese, non-food, dog and cat feed, wine and meat products. The EEC regulation has not regulated the processing of animal products yet. The Dutch organic meat processors have convinced the Dutch authority about the need of these additives.
Environmental policy - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
All KRAV certified operators must have an environmental policy and manage a systematical environmental effort (KRAV Standards paragraph 2.11.3 ). For farmers the Swedish Federation of Farmers Environmental Audits can be used. Is is a self auditing of the environmental aspects of the farm (KRAV Standards paragraph 3.1.7).
A request for a general environmental policy or managment system is not covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91. For organic farming in Sweden it is important to not only fullfil basic organic requirement but also to be in the forefront for environmental issues in general.
Environmental recommendations, general requirements - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Soil Association standards include a general set of recommendations regarding organic farming and the environment. Soil Association standards explain how organic farming is designed to cause minimum disruption to the natural environment, emphasise the importance of ecological diversity, and recommend management to achieve social and environmental sustainability, respect for traditional pastoral practice, and compatibility with local climate and topographical circumstances. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 3.1)
Soil Association standards are more comprehensive than EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation makes an assumption that organic management yields environmental benefits, and includes certain requirements concerning environmental benefits and minimising impacts, but it does not include any dedicated set of general environmental recommendations. The general environmental recommendations are intended to encourage producers to manage organic farms for optimum social and environmental outcomes.
FR regulation 2000: Traceability
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There are specific measures for traceability : identification of live animals; slaughter, identification and classification of carcases and precautionary measures during processing.
French organic regulation requires some additional traceability measures, as stipulated in the EEC regulation. The aim is to reduce the risk of mistakes or frauds. Organic production and processing should keep the lead, with regard to traceability.
Farm diversity - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Demeter farms are required to integrate ruminants or equidae. Exemptions can be approved by the respective certifying organisation. In market gardens and in enterprises having solely perennial crops, the requirement to have their own animals is not obligatory if manures, compost, green manures, and preparation usage is particularly intensive. (DI production standards, 5.1. Requirement to have livestock DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 4)
Demeter farms are not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91, and there is no requirement to have any type of livestock on an organic farm according to the EU Regulation. Animal husbandry, with the accompanying fodder production is an important part of the agricultural enterprise. With respect to the development of the enterprise, the farm organism cannot do without livestock. This applies to the ruminant in particular. The fodder plants and the well-balanced manure that comes into being because of cattle, contribute considerably through the enlivening of the soil, to the long term flourishing of a farm. The harmonious co-operation of mankind with the three kingdoms of nature can lead to a living, ensouled farm organism.
Fertilization intensity: Manure Export
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Export of manure can only occur to farms, which also comply with the maximum level of not more than 2.5 LSU/ha (Livestock units/ha). Purchase contracts for farmyard manure are only possible between holdings which provide the ecological services laid down in the Swiss Ordinance on Direct Payments of 7 December 1998 (ODP).
While the Swiss Ordinance excludes intensive stocking rates by strictly limiting manure exports from the farm, EC regulation limits the manure used on the own farm to 170kgN/ha solely. Excessive manure still can be exported with no restriction. The Swiss Ordinance intends to keep the stocking rate on each organic operation to an less-intensive level (not more than 2.5 LSU/ha). By this means, the goal of closed circles in organic farming of self-sufficiency with fodder and nutrients can be reached.
Fertilization, GMO derivatives - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 It is prohibited to use any nutrient input for organic crop production that contains genetically modified organisms (GMO) or their derivatives. This includes manure produced by livestock fed or grazed on genetically modified material within the previous 3 months. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 3.6.7. Soil Association standards prohibits the use of manure produced by livestock fed or grazed on genetically modified material within the previous 3 months. EU Regulation 2092/91 has no clear restriction. The Soil Association standards aim to minimise the risk of contamination of organic crops with genetically modified plant material by prohibiting the use of any genetically modified crop nutrient inputs. Genetically modified organisms are prohibited from use in organic farming because of the unpredictable nature of the technology, and the risks to health and the environment.
Fertilization, biodynamic prepaparations - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Specific bio-dynamic preparations enhance soil fertility and the health of crops. These preparations are defined as field sprays (cow-horn manure, horn silica) and compost preparations (camomile, oak bark, dandelion, yarrow, stinging nettle, valerian). The full effect can only be expected when all the preparations (compost and spray preparations) are used in composted manures and as crop sprays at least once throughout the year.
Specific bio-dynamic preparations help to regulate cosmic and earth-bound forces. They soil fertility and contribute to improve the nutritional quality of the crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 gives standards for fertilization requirements but does not extend the definition of fertility to aspects of superior life forces. Bio-dynamic farming includes the aspect of earthbound and cosmic forces, which can be regulated with the support of specific bio-dynamic preparations. Only the combination of manuring and application of bio-dynamic field sprays would lead to increased fertility of soil and to a (holistic) nutrional quality of the crops.
Fertilization, biodynamic preparations - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The biodynamic preparations should be made on the farm itself and applied regularly in manures and compost and on the whole farm area. (DI production standards, 1. Principles; DI production standards, 4. Biodynamic Preparations)
There is no requirement about the preparation or application of the biodynamic preparations in the EU Regulation 2092/91. It is stated however, that these preparations can be used for the activation of compost. The use of the biodynamic preparations is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method. The fabrication of the preparations on the farm itself and with ingredients collected from the farm will strengthen the development of an individuality of the farm organism and help the consciousness and understanding of the connections in nature by the farmer.
Fertilization, biodynamic preparations, cosmic rhythms - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The Biodynamic method has largely to do with the forming of living interactions, where the correct timing of measures which affect living processes plays an important role. To this belongs in particular also the conscientious and regular use of the Biodynamic preparations, and the consideration of cosmic rhythms in plant production and animal husbandry. (DI production standards, 1.principles)
There is no requirement to consider cosmic rhythms or to use the biodynamic preparations in order to individually develop the "farm organism" in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Each farm shall be developped into a "living organism" and has to be worked out in an individual way. The consideration of cosmic rhythms and the application of the biodynamic preparations are important measures to help the "farm organism" to develop. These measures have been laid down in the "Agricultural Course" of Rudolf Steiner, which is the basis of the biodynamic method.
Fertilization, general requirements - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Composted farm yard manure (preferably from own animal husbandry) with specific bio-dynamic preparations (plant extract additives) enhances soil fertility and the soil quality. Farms should have their own animal husbandry. Only in exceptional cases fare arms without animal husbandry accepted (e.g. fruit orchards, horticulture).
Manure applied should preferably originate from own animal husbandry and must be composted with specific bio-dynamic preparates. An exception from the DEMETER certification is required if no animals are reared on the farm. The EU Regulation 2092/91 makes no preferences for the origin of the nutrients applied, but only requires that farm yard manure has to be from extensive husbandry. Enlivening the soil and the maintenance and development of soil fertility are basic objectives of the bio-dynamic method. The greatest influence in this regard (besides sound soil tillage and crop rotation) is the careful use of composted and prepared manures from ruminants, in particular from cows.
Fertilization, general requirements - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The producer must manage crop nutrients and soil fertility through rotations, cover crops, and the application of plant and animal materials. The producer must manage plant and animal materials to maintain or improve soil organic matter content avoiding contamination. Approved fertilizers: (1) Raw animal manure (subject to further restrictions) (2) Composted plant and animal materials (3) Uncomposted plant materials (4) A crop nutrient or soil amendment included on the national list of synthetic substances allowed for use in organic crop production (6) A mined substance of low solubility (7) A mined substance of high solubility, provided that the substance is used in compliance with the conditions established on the national list of nonsynthetic materials prohibited for crop production. (Article § 205.203 and § 205.205)
There are only differences regarding manure and compost (see these sections) compared with EU Regulation 2092/91. A producer of an organic crop must manage soil fertility, including tillage and cultivation practices, in a manner that maintains or improves the physical, chemical, and biological condition of the soil and minimises soil erosion.
Fertilization, intensity - Nature et Progrès Standards 2001
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The organic nitrogen input from external sources (composted manure or fish fertilizer) is limited to 40 kg per ha and per year.
Nature et Progrès standards limit the organic nitrogen import to 40 kg per ha and per year, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 limits it to 170 kg per ha and per year. The fertility and the biological activity of the soil must be maintained or increased, in the first instance, by cultivation of legumes, green manures or deep-rooting plants in an appropriate multi-annual rotation programme. Too much nitrogen in soil causes water pollution and crop diseases.
Fertilization, intensity - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In arable farming and grassland the total amount of N in organic fertilizers from organic origin is limited to 170 kg/ha (this rule is not valid for special cultures as like vegetables, drug plant and spices [without spices for threshing], orchards, vineyards and hope). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.1.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard requires a limit of 170 kg N/ha for the whole organic manure and not only for farmyard manure. Quality and environmental reasons.
Fertilization, intensity - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The maximum amount of nitrogen that may be supplied by manures fertilizer, averaged over the crop rotation, may not exceed the amount that would be produced by those animals which the farm could support from its own fodder production (max. 2.0-2.5 LSU equivalents/ha based on the total area of the farm or less). The use of commercial organic manures is limited to this level as well.
Individual limits are set by DEMETER standards for each crop are applied for the use of fertilizers: both nitrogen and phosphorus are limited, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 in general sets a limit for nitrogen only ( 170kgN/ha and year farm yard manures). The production of fodder and crops should be in balance with the animals kept on the farm and their production of manure. In order to keep this balance and to avoid excessive use of fertilizers DEMETER limits the use of nutrients to the effective need by the crops.
Fertilization, intensity - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The total amount of nitrogen fertilizer that may be used on the farm is related to the farms own capacity to produce animal manure. It must not exceed 1.4 manure units/ha (equivalent to 112 kg N/ha and 98 kg P2O5/ha). Market gardens with a high nitrogen export are allowed to use up to 170 kg N/ha after approval. (DI production standards, 3.2.1. Amount of manure)
According to the DI standards the nitrogen input allowed in general is lower than the one allowed by the EU Regulation 2092/91 (170 kg N/ha). The farm production should be based on the individual (natural and cultural) conditions of the site. It should not depend on the input of nutrients from elsewhere. This aspect refers to the principle of a circular flow economic system of organic farming and to the biodynamic principle of the individuality of a farm.
Fertilization, intensity - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
KRAV can request that a farmer has a plant nutrient equation done for the whole farm and all inputs used (KRAV standards paragraph 4.1.6).
Plant nutrient equation or balances are not covered in EU 2092/91. To use manure and other inputs in an effective and responsible way is important in organic production. For farms where there is a risk for overuse of inputs and risks to the environment, a nutrient balance can be requested. This is also a educational tool for the farmer.
Fertilization, intensity and import - CH Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The source of brought-in manures is restricted by the positive list of admitted fertilizers in organic farming. For export of manure from the own operation of more than 1 LSU/year, a contract must exist with the farm receiving this manure. This farm must be managed according ecological principles and can not exceed adequate nutrient limits as set by the legislation.
Import of farm yard manure and compost can only occur if a contract exists with the exporting farm and nutrient needs of crops are not exceeded (evidence must be provided by calculation). The EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the nutrient input of farm yard manures to 170kgN/ha; while neither of the farms (the exporting farm and the receiving farm) may exceed this limit. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced nor applied.
Fertilization, intensity, nitrogen - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In arable farming and grassland the total amount of N in organic fertilizers from organic origin is limited to 170 kg/ha (this rule is not valid for special cultures such as vegetables, drug plants and spices [without spices for threshing], orchards, vineyards and hope).
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU \Regulation 2092/91 annex I as it requires a limit of 170 kg N/ha for the whole organic manure and not only for farmyard manure. Quality and environmental reasons
Fertilization, intensity, vegetables - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/other.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In connection with the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus A 8 maximum levels of nitrate for vegetables are defined. (BA-Rules chapter 4.1.8)
The Bio Austria General Standard contains a further restriction than EU Regulation 2092/91, which does not have a restriction of the nitrate level in vegetables. Consumer protection.
Fertilization, negative effects - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The application of fertilizers must not negatively affect either the quality of the product or the environment. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.5 Production of Quality and Environmental Compatibility)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not consider the product quality which can be influenced by fertilising. However it does require measures to avoid contamination of the soil. To guarantee the production of high quality food. To avoid negative impacts on the environment.
Fertilization, substrates, heavy metals - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Best practice recommendations are explained regarding heavy metal in soil. Maximum permitted levels of heavy metals are specified for topsoil and manure. Soil Association standards explain that soil heavy metal concentrations need to be maintained at healthy levels and that nutrient inputs should not increase concentrations above acceptable levels. This is followed by a table specifying the maximum permitted levels of heavy metals (in total dry matter) for soils and manures. These include zinc, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.9.2.)
Soil Association standards contain recommendations and restrictions on heavy metal levels for topsoil and manure, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only mentions heavy metal levels for household wastes and phosphate fertilizers. High levels of heavy metals in soil can be toxic to crop plants, and can be taken up by crops and cause health problems to people. High levels of heavy metals in manures can lead to accumulation in the soil to which they are applied. This could lead to longer-term problems for crop yields and safety. Soil Association restrictions on heavy metal in soils and manures are intended to minimise these associated risks.
Fertilization, substrates, microbial recolonisation - Demeter International 2004
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
After steam sterilisation of growing substrates the recolonisation by microbes should be guided using the biodynamic preparations. (DI production standards, 3.4.2. Manures, soils and potting mixes; DI production standards, 3.4.5.Production under glass and plastics; DI production standards, 3. Arable and Plant production)
The DI standard contains further requirements. There is no requirement or recommendation regarding microbial recolonisation of steamed growing substrates. The use of biodynamic preparations is not required by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To enliven the soil is one of the basic principles of biodynamic agriculture. To fertilize means to enliven the soil.
Fertilizer, intensity - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The following fertilizers are not allowed by Bio Austria: a) blood meal, hoof meal, bone meal, fish meal, meat meal, feather and ”chiquette” meal b) the by-product of starch-production from conventional potatoes (Kartoffelrestfruchtwasser). c) the special basic slag “Thomas phosphate”.
The Bio Austria General Standard does not allow to use some of the products which are listed in the EU Regulation 2092/91 in annex II. A. Products or by-products were restricted during the BSE crisis. These restrictions were prolonged (not absolutely necessary). The by-product of starch-production from potatoes is readily soluble almost like readily soluble conventional fertilizers. The taste of this product (Kartoffelrestfruchtwasser) is not desired too. The special basic slag “Thomas phosphate” is a by-product of steel. For the production resources of recycling of old metal inclusive nickel and chromium are used. Therefore the residues of these heavy metals in the fertilizer can be high (principle of care/precaution).
Fertilizer, intensity and import - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The import of commercial organic manures is limited to the amount, that could be supplied by compost, green manure and stable manure and must not exceed 0,5 manure units/ ha (40 kg N/ha). This is not applicable to perennial crops. (DI production standards, 3.2.1.Amount of manure)
The DI standard is limiting the amount of commercial organic manures brought in. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specifically limit the amount of commercial organic manures brought in, it only limits the total amount of farm yard manure that can be applied. The production should be based on the individual (natural and cultural) conditions of the site. It should not depend on the input of nutrients from elsewhere. This aspect refers to the principle of a circular flow economic system of organic farming and to the biodynamic principle of the individuality of a farm.
Fertilizers, admitted - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In principle slurry from biogas production has to come from substances of organic farming. A deviation is possible for production units where the approval for building was given before 31.12.2004. The general restrictions for the use of products of annex II are valid (3, 4 and 5). The deviation is valid until the end of 2010, if there are substrates used which are for sure delivered by the Bio Austria farm to the biogas co-production. Substrates of conventional farming may only enter a biogas co-production, if they are allowed according to the restricted Bio Austria list of bought fertilisers (see “restrictions in the positive list of fertiliser input”).
The Bio Austria General Standard restricts the use of slurry and biogas; only slurry and biogas gained from fermented substances of organic farming can be used, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows all products as basis for fermentation. The main reason is to create high consumer confidence.
Fertilizers, certification rules - Nature et Progres standards 2002
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
There are rules for certification of organic fertilizers with regard to allowed raw material and level of application. Nature et Progrès standards also include environnemental management in the production units and maximum information for users.
Nature et Progrès standards include further details than EU Regulation 2092/91. It is necessary to certify fertilizers according to organic farming requirements (allowed raw materials) and to monitor their pollutant content as well as the environmental impact.
Fertilizers, origin - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The amount of N-input of conventional farmyard manure to cultures of arable farming and grassland is restricted. The difference between the N-amount of farmyard manure of the own farm to the amount of 170 kg [N/ha, a] has to be reduced to: a) 25 % in the case of soluble (fast effective) organic fertilisers b) 70 % in the case of slow-release organic fertilisers (relation of C:N ? 25:1). A prerequisite in arable farming is a minimum of 20 % legumes in the main crop rotation Only the following organic fertilisers are allowed for grassland: farmyard manure, composted or fermented household waste and composted or fermented mixture of vegetable matter.
The Bio Austria General Standard limits the amount of conventional farmyard manures to be brought in: soluble (fast effective) fertilizers more than slow soluble one. The EU Regulation 2092/91 only requires a limit of the amount of organic manure (170 kg N/ha, a). Quality and environmental reasons.
Fertilizers, origin - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The commercial fertilizers and manures bought in from other farms and listed under 10.1. may be used in addition to the farms own fertilizing programme. Manures from conventional farms, free from polluting substances, must be composted before use. Liquid and semi-liquid conventional manure, conventional manure from pig and poultry farming, meal from blood and bones, sewage sludge as well as synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and highly soluble phosphates (among others) are prohibited. Composted household wastes from community collection and peat substitutes require approval by BIOLAND. The use of liquid and fresh manure in herb cultivation is restricted. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.2 Permissible External Fertilizers; Bioland production standards, 3.5.3 Non-permissible Fertilizers; Bioland production standards, 3.5.6 Sewage Sludge and Compost; Bioland production standards, 5 Horticulture and Permanent Crops; Bioland production standards, 5.2.4 Fertilizing Bioland production standards, 10 Appendix)
The BIOLAND has less products on the list of allowed fertilisers in the Annex than the corresponding annex of the EU Regulation 2092/91, and conventional manures must be composted before use. Manures from conventional farms, free from polluting substances must be composted before use. Liquid and semi-liquid conventional manure, conventional manure from pig and poultry farming, meal from blood and bones, sewage sludge as well as synthetic nitrogen fertilisers and highly soluble phosphates (among others) are prohibited. To avoid contamination with harmful substances and to strengthen the farms own fertilising programme. Fertilizing is to be designed in conformity with the location and the crops involved in such a way that the quality of the products (physiological nutritional value, taste, imperishability) may not be detrimentally affected in particular by the amount of nitrogenous fertiliser. In regard to the type, the amount and the time of applying fertilizer, care must be taken to avoid placing loads on the soil and the water (e.g. through heavy metals and nitrates) (Bioland production standards, 3.5.5 Production of Quality and Environmental Compatibility) The objective of fertilisation is to achieve harmonic nutrition of the plants by means of a soil full of life. Organic material from the business itself forms the basis of fertilization. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.1 Basic Principles)
Fertilizers, origin - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Soil Association permission is required to use non-organic animal manure or plant waste, which must be used only as a complement to the soil fertility management. Permission will be granted only if information is provided about the material and why it is needed. The types of non-organic agricultural and food by-products that may be used are subject to detailed, specified restrictions, regarding the stocking densities and husbandry systems, as well as the stacking or composting of the material. These include straw, farmyard manure, stable manure, poultry manure (from certain production systems with specified maximum stocking densities for each), straw-based pig manure, food processing by-products, plant wastes and by-products, as well as non-organic slurry, mushroom composts and worm composts from the systems specified. Dirty water from non-organic systems may be applied to in-conversion land. In addition, the Soil Association standards specify that non-organic slurry must have been aerated, pig and poultry manure must have been properly composted, stacked for 12 months, or stacked for 6 months and turned twice, and other non-organic livestock manure and plant waste must have been stacked for half the above-mentioned times or properly composted. Soil Association may request a soil or manure analysis to check the heavy metal levels. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.7.5-4.7.7 and 4.7.17.)
Soil Association standards specify that only certain types of manure and plant wastes from non-organic production or processing systems may be permitted to complement soil fertility management. EU Regulation 2092/91 specifies "need recognised by the inspection body". The Soil Association standards aim to avoid providing an organic farming demand for manure products of livestock systems where the animal welfare is compromised by lack of bedding, or by excessive stocking densities or movement restrictions. Soil Association standards try to avoid potential organic consumer health problems by requiring composting or stacking time for the degradation of residues of prohibited inputs or veterinary medicines before application of non-organic manure and plant wastes to organic crops. Consumer health and long-term soil fertility concerns are the reasons why analysis may be required for heavy metal levels.
Fertilizers, origin, orchards - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
In orchards that have no animals of their own, the amount of outside organic fertiliser that may be imported is limited to 1.2 manure unit/ha of orchard area. The total amount of fertiliser used may not exceed the equivalent of 90kg N/ha of orchard area. (DI production standards, 3.5.2. Manures and soil husbandry)
The DI standard is defining a fertilizer limit for orchards in particular. There is no such provision in the EU Regulation 2092/91. The limit is given to provide good fruit quality and for nutritional aspects as well.
Fertilizers, restrictions - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The following fertilisers are not allowed by Bio Austria: blood meal, hoof meal, bone meal, fish meal, meat meal, feather and 'chiquette' meal the by-product of starch-production from conventional potatoes (Kartoffelrestfruchtwasser). the special basic slag 'Thomas phosphate'. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.3, 2.1.5)
The Bio Austria General Standard contains further restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it does not just limit the total amount of organic manures of conventional farms to be brought in. It also does not allow to use some products which are listed in the EU Regulation 2092/91 annex II A. Products or by-products were restricted during the BSE crisis. This restrictions were prolonged (not absolutely necessary). (principle of care/precaution). The by-product of starch-production from potatoes is readily soluble almost like readily soluble conventional fertilizers. The taste of this product (Kartoffelrestfruchtwasser) is not desired too. The special basic slag Thomas phosphate is a by-product of steel. For the production resources of recycling of old metal inclusive nickel and chromium are used. Therefore the residues of these heavy metals in the fertilizer can be high.
Fertilizers, substrates - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Fertilization should enhance microorganism and soil activity . The use of synthetic chemical nitrogen fertilizers is forbidden. Dried farm yard manure is in general prohibited.
In general the list of fertilizers is comparable with the EU Regulation. Some fertilizers of the EU Regulation 2092/91 list are not listed in the BIO SUISSE standards. Easily soluble nutrients in general do not support the natural balance of nutrient release in the soil; therefore Bio Suisse does not support such kind of fertilizers.
Fertilizers, substrates - CH Demeter Standards 2005 Fertility should be enhanced by own farmyard manure. If not available only a limited amount of bought in manure is allowed according to DEMETER standards and it should be of bio-dynamic or organic origin. DEMETER standards provide a shorter list of admitted fertilizers. Guano is not allowed according DEMETER standards nor are animal corps preparates (except horn). The distance for the transport of farmyard manure is restricted. Peat can only be used for seedling production and only to a very limited ratio. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows a broader range of fertilizers. There are ecological reasons to exclued Guano, to restrict the use of peat and to limit the transport of farmyard manure.
Fertilizers, substrates - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Substrates to be used must be listed under 10.1.3 (and in Annex II A of EU Regulation). Vegetables must not be grown on artificial substrate, using hydroculture (except chicoree - CHICORY?), on thin layers or in any type of container. Herbs to be sold in the pot can be cultivated directly in the containers. Peat is not allowed to enrich the soil with organic matter. Synthetic materials are not allowed as component of substrate. Only permitted and unobjectionable materials can be used as substrate for the production of shoots and sprouts and the water must be of drinking water quality. (Bioland production standards, 5.1.2 Soils and Substrates; Bioland production standards, 5.3 Shoots and Sprouts; Bioland production standards, 10 Appendix, 10.1 Permissible Soil Conditioner and Fertiliser as well as Components of Substrates, 10.1.3 Organic Complementing Fertilisers and Soil Conditioner Agents as well as components of substrates)
The BIOLAND standard is more precise thana EU Regulation 2092/91. The list of fertilisers and soil conditioners in Annex II A is applicable also to substrates, however these are not specifically regulated. The products explicitely prohibited by BIOLAND are not on the list, so they can't be used either. Peat can be used in horticulture in general. Quality assurance is required for household compost and compost from bark. The use of peat is restricted, certain animal products are not listed (meal of blood, bone and fish). For additional components see 'type of bought-in fertilisers' Nothing is said about cultivation techniques in water and water quality. n order to assure consistency with organic agriculture, to protect the nature and landscape (peat) and to avoid contamination the substrates to be used must be in line with the principles of organic farming.
Fertilizers, substrates - DE Naturland Standards 2005 The substances that can be used as fertilizers on NATURLAND farms are regulated by a positive list in the appendix 1 and by certain restrictions mentioned in the corresponding chapter (B I). Explicitly excluded from use are synthetic chemical nitrogen fertilizers, Chile saltpeter and urea, composted waste (other than green compost), faecal and sewage sludge, liquid and semi-liquid manure from conventional origin as well as conventional chicken manure. Conventional manure as well as any semi-liquid manure must be treated before application. Environmental pollution must be avoided. Mineral and trace element fertilizers that are not easily soluble (see appendix 1. 1.5) can be used after consulting an adviser and is related to the results of soil analyses, deficiency symptoms of the crop and the nutrient balance of the whole farm. Bought in fertilizers and soil conditioners can be applied if listed in the corresponding appendix 1 and the indicated conditions of use are complied with. (NL standards on production: Part B.I.Plant production, 1.Humus management and fertilization; Appendix 1.) The NATURLAND standard is similar but in some cases has additional restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91: conventional chicken manure, conventional liquid or semi-liquid manure, bone and blood meal as well as composted community household wastes are not allowed to be used. Fertilization shall primarily support the accumulation of humus complexes in the soil. As a consequence, highly concentrated and easily soluble nitrogen fertilisers are not acceptable. The risk of contamination with objectionable substances from conventional animal farming, community wastes etc. must be reduced.
Fertilizers, substrates - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The fertilizers which can be brought into a biodynamic farm are regulated in the chapter 3.2.2. and by a positive list in the appendix 4. Certain products (such as synthetic nitrogen sources, Chilean Nitrate, water soluble phosphate fertilizers, pure potassium salts and potassium salts with a chloride content exceeding 3%, municipal composts, sewage sludge, animal manure from intensive animal husbandry systems) are explicitly excluded from use. Others (such as natural phosphate rock, ground basic slag, potassium magnesium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, sulphur, trace elements) can only be applied if the necessity has been demonstrated and after approval. Animal manure should be prepared with the biodynamic preparations. The use of brought in fertilizers must be precisely documented. (DI production standards, 3.2.2. Brought in manures and soils; DI production standards, appendix 4)
The list of allowed fertilizers is shorter in DI standard than the EU Regulation 2092/91, i.e. conventional manure from poultry farming, liquid or semi-liquid conventional manures, meal from blood, meat and bone, pure potassium salts and potassium salts with a chloride content of larger than 3% are totally prohibited. The fertilization shall be done as far as possible with the farms own resources, and therefore the import of fertilizers is restricted. Contamination with harmful substances must be excluded.
Fertilizers, substrates, animal by-products - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
With prior Soil Association permission, a number of soil nutrient supplements are permitted for use to treat severe deficiencies. Among these, animal by-products are subject to particular restrictions. Soil Association standards permit the use of meat, blood, bone, hoof and horn meals, with prior permission, only in compost for use in plant propagation and not on units where there are cattle or sheep. Wool shoddy may be used, with prior permission, only if not in direct contact with the crop. Fish meals and fish emulsions may be used, with prior permission, if they do not contain prohibited substances and only in protected cropping, propagating composts or perennial crops. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.8.10.)
Soil Association standards restrict the use of animal by products. EU Regulation 2092/91 generally permits animal by-products (such as meat, blood, bone, hoof and horn meals, wool shoddy, fish products) for use where the need is recognised by the inspection body. Soil Association standards are particularly cautious regarding the use of animal by-products as soil nutrient supplements partly due to the risk of contamination of crops with agents or vectors of infectious disease, such as BSE infected prions on pasture. "Intense exploitation of fish stocks to produce fish meal has major implications for the integrity of marine ecosystems." (Little and Edwards, 2003). Regular use of fish products for crop nutrition would not be compatible with organic ecological principles. Reference: Little, D.C. and Edwards, P. (2003) Integrated livestock - fish farming systems. URL: >
Fertilizers, substrates, green manure - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Green manure has to be grown on areas that are not covered by a crop for more than 12 weeks during the vegetation period. (NL standards on production: Part B. III. Market gardening, 1.6 Part B. V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees 1.4)
The NATURLAND requires the growth of green manure on land which lies idle for more than 12 weeks. The EU Regulation 2092/91 more generally recommends the cultivation of green manure among other measures to maintain and increase the soil fertility. To keep the soil covered with vegetation is a vital instrument to maintain and increase the soil fertility.
Fertilizers, substrates, guano - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 It is prohibited to fertilize the soil with fresh blood, guano, Chilean nitrate, urea, or slaked lime or quicklime. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.8.12. Soil Association standards have further restrictions than EU Regulation 2092/91, where for example guano is permitted as fertiliser where the need is recognised by the inspection body. It is prohibited by the Soil Association standards. Guano extraction is unsustainable on a large scale because of habitat damage and limited reserves. Historically, guano was used as a major nitrate source, but nitrogen fixed from the atmosphere should be the main source of nitrate in organic farming.
Fertilizers, substrates, maerl - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association permission is required to use seaweed sources for soil nutrient supplementation, but maerl from Lithothamnium corallioides, Lithothamnium glaciale or Phymatolithon calcareum are prohibited. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.8.5. Soil Association standards prohibit the use of maerl from Lithothamnium corallioides, Lithothamnium glaciale or Phymatolithon calcareum. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include this prohibition, but it allows seaweed products, where the need is recognised by the inspection body, and maerl with no restriction. The seaweed species named as prohibited inputs in the Soil Association standards are endangered species, and the maerl extraction contributes to the threat of their extinction.
Flock size, poultry - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There are recommended maximum flock sizes for poultry, and Soil Association permission is required to keep larger houses. The Soil Association standards' recommended maximum poultry flock sizes are for a maximum of 500 chickens, ducks, or guinea fowl, or 250 turkeys or geese. Permission is required for larger units, and will depend on good health and welfare levels, good environmental conditions, and sufficient available range with vegetation within suitable distances of the housing. Beyond this, Soil Standards standards restrict the maximum poultry flock size, in any case, to 2,000 birds for laying chickens, and to 1000 birds for other classes of poultry. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 20.7.10-20.7.13.)
EU Regulation 2092/91 has higher maximum flock sizes of between 2,500 for turkeys and geese, and 5,200 for guinea fowl, and it has no smaller recommended flock sizes. The two sets of organic standards differ only in the maximum individual poultry flock (house) size, not the size of the production unit. The Soil Association standards' smaller, recommended and maximum flock sizes for poultry are to help ensure adequate health and welfare. Restricting flock sizes will limit the size of any disease or pest infestation, and will enable closer monitoring of birds' condition, Smaller flock sizes are closer to the maximum group sizes found among wild poultry, and therefore contribute to reducing stress that may be caused by social alienation among the birds.
Free range conditions, access - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Codex Alimentarius in general requires free range conditions for all animals, but also accepts that animals are confined for temporarily restricted times and certain reasons.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires specific minimal sizes of free range areas as well as indoor housing areas for different animal species. Codex Alimentarius does not set figures for this area. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines is a guidance for governments. Therefore making detailed rules for indoor and outdoor areas on a world-wide level was not seen as appropriate.
Free range conditions, access - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Interpretation of EU Regulation 2092/91 for the climate of Austria: All animals must have access to pasture or at least an open-air exercise yard on at least 180 days a year, distributed throughout the year. Cattle kept in tethering systems must have outdoor access either 180 days distributed throughout the year or, in addition to the ANI (TGI), at least once a week. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.9, 3.10.5, 3.11.3, 3.11.4, 3.12.7, 3.13.2, 3.14.3, 3.15.3)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it is a specification for orientation which has to be fulfilled. Just specification for orientation; definition of an absolutely minimum requirement under unfavourable circumstances.
Free range conditions, access - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005 Swiss ordinance Program for regular free-range of livestock must be met, which requires extended free range on pasture. While Bio Suisse follows a set minimal number of days per month for animals to be at pasture, EU Regulation 2092/91 requires access to pasture in a general manner. Furthermore access to outdoor run is also mandatory in winter time according to Bio Suisse. From an ethological point of view regular access to outdoor areas is seen as essential need for livestock.
Free range conditions, access - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The Swiss Ordinance on animal friendly husbandry defines the rules for organic farms in detail. Minimal hours and minimal amount of days for access to outdoor runs are required, further more minimal area per animal category are defined. Also in winter time access to the outdoors must be provided.
Swiss Ordinance requires bigger outdoor areas than the EU Regulation 2092/91 does. Equine 9 + 0,7 per 100 kg (EU only 3.7m2), Sheep and goats 4 m2 (EU only 2.5m2), Bovine /example adult female: 12 m2 (EU only 4.5 m2). The Swiss Ordinance furthermore requires access to outdoor runs in winter time, whereas EU Regulation does not. In order to support behavioural needs of animals and the rank dynamic in groups, outdoor runs must be big enough. If of insufficient size animals will not use these areas on a regular basis or fights for rank order will become dangerous for the animals due to lack of space.
Free range conditions, access - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
On at least 26 days per month during vegetation period and on 13 days per month in winter time animals must have access to the outdoors and pasture.
While Swiss Ordinance rules the minimal number of days per month of access to pasture or outdoor run in detail, the EU Regulation 2092/91 leaves it to a general principle, not fixing a minimal number of days for outdoor access and not requiring outdoor access during winter time (if pasture was used in summer). From an ethological point of view regular access to the outdoor area is seen as an essential need of farm animals throughout the year.
Free range conditions, access - SI BIODAR Standards
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
SI BIODAR standards require that the animals have access to free-range, open-air exercise areas or open-air runs for a minimum of 200 days/year distributed evenly throughout all the seasons (4.10.4) or at least once a week if the farm is fulfilling the animal needs index by Bartussek.
SI BIODAR standards require that animals have access to free-range, open-air exercise areas or open-air runs for a specified minimum number of days/year.the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify the minimum time (Annex I. B. 8.). The provision should ensure that the farmer provides the animals with enough outside exercise especially in the winter-time.
Free range conditions, access - SI Rules 2003
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
SI Rules state that for the assessment of animals' well-being, the animal needs index by Bartussek should be used (Art. 25). SI Rules require that bulls over 1 year have access to pasture, an open-air exercise area or an open-air run and that they are separated from the rest of the herd except for the purposes of natural insemination (Art. 21)
SI Rules 2003 foresee a use of animal needs index whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Another additional requirement in SI Rules is the separation of bulls in free range areas, whereas EU Regulation does not specify this. The animal needs index by Bartussek has been used in the private standards before the national rules were published. They have proved to be an useful instrument for assessing the animal welfare conditions on individual units.
Free range conditions, access - US NOP 2002 There no provisions for maximum number of animals per ha. EU Regulation 2092/91 specifies the minimum surface areas indoors and outdoors and other characteristics of housing in the different species and types of production. Both US and EU require outdoor access for any animals. US requires in addition pasture for ruminants and does not allow derogations. EU requires pasture for herbivores 'wherever conditions allow'. EU waves outdoor access for herbivores in winter under certain conditions. There was no justification available.
Free range conditions, access to soil, piglets - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Piglets should have access to soil the year around (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.24).
This is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Piglets intake required amounts of iron from the soil. This is more natural then feed minerals.
Free range conditions, access to water - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Water fowl have to have access at all times to running streams, ponds or lakes (only if hygienic conditions and water protection acts permit it) or to a durable water surface that is replaced regularly by fresh water. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.5. Poultry, 4.2.5.3 Poultry for fattening, 4.2.5.3.4 Water surfaces)
The BIOLAND standard is simliar to the EU Regulation 2092/91, however according to EU Regulation this requirement can be suspended with a derogation until 2010. To enable the animals to execute their natural behaviour.
Free range conditions, access, pigs - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Pigs for fattening must always have access to exercise yards.
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 contain further requirements with regard to the outdoor access. Permanent and daily outdoor access is not required under EU Regulation 2092/91 (annex I B 8.3.8.). There is an exemption in annex I B 8.5.1 for buildings existing before 1999 until the year 2010. This exemption according to 8.5.1 of annex I B can not be granted. The main reason for reduction is to create high confidence by consumers. Another reason is that the permanent outdoor access is seen as better for animal health.
Free range conditions, access, poultry - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Outdoor access areas for laying hens must be within a radius of 150 m of the poultry barn. This regulation applies to all barns built since 23 April, 2001. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.13.2)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91, which defines the amount of the area but not the shape of the outdoor access. The shape is very important for adequate use of the outdoor access. Principle of animal welfare and health; protection of the environment, commitment to consumer expectations Studies performed in different European countries have shown that laying hens mainly use the area the immediately around the hen house. Areas beyond 150m are hardly used at all. As hens do not distribute themselves evenly throughout the hen run more distant areas would mean an increase of stocking density. This would lead in the remaining part to an increase of nutrients and increase the risk of infections.
Free range conditions, access, poultry - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
DEMETER requires permanent access to out-door excercise or a "wintergarden" (covered area with outdoor climate). For poultry the plots for outdoor run must be switched periodically (for sanitary reasons).
DEMETER is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation requires permanent access to out-door exercise for poultry, at least during 1/3 or their lifetime. The requied area is 4m2 per laying hen as outdoor run ( DEMETER requires 5m2). Permanent access to an ourdoor run is considered as an essential need for farm animals. Periodic changing/switching the outdoor area reduces risks of parasites.
Free range conditions, access, poultry - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Outdoor areas must be accessible for laying hens at all time of the year. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.5.1 Laying hens)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The hens must have access to a (covered) outdoor climate area even in bad weather conditions. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires an outdoor area to be accessible under suitable weather conditions and for at least one third of the hens lifetime. To ensure exposure to outdoor climate even in bad weather conditions and to help the animals to become robust.
Free range conditions, access, poultry - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Table poultry must have free access to an open-air run for part of the day and for at least half their life. Laying hens must have access to an open-air run for the major part of the day and by no later than their 28th week.
French regulation requires that table poultry have free access to an open-air run for at least half of their life, and laying hens by no later than their 28th week, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that poultry have open-air access for at least one third of their life. Organic poultry should have as much access as possible to open-air range. Furthermore, the earlier this begins, the better poultry can cope with outdoor access.
Free range conditions, access, ruminants - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
During vegetation season all animals must have daily access to free range (pasture and or coral). During winter time exceptions for ruminants are possible: ruminants must have access to free range on at least 13 days of each month.
While DEMETER follows a set minimal number of days for animals to be at pasture, which is based on an ordinance and payment scheme of the Swiss Government for outdoor access. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires access to pasture in a general manner, and in winter time access to outdoor run is not mandatory. The minimal size for outdoor runs required by DEMETER is larger than the size defined by the EU Regulation. From a ethological point of view an almost daily but at least regular access to an outdoor area is seen as essential need for farm animals.
Free range conditions, area - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There are no specific provisions for minimum livestock surface area, but natural behaviour must be accommodated.
EU Regulation 2092/91 specifies the minimum surface areas indoors and outdoors and other characteristics of housing in the different species and types of production. Both US and EU require outdoor access for any animals. US require in addition pasture for ruminants, allowing temporary confinement for inclement weather, an animal's stage of production, to protect the health, safety or well being of the animals or when there is a risk to soil or water quality. EU require pasture for herbivores 'wherever conditions allow'. EU waves outdoor access for herbivores in winter under certain conditions. No justification was available.
Free range conditions, area, cattle - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Cattle must be allowed fresh forage throughout the grazing season with a specified minimum total grazing area. Buffer feeding of grazing cattle is permitted. Soil Association standards state that cattle must be allowed fresh forage throughout the grazing season with a minimum total grazing area of 0.27 hectares per cow per season and that buffer feeding is permitted. Soil Association Organic Standards Paragraphs 11.3.3 and 11.3.4. Soil Association standards are more specific than the EU Regulation 2092/91 with regards to minimum grazing areas for cattle. EU Regulation only states that herbivores must have access to pasture whenever conditions allow and that outdoor pasture must be of sufficiently low stocking density to prevent poaching and overgrazing without giving a minimum figure for the grazing area per cow/season. The Soil Association sets a minimum grazing area for cows, taking account of UK organic grassland productivity, to help ensure the following: that soil condition and grassland habitats are conserved; that the cattle have an adequate ranging area to optimise their health and welfare; that an adequate proportion of their forage during the grazing season is grazed, not conserved; and that the risk of water pollution is minimised.
Free range conditions, area, cattle/sheep - NL Skal Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
SKAL has set norms for the number of days dairy cows and sheep must be on pasture. SKAL rule Text: 2.3 article 5: Cows must spend at least 120 days on pasture, starting when they are 15 weeks or older. Dairy sheep must spend 180 days in pasture.
SKAL has set norms for the amount of days on pasture, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 has not defined the amount of days. All animals need time on pasture.
Free range conditions, general requirements - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Interpretation of EU Regulation for the climate of Austria: All animals must have access to pasture or at least an open-air exercise yard on at least 180 days a year, distributed throughout the year. Cattle kept in tethering systems must have outside access either 180 days distributed throughout the year or, in addition to the ANI (TGI), at least once a week.
The Bio Austria General Standard specifies minimal requirements for outdoor access therefore is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Just specification for orientation; definition of an absolutely minimum requirement under unfavourable circumstances.
Free range conditions, grazing rotation, pigs - UK Soil Associaition Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Soil Association standards recommend that pigs should be kept in rotational grazing systems, moved at least every 6 months, and not returned to the same land more than once in 4 years. There is a table, detailing the number of different age/size/group types of pig that will produce 170 kg nitrogen per year, together with a worked example of a 100-hectare farm. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 13.3.3, 13.3.4 and 13.3.5.)
Soil Association contain recommendations that pigs should be kept in rotational grazing systems, and further related guidance and recommendations, that are not in EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation does not include these recommendations and guidance items. Long intervals in the grazing rotation ofpigs helps to reduce the infectivity of pasture with parasitic worms. Soil Association standards aim to encourage best practice among organic pig producers for soil management and animal health and welfare by including this recommendation and guidance on rotational grazing systems, which are not actually required in the standards.
Free range conditions, pigs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
All pigs for mast must always have access to exercise yards.
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 have more requirements with regard to outdoor access. Permanent and daily outdoor access is not required in EU Regulation 2092/91 (annex I B 8.3.8.). There is an exemption in annex I B 8.5.1 for existing buildings before 1999 until the year 2010. This exemption according to 8.5.1 of annex I B cannot be granted. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence. Another reason is that the permanent outdoor access is considered to be better for animal health.
Free range conditions, poultry - AT Bio Austrial General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In addition to the general rules for animals there are special rules for free-range broilers about stocking density, litter, light, outdoor access and pasture. The total allowable number of broilers per farm is 9600. Max 35 animals/m2 of barn area are permissible until the end of the 4th week of age. Direct and concentrated glare from the sun should be avoided and no low frequency neon lighting is to be used. In newly constructed barns, the distance to the exit/entry pop-holes must not exceed 12 m for chickens. Barn areas that are farther than 12 m from an opening to the outdoor exercise yard are not calculated as barn area. If there is more than one exit opening, each one must be at least 40 cm wide. (4 weeks are necessary for empty outdoor areas between the runs). A covered yard area right beside of the barn must be at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement and has to be spread with litter. This yard must be easily accessible for the broilers (even when there is snow on the ground) and should be protected from wind. It must be available for the animals during daytime (also in winter) without restriction apart from when temperatures are below 0° C (danger of frost). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.15)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have such specific requirements for free-range broiler husbandry. Animal welfare and health, protection of the environment. The main reason is to fulfil consumer expectations; integrity of organic farming (husbandry).
Free range conditions, rest periods, poultry - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Poultry runs must be left empty between batches for specified minimum periods. For laying poultry, the Soil Association standards minimum rest period is 9 months, and it is 2 months per year plus 1 year in every 3 years for table poultry. Soil Association Organic Standards, Paragraphs 20.8.4-20.8.6. Soil Association standards contain further restrictions than the UK Compendium, which sets national rules in accordance with the EU Regulation 2092/91 requirements. UK Compendium, Annex 1B, Paragraph 8.4.6 complies with the requirements of EU Regulation by specifying minimum rest periods for runs accommodating the different classes of poultry in UK. Compared to the UK Compendium, Soil Association standards specify significantly longer minimum rest periods for poultry runs between batches. Soil Association standards for minimum rest periods in poultry runs aim to break the life cycle of parasitic worms. The secondary aim is to give time for the built-up fertility of the land to be used.
Free range conditions, stocking rate - US NOP 2002 US has no provisions for stocking densities. EU Regulation 2092/91 defines the maximum stocking density per class or species and ha. No justification was available.
Full farm conversion - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Conversion of the entire holding is a prerequisite for the certification as an organic farm of Bio Austria. Beekeeping and fish farming are the only exceptions, and may be practiced conventionally.
The Bio Austria has the additional requirement to convert the whole farm and not just the production unit, as defined in EU Regulation 2092/91 as littlest unit to convert (annex I B 1.5 ff) and Annex III A.1. §. 3 which defines the requirements for certification of the production unit, which can farmed by the same company/farm. Therefore it is not necessary based on the EU Regulation to convert the whole farm. The main reason is to create high consumer confidence (exclusion of fraud and mistakes).
Full farm conversion - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
BIO SUISSE requires organic certification of the whole farm with all the enterprises, including arable land, perennial crops and animal production.
BIO SUISSE standards contain an additional restriction not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. BIO SUISSE standards do not allow non-organic and organic enterprises to be operated by the same manager with the exception of the stepped conversion of wine, fruit or ornamental plants production enterprises, whereas the EU Regulation does allow organic and non-organic enterprises on the same farm. The prohibition of organic and non-organic split production avoids potential problems with the consumer credibility of organic farming and minimises the danger of fraud. The BIO SUISSE standards in this respect comply with the Swiss government regulation.
Full farm conversion - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Full farm conversion of the whole operation to organic is required by DEMETER and is applied for arable land, perennial crops and animal husbandry all the same. The farmer has to attend a training on bio-dynamic farming and must prove knowledge on bio-dynamic farming.
DEMETER standards do not allow a split production of DEMETER and conventional production areas within the same farm or by the same manager, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does allow split production within the farm by the same manager. Furthermore, DEMETER requires the farmers to attend a training on bio-dynamic farming, whereas EU Regulation does not rule the question of capacity building among organic farmers. The personal committment required from a farm manager towards bio-dynamic farming does not comply with the thought of having conventional areas within the same operation.
Full farm conversion - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Full farm conversion of the whole operation to organic is required by DEMETER and is applied for arable land, perennial crops and animal husbandry all the same.
DEMETER standards do not allow a split production within a farm of DEMETER and conventional production areas, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does allow split production within the farm by the same manager. The personal committment required from a farm manager towards bio-dynamic farming does not comply with the thought of having at the same time a conventional area within the same operation.
Full farm conversion - CH regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The whole farm must be under organic management
The Swiss Ordinance requires full farm conversion. In exceptional cases split production of fruit crops and vine as conventional crops on a organic farm can be admitted. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does allow split production (conventional and organic by the same manager) for all branches in a farm. In order not to jeopardize the credibility of organic farming in the consumers perception and in order to minimise the danger of fraud in the farms, the Swiss Ordinance generally insists in full organic management of all areas in an operation.
Full farm conversion - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The farm has to be converted completely. In exceptional cases the conversion can be realised step by step, but must be completed at the latest after 5 years. (Bioland production standards, 9.2.2 Conversion of Total Business; Bioland production standards, 9.2.5 Conversion Deadlines)
The BIOLAND standard has the additional restriction of whole farm conversion, where according to the EU Regulation 2092/91 single but clearly separated farming units can be converted to organic farming. BIOLAND has maximum time limit to complete the conversion period, wereas the EU regulation has no time indication.. In order to increase credibility of organic farming, to minimise risks of contamination or fraud. To consider specific circumstances of single farms, that impede the whole farm conversion in one step.
Full farm conversion - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
A Naturland producer contract implies the obligation to convert and apply the standards on all areas of a farm, managed under the responsibility of one farm manager. (NL standards on production 2005: Part A.I.2.Producer contract)
The NATURLAND standard requires conversion of the whole farm whreas the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the conversion of separated farm units. Whole farm conversion is required in order to reduce the danger of contamination or fraud and to safeguard organic integrity.
Full farm conversion - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Conversion of the whole farm including own and leased areas, buildings and animals shall be started within 4 years after the beginning of the conversion according to DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, 2006, Section 2.1: Conversion to organic agricultural production.
It is generally required that the whole farm including land, buildings and animals is converted, and the conversion of all land and animals shall be started within 4 calendar years after entering into conversion according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 Article 6, Annex I A, Article 1 and Annex I B, Article 2 there is no requirement on conversion of the whole farm and therefore also no requirement on how long time the conversion of the whole farm is allowed to take. In the DK Governmental Guidelines there are some derogation possibilities, which are described in Section 2.1 and 2.2, but they will need individual approval by the certification and inspection authority, the Plant Directorate. Organic farming is a land based activity with a holistic approach. It is not logic to convert a piece of land or a special plant or animal production while leaving the rest of the production conventional.
Full farm conversion - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The conversion of the whole farm to the Biodynamic method in one step is required and shall be completed after a maximum of five years. Exemptions can be approved if the whole farm is managed organically and the conversion to biodynamic of individual areas following the crop rotation is justified (Appendix 7, APP 20 and 22). Parallel production is not allowed. Exemptions for perennial crops can be approved (Appendix 7, APP 21). A farm manager may not manage a Demeter farm and a conventional farm in the same district. (DI production standards, 7.1. Conversion and the production manager; DI production standards, Appemdix 7, APP 20, 21, 22)
The DI standard contains additional requirements. After 5 years of conversion, conventional units are no longer admitted on the farm. The whole farm should be converted in one step. The same person cannot manage one Demeter and another conventional farm at the same time. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 separated conventional units and organic units can exist on the same farm. Conversion is a process of change encompassing the many developmental steps that the enterprise goes through on the way to a new state of equilibrium.
Full farm conversion - Italian Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
When the organic operator starts its conversion period, he has 3 years to have his whole farm certified. No parallel production is allowed after this period.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 accepts parallel production and mixed farms under certain restrictions. Parallel production is prohibited in order to avoid potential frauds and unintentional contaminations. However the gradual conversion of farm and productions within a three year conversion plan is allowed. The plan has to be accepted by the certification body.
Full farm conversion - Nature et Progrès Standards 2002 Under Nature et Progres standards, when the farmer starts the conversion period, he has 5 years to get the whole farm certified organic. Nature et Progres standards require that ultimately the whole production of the farm be organic, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 accepts the presence of non-organic productions. Presence of organic and conventional products on the same farm is not consistent and a source of potential fraud or accidental pollution. However, each farmer needs time to adapt his farm system and therefore five years are given to satisfy this obligation.
Full farm conversion - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 Conversion of the entire holding is required for the certification of any EKOLAND organic farm. EKOLAND standards require the whole farm to be converted, and not only the production unit, as defined in the EU Regulation 2092/91. The main reason is to keep the green image of the Association and to assure consumer trust.
Full farm conversion - PRO-BIO Standards PRO-BIO standards require whole farm conversion. PRO-BIO standards contain further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. PRO-BIO standards do not allow a split production of individual production branches in the farm. Organic and conventional production activities by the same farm manager are excluded. The EU Regulation does allow split production (conventional and organic by the same manager). In order not to jeopardize the credibility of organic farming in the consumers perception and in order to minimize the danger of fraud in the farms.
Full farm conversion - SI BIODAR 2002
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
SI BIODAR standards require a successful whole farm conversion as a condition for the use of BIODAR logo, with the only possible exception of beekeeping.
BIODAR standards do not allow a parallel production of different production branches in the farm, with exception of beekeeping (1.1), whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 does allow a split conventional and organic production by the same manager. Whole farm conversion is a measure to guarantee transparency of organic production to the consumer and minimize fraud or unwanted pollution. Another important reason is the low average size of Slovenian farms that makes a controllable split production hardly possible.
GMO-free declaration, non-organic inputs - NL Skal Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
A distinction is made between the control of organic and non-organic producers. Non-organic producers need a GMO-free pronouncement/confirmation."
SKAL obliges the producers of organic products to use only non-organic products with a GMO-free pronouncement/confirmation, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not mention anything about these confirmations. The Rule Text is very general: Article 5, part 3 h), part 5 f) and 5bis i): the product has been produced without the use of genetically modified organisms and/or any products derived from such organisms. The risk of GMO contamination is higher in non-organic products. GMO free pronouncements/confirmations can at least avoid some contamination risks.
GMO-free declaration, non-organic inputs - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Producers must obtain a signed declaration form from suppliers of non-organic inputs to verify that these do not contain any GMO derivatives. Soil Association may require further proof in the form of genetic analysis, paid for by the producer. Mixed or compound concentrate feeds must be certified by an organic certification body, even if they contain only non-organic ingredients, to prove they are non-GMO. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 3.6.5.)
Soil Association Standards require that suppliers of non-organic inputs to organic producers or processors must sign a declaration to state that these inputs contain no GMOs or their derivatives. Although EU Regulation 2092/91 prohibits the use of GMO derived inputs, there is no requirement for this supplier declaration. Soil Association standards are intended to ensure verifiable compliance with requirements to use only non-GMO materials. Genetic modification is an unproven technology and may have unpredictable effects.
Green house production, artificial light - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Under glass and plastic, artificial light is forbidden. An exception is given for the use for young plants.
The Bio Austria General Standard does not allow the use of artifical light in greenhouses or under plastic, while the EU Regulation does not have a restriction on artificial light. Exclusion of an important factor of intensification. Energy use reduction.
Green house production, growth medium - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Dead growth medium alone, such as rock wool, water with nutrition and similar solutions, are not allowed in organic production.
Similar to the EU Regulation 2092/91, the governmental regulation prohibits soil independent production. A living soil is a most important medium for organic production.
Green house production, heating - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
During the winter (December to February) cultivated areas under glass and plastic may only be kept free from frost (heated up to 10 °C / 50 °F), with the exception of young plants and plants in pots and the use of heat from renewable energy sources or waste heat (for example from biogas production).
The EU Regulation does not have a restriction for the use of energy resources unlike the Bio Austria General Standard. To reduce the use of non-renewable resources is an important measure for the sustainability of agriculture.
Green house production, heating - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Low energy consumption should be aimed for when heating greenhouses. (NL standards on production: Part B.III.Market gardening 5. Heating green- and foil houses PArt B.V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees 7. Heating, energy consumption)
The NATURLAND standards is broader. This aspect is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. This aspect refers to the holistic and ecological principle of organic farming.
Greenhouse production, fertilizer, origin - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
In general, only top dressings of organic origin can be used. If such fertilizing substances are not available, or the compilation or quality is not satisfactory, it is permitted to use fertilization substances which comply with EU Regulation 2092/91.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The requirements to the origin of top dressings should be defined.
Greenhouse production, CO2 - NO Governmental regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The supply of CO2 is allowed, provided the gas is a sideproduct of other production (e.g. gas powered heaters).
EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The use of CO2 should be limited as a sideproduct from other inputs for ecological reasons.
Greenhouse production, contamination, reducing - Norwegian Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Organic greenhouse production shall take place in houses or departments which are completely separate from conventional production. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority can give approval for the cultivation of different varieties, organic and conventional in the same house or department, if, in the conventional production no non-permitted substances can come into contact with the organic production.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area.
Greenhouse production, conversion - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There is a two year conversion period before sowing or planting for soil beds which previously have been used for conventional cultivation.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area, the conversion time is defined similarly to the EU Regulation. EU 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area.
Greenhouse production, conversion, growth medium - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There no conversion period for soil beds when there has been a complete change of conventional soil and the new soil and fertilizer is organic.
EEC 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. EEC 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. Soil beds with organic soil should not demand any conversion time.
Greenhouse production, fertilization - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The upper limit of 170 kg total nitrogen per haa and year does not apply to greenhouse production where this takes place in pots and tubs.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. In pot and tub production the limit of 170 kg total nitrogen is too low for the needs of the plants.
Greenhouse production, fertilizer, origin - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
When fertilizing soil beds and tubs where the growth medium is not changed before sowing or planting, 50% of the total nitrogen should come from organic production. The additional part of the total nitrogen must comply with EU Regulation 2092/91.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as a specific area. EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The requirements to the origin of fertilizers should be defined.
Greenhouse production, growth medium/substrate - NO Govermental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
When mixing new growth medium to the soil beds, tubs, pots and benches a minimum of 50% of the total nitrogen shall come from organic production. Additional ingredients and nutritional content must comply with the EU Regulation 2092/91. Organic soil can be used, and the nutritional content of the soil can be included as organic.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. There is a need to specify conditions for the origin of nutritional content when adding growth medium in soil beds, tubs, pots and benches.
Greenhouse production, heating - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
During the winter (December to February) cultivated areas under glass and plastic may be only be kept free from frost (resp. being heated up to 10 °C / 50 °F), with the exception of young plants and plants in pots and the use of heat from renewable energy sources or waste heat (for example from biogas production). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.1.7.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have a restriction for the use of energy resources. Reduced use of non-renewable resources is an important measure for sustainability of agriculture.
Greenhouse production, heating - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Heating of green houses is prohibited during the winter. The greenhouse can be kept frost free: however, heating should not exceed 5°C between the months of Decemer and 1st of March.
BIO SUISSE restricts the heating of green houses, due to the environmental aspects of energy saving. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover green house production as a specific area, and therefore has no such restrictions. Prohibiting heating of greenhouses during the winter saves non-renewable resources.
Greenhouse production, heating - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Heating of greenhouses should be limited to a reasonable degree. Greenhouses should be well insulated. Foils and fleeces used for covered production should be recycled. (Bioland production standards, 5.1.4 Crop production under Glass and Foil; Bioland production standards, 5.4.5 Use of Energy (for mushroom production)
The BIOLAND standard restrict the heating of greenhouses. Neither the heating of greenhouses nor the handling of covering material is regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. In order to reduce energy consumption and waste products.
Greenhouse production, heating - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Artificial heating in greenhous production is allowed.
EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The possibility of heating is a condition for greenhouse production in Norway.
Greenhouse production, lighting - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The use of artificial light in cultivated areas under glass and plastic is forbidden. An exception is the use of artificial light for young plants. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.1.7.3)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not restriction the use of artificial light. Contribution to the reduction of energy use (limiting intensification)
Greenhouse production, lighting - NO Governmental regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Production shall be based on natural lighting. The exclusive use of artificial light is only permitted during limited periods of the growing period.
EU regulation does not cover green house production as specific area. The use of artificial light - however maybe necessary in periods - should be limited for ecological reasons.
Greenhouse production, lighting, ornamental plants - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Assimilation lighting is only permitted in seedling nurseries. (NL standards on production, Part B.V.Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees, 7.2.Assimilation lighting)
The NATURLAND standard has a broader scope. This aspect is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Restricting assimilation lighting saves energy.
Greenhouse production, plants, origin - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
If small plants are bought-in for further cultivation in greenhouse production, these shall also be produced in accordance with the national organic rules for growth medium and the nutrition.
EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area; there are no specific rules for the cultivation of small plants/seedlings. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The whole chain of production must be organic, also when the production is based on bought-in small plants.
Greenhouse production, rotation/monoculture - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Monoculture greenhouse production is only permitted when the recycling of organic material within the operation is ensured, thus requiring the use of undercropping, intercropping and crop rotation whenever possible.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. There was a need to specifiy this area as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production.
Greenhouse production, steam sterilisation - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Thermal steam sterilisation of soil in a greenhouse requires approval from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority.
EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover green house production as specific area. Thermal sterilisation should be restricted for ecological reasons, and it is therefore required an approval from the authorities.
Harvesting and processing - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The high nutritional quality of the products should be considered and preserved while harvesting and processing the products. (Bioland production standards, 5.1.6 Harvesting and Preparation; Bioland production standards, 5.2.5 Preparation (herb cultivation)
The scope of the BIOLAND standards have requirements to preserve nutritional quality of produce at harvesting and processing. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the nutritional quality of the products. To preserve and ensure the high quality of BIOLAND agricultural products throughout the whole production chain.
Honey, processing and storage - Demeter International 2004
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The temperature of honey should never exceed 35°C. Pressurised filtration is not permitted. The honey should be filled into containers of glass or metal before any solidification occurs. In some cases subsequent refilling is admitted, but certain requirements concerning the heating method and temperature, the documentation and the containers have to be complied with. Honey must be stored in a dark, cool and dry place. (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 5. Honey Extraction; DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, Appendix 3 Transportation, Decanting, Heating)
The DI standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly refer to the extraction, further processing and storage of the honey. There is however the general requirement of careful and adequate handling of the bee products. To avoid damaging the quality of the product.
Honey, processing and storage - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The heating of honey to more than 38°C and filtering under pressure is not allowed. Honey should be stored in a cool, dark and dry place. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.8: 2 Extraction of honey 3 Storage and conservation)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate in detail the processing of animal products. However it contains a general requirement of careful and adequate extraction, processing and storage of beekeeping products (Annex IC.7.7.) To ensure NATURLAND honey to be a high quality product.
Honey, prohibited pasteurisation - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 It is prohibited to pasteurise honey. Honey liquification temperatures must be below 60°C, and held for less than 6 hours. Soil Association Organic Standards, Paragraph 41.2.10. Soil Association standards prohibit the pasteurisation of honey and restrict the liquification temperature and time. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include this prohibition or restriction. The heat involved in pasteurisation has adverse effects on honey quality, including loss of volatile compounds, accumulation of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and reduction of enzyme activity.
Honey, quality - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
BIOLAND honey for consumption must fulfil specific quality criteria concerning the content of water (max. 18%, resp. 21.5% for heathland honey), HMF (max. 10 mg/kg), and invertase (min. 10 units, resp. 7 for acacia and linden honey). Furthermore it must be free from residues from medical treatment. BIOLAND standards (Bioland production standards, 4.10.3.3. Measurable Quality Criteria of the Honey)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailled. There are no measurable quality criteria for organic honey indicated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. To ensure BIOLAND honey to be a high quality product. In Germany the quality is regulated by the german honey regulation which indicates a higher permissible water content, a lower content of HMF and a minimum of 65% of invert sugar.
Honey, quality - Demeter International 2004
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The honey must fulfil certain measurable quality criteria in terms of water content, HMF content and invertase level: Water content - measured according to DIN/AOAC - 18% maximum and for heather honey 21.4% . The HMF content - measured according to Winkler - 10 mg/kg maximum . The Invertase level - measured according to Hadorn - must be at least 10 (except honeys with a low content of enzymes like honey from acacia). (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 5.3 Quality Analysis; DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, Appendix 1 Measurable Honey Quality Requirements)
The DI standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate quality criteria of organic honey. To make sure that only high quality honey is sold as Demeter certified honey.
Honey, quality - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
NATURLAND certified honey which is to be sold for consumption has to meet certain quality criteria for water content, HMF content and invertase index. ("In addition to the legal stipulations, the following criteria must be fulfilled: - water content, measured by the AOAC method, max. 18% (heather honey 21.5%) - HMF ( = Hydroxymethylfurfural)-content, measured according to Winkler, max. 10 mg/kg6 - invertase Index, min. 10 (Hadorn-/Gontarski unit). In the case of honey from acacia, lime trees and phacelia, min. 7 (analyses according to AOAC = Association of Official Agricultural Chemists"). Otherwise the honey can be sold for processing purposes. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.8.4 Measurable quality of the honey)
The NATURLAND standard rules quality criteria for honey in detail. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate quality criteria for honey. This aspect is regulated by the legal provisions of the member states, and there it is identical for both organic and conventional produce. To ensure NATURLAND honey to be a high quality product.
Horses and other equines - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Equine animals cannot be certified organic under UK Soil Association Standards. Soil Association standards explain that, although equines cannot be certified as organic within these standards, there are a set of recommendations and requirements for their management when they are kept on organic land. It is recommended that equines are included with other livestock in a clean grazing rotation and to feed them organic or approved feed. There are also further requirements if more than five equines are kept, relating to manure management, avermectin treatment, GMO feeds, health planning and pasture management planning. Equine manure management must be the same as for other non-organic manure. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 3.8.)
Soil Association standards do not allow certification of equines, unlike EU Regulation. EU Regulation allows equine animals to be certified organic, and include stocking rate figures for manure management when keeping equines on organic land. Equines are very rarely used for any type of production activity on UK farms, so standards to certify them or their products as organic would be redundant. They would probably also be considered offensive to most UK consumers. In this context, some rules are useful to ensure that their presence on organic farms does not compromise the ecological or organic integrity of the land, crops or other livestock.
Housing requierements / stocking rates - cattle / sheep for meat production
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Skal has defined the norms for cattle and sheep held for meat production (Rule Text: 2.7 cattle and sheep held for meat production article 5 and 7): Until the age of 15 weeks, 4 till 6 animals must be housed as a group. After 15 weeks a minimum of 5 animals per each group is required. The space in the stable has to be 1,8 m² per animal till the age of 15 weeks, 2 m² till the age of 9 months and 6 m² starting from the age of 9 months. Calves till 15 weeks must have 125 m² outdoor access per animal. Sheep must have 2 m² per animal and 2.5 m² with lambs and be at least 300 days a year on the pasture.
In the EC-regulation Annex VIII of the EU Regulaton there it is only mentioned that 2.5 m² and 2.5 with 0.5 m² with lamb/kid per is requiered per head. It is not further specified. All animals need enough space and outdoor areas for natural behaviour. COMMENT: This could be included in the EEC regulation.
Inspections, frequency - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The minimum number of inspections must be at least: 1 full physical check per annum for every operator, plus 1 check per group for table poultry, plus 50% random unannounced checks for every operator, except table poultry (50% unannounced checks per group) and processors (100% random unannounced checks).
French regulation stipulates a minimum number of unannounced random inspections and additional checks. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify the number of unannounced inspections. The aim is to reduce the risk of fraud and to harmonize the practices of certification bodies.
Inspections, general requirements - US NOP 2002 § 205.403 On-site inspections. A certifying agent must conduct an initial on-site inspection of each production unit. An on-site inspection shall be conducted annually thereafter. A certifying agent may conduct additional on-site inspections, announced or unannounced, of applicants for certification and certified operations. The Administrator or State organic program's governing State official may require that additional inspections be performed. The initial on-site inspection must be conducted within a reasonable time. The inspector must conduct an exit interview. The inspector shall provide the operation's authorized representative with a receipt for any samples taken by the inspector. There shall be no charge to the inspector for the samples taken. Both EU Regulation 2092/91 and US require annual inspections and additional announced or unannounced inspections. EU has a risk-based approach for additional visits; US does not specify this. US requires an exit interview, whereas EU does not specify this. The EU is more specific in documentary accounts. US require documents to be kept for 5 years, EU does not. EU requires in case of part conversion for crop and livestock production conventional units to be inspected, US requires operators to allow access to non-certified production and handling areas during inspection. No justification was available.
Inspections, specific provisions - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
§ 205.403 ? 205.406 Inspection and certification US has no specific provisions for inspection of plant or animal production or processing but requires a production or handling system plan to be annually updated to describe in detail the management of the organic production.
EU Regulation 2092/91 has specific provisions for inspection in case an operator runs conventional and organic production units in the same area. The crop records must give a breakdown by plot and the livestock records detailed description on the herd and the herd management system. EU describes more detailed the provisions for records and for reception of products from other units and also covers provisions for sub-contracted units. US are less detailed. No justification was available.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Conversion of livestock and livestock products
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Length of Conversion Period Where existing animals on a farm are converted to organic they shall undergo a one-time minimum conversion period at least according to the following schedule: Production Conversion period · meat: 12 months · dairy: 90 days · eggs: 42 days (5.2.)
With the exception that EC requires six months in the case of animals for milk production (and IFOAM only 90 days) , the timeframes for conversion periods for animal products are ruled similar.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Conversion of livestock and livestock products
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
5.2 Length of Conversion Period Where existing animals on a farm are converted to organic they shall undergo a one-time minimum conversion period at least according to the following schedule: Production Conversion period · meat: 12 months · dairy: 90 days · eggs: 42 days
With the expeption that EEC regulation requires six months in the case of animals for milk production (and IFOAM only 90 days) , the timeframes for conversion periods for animal products are ruled in a similar way. No justification was available.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Conversion of livestock and livestock products
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
5.2 Length of Conversion Period Where existing animals on a farm are converted to organic they shall undergo a one-time minimum conversion period at least according to the following schedule: Production Conversion period · meat: 12 months · dairy: 90 days · eggs: 42 days
With the expeption that EEC regulation requires six months in the case of animals for milk production (and IFOAM only 90 days) , the timeframes for conversion periods for animal products are equivalent. No justification was available.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Collection of wild plants
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The operator should provide for maintenance and sustainability of the ecosystem when harvesting or gathering the products.(2.4.)
Specific responsibilities of the operator are detailed in the IFOAM requirements, while EC regulates this area in a more general way. Since wild habitats are very vulnerable, IFOAM requirements indicate the most important criteria to be respected, including the operator, before approval may be granted.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Conversion period IFOAM In general a period of at least 36 months for conversion is required. Depending on the previous land use, the conversion period can be reduced to 12 months. EU states that the minimum conversion period must be between 2 and 3 years: Generally a period of at least two years before sowing is required, or, in the case of grassland, at least two years before its exploitation as feedingstuff from organic farming, or, in the case of perennial crops other than grassland, at least three years before the first harvest of products IFOAM states at least 12 months prior to the start of the production cycle and in the case of perennials (excluding pastures and meadows) a period of at least 18 months prior to harvest However, where certain conditions are met the EU can make the minimum time 12 months. So in this respect there is some equivalency between both sets of standards.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Conversion period IFOAM In general a period of at least 36 months for conversion is required. Depending on the previous land use, the conversion period can be reduced to 12 months. EU states that the minimum conversion period must be between 2 and 3 years: Generally a period of at least two years before sowing is required, or, in the case of grassland, at least two years before its exploitation as feedingstuff from organic farming, or, in the case of perennial crops other than grassland, at least three years before the first harvest of products IFOAM states at least 12 months prior to the start of the production cycle and in the case of perennials (excluding pastures and meadows) a period of at least 18 months prior to harvest However, where certain conditions are met the EU can make the minimum time 12 months. So in this respect there is some equivalency between both sets of standards.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Dehorning
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Dehorning may only occure in exceptional cases and when suffering of animal is minimized.(5.5.1)
EC Regulation admits dehorning only in young animals and only by a veterinarian. IFOAM does require anasthetics and minimize suffering. Mutilations such as dehorning interfere very much with the ethological aspects and the wellbeing of the animal. If at all they should only be done if absolutely necessary and in the most gentle and carefull way to avoid suffering of the animal.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Fertilization general principles
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Material of microbial, plant or animal origin shall form the basis of the fertility program. Nutrients and fertility products shall be applied in a way that protects soil, water, and biodiversity. Restrictions may be based on amounts, location, timing, treatments, methods, or choice of inputs applied.(2.1.)
General priciples are similar like in the EC regulation. Organic farming returns microbial plant or animal material to the soil to increase or at least maintain its fertility and biological activity.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Floor cover in perennial crops
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
For perennial crops, the certifying body shall set minimum standards for orchard/plantation floor cover and/or diversity or refuge plantings in the orchard. (4.3.2.)
EC Regulation does not address the matter. An appropriate cover crop helps to prevent erosion and loss of nutrients in perennial crops.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: GMO in animal fodder
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Genetic engineerig is excluded from organic production and processing. (2.3. )
GMO in fodder is not addressed very specifially, but IFOAM excludes any genetic engineering and its derivates from organic farms. EC regulation rules the fact by quoting: : 'Feedingstuffs, feed materials, compound feedingstuffs feed additives, processing aids for feedingstuffs and certain products used in animal nutrition must not have been produced with the use of genetically modified organisms or products derived therefrom'... No justification available.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Growth regulators All growth regulators are prohibited No differences: None of the positive lists in the ANNEX to the EC regulation list any growth regulators, therefore none are admitted either. (exception: Ehtylen blossom for induction on pineapple - since Nov 05 admitted in EC) The use of growth regulators are seen as a too strong maniplutaion of the the plants.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Landscape diversity
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Operators shall take measures to maintain and improve landscape and enhance biodiversity quality.(2.1.)
Whereas IFOAM requires a significant portion of the farm to be dedicated to facilitate biodiversity, no similar pargraph is quoted in the EC regulation A diversified landscape underlines the individuality of the farm and supports the prosperous development of beneficials within the farm considered as an organism
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Organic Seed
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Organic seed and plant material should be used. In case of non availability, non organic seed is admittable (4.1.1. and 4.1.2).
EC rules the use of organic seeds similar as IFOAM. However if no organic seed is available as well untreated conventional seed and plant material, chemically treated seend and plant material may be used. The EC regulation does not allow conventionally treated seed anymore. Furthermore the EC regulation requires member countries to have a data base to document the availability of organic seed. In some countries it is not possible yet to get untreated seed for some species. However derogations must be limited in time and monitored by the certification body.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Transport of animals
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Transport shall be done carefully and with respect: stress, fear and pain shall be avoided as much as possible. IFOAM is limiting the transport period generally to maximum 8 hours.
The EC regulation has only general rules for the transport of organically raised animals: The transport has to be done in a gentle manner and prevent any unnecessary stress. There is no maximum transport time given. Stress to animals must be minimized.
Int. IFOAM Standards 2005: Use of synthetic structure coverings For synthetic structure coverings, mulches, fleeces, insect netting and silage wrapping, only products based on polyethylene and polypropylene or other polycarbonates are permitted. These shall be removed from the soil after use and shall not be burned on the farmland.(4.6.3.) EC Regulation does not address the matter. Any non organic waste on farm land conflicts with the principle of ecology in organic farming and with consumers expectations.
Int. IFOAM: Landscape diversity
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Operators shall take measures to maintain and improve landscape and enhance biodiversity quality.(2.1.)
Whereas IFOAM requires a significant portion of the farm to be dedicated to facilitate biodiversity, no similar pargraph is quoted in the EC regulation A diversified landscape underlines the individuality of the farm and supports the prosperous development of beneficials within the farm considered as an organism
Int.IFOAM Standards 2005: Transport of animals
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Transport shall be done carefully and with respect: stress, fear and pain shall be avoided as much as possible. IFOAM is limiting the transport period generally to maximum 8 hours.
The EC regulation has only general rules for the transport of organically raised animals: The transport has to be done in a gentle manner and prevent any unnecessary stress. There is no maximum transport time given. Stress to animals must be minimized.
Int.IFOAM: Organic production unit The operator should convert the whole farm: if not the whole farm is converted, clear separation must be granted.(3.2.) Similar as EC regulation, which allows also a split production with special restrictions.
Intl. IFOAM Standards: Conversion period IFOAM In general a period of at least 36 months for conversion is required. Depending on the previous land use, the conversion period can be reduced to 12 months. EU states that the minimum conversion period must be between 2 and 3 years: Generally a period of at least two years before sowing is required, or, in the case of grassland, at least two years before its exploitation as feedingstuff from organic farming, or, in the case of perennial crops other than grassland, at least three years before the first harvest of products IFOAM states at least 12 months prior to the start of the production cycle and in the case of perennials (excluding pastures and meadows) a period of at least 18 months prior to harvest However, where certain conditions are met the EU can make the minimum time 12 months. So in this respect there is some equivalency between both sets of standards.
Italian Organic Standards 2005 - Care of environment
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Italian Organic standards (IOS) include care of the environment, such as biodiversity, soil protection, and protection from pollution, as general principles for organic farming.
Such principles are not clearly addressed in the EU regulation As stated in the IFOAM basic standards, the organic farm has to adopt measures to take care of the environment, that go beyond the mere production method.
Italian Organic Standards 2005 - Pesticide contamination prevention
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Detailed rules shall be adopted by the operator in order to prevent any possible contamination of the cultivations. The certification body, in case of reasonable risk, shall test the products.
Compared to the EEC Regulation 2092/91, the Italian Organic Standards (IOS) are more detailed. The operator have to put in place appropriate measures to prevent contamination.
KEZ Standards 2005: Fishpond harvesting, transport, slaughter and processing. EEC regulation doesn´t regulate fish and aquatic animals farming. The standard-setting body could not give a justification.
Labelling claims, general requirements - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Products can be labelled as "in conversion to Demeter" or Biodyn to the earliest after 12 months in conversion to the biodynamic method of the respective farm unit. This is only possible if the whole enterprise is under conversion. Crops harvested more than 36 months (perennial crops), or sown more than 24 months after the start of conversion can be marketed as Demeter once certification is granted. In the following cases the periods can be shortened: If an enterprise can be shown to have been managed extensively, after the second conversion year, full Demeter certification is possible. If an enterprise or part thereof is certified organic for a minimum of three years full Demeter certification can be given for the first harvest, provided that the Biodynamic preparations have been applied according to the standards. (DI production standards, 7.3. Demeter certification and use of the trademark)
Demeter labelling is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. Whereas the general conversion time for annual and perennial crops are similar to the EU regulation, additional requirements have to be fulfiled to get the Demeter certification such as the use of the bio-dynamic preparations etc. To ensure good consumer information.
Labelling claims, honey - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Containers with honey to be sold to the consumer must show the following text: As a result of the large radius of flight of the bees it cannot be expected that in all cases they will fly over only or mainly organically farmed areas (or in a similar form). (Bioland production standards, 4.10.3.4 Declaration)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailled. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require an explanation of organic honey to be published on the label. To increase transparency for the consumer.
Labelling claims, honey - Demeter International 2004
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
n the labelling of Demeter certified honey there must be an indication regarding the definition of Demeter quality of honey: 'The special quality of Demeter honey derives from a unique, species appropriate approach to bee keeping. Due to their extensive flying range, bees cannot be expected to fly solely over biodynamically managed areas.' (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 10. Demeter Hive Product Identification)
The DI standard is more detailled. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require an explanation of organic honey to be published on the label. To increase transparency for the consumer.
Labelling claims, honey - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
On the label of NATURLAND certified honey it must be stated clearly, that the bees are not only visiting plants on organically farmed land, but that the definition of organic quality of honey is related to the beekeepers' method of working. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.9. Labelling)
The NATURLAND standard requires detailed labelling of honey. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 no specific indication on honey labels is required. To increase transparency for the consumer.
Labelling claims, processed products - NL Skal Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
It is not obligatory to mention the sentence "x% of the ingredients?." on the label of Dutch products with >70% organic ingredients.
SKAL has different labelling requirements to the EU Regulation 2092/91. SKAL does not require the use of this sentence in processed foods containing greater than '70% organic ingredients, but this is required by EU Regulation. See EU Rule Text: Article 5, M10 5bis c): on products with 70% or more organic ingredients, the sentence x% of the agricultural ingredients were produced in accordance with the rules of organic production must be on the label. This requirment is not seen as relevant for consumers.
Labelling claims, processed products - Nature et Progrès Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
All the ingredients of agricultural origin in a product must be organic, with two exceptions : wild gathered/collected fruits and environment-friendly fisheries.
Nature et Progrès standards have additional requirements to EU Regulation 2092/91. Nature et Progrès standards require that all the ingredients of agricultural origin in a product must be organic (except wild gathered/collected fruit and fish products from environment-friendly fisheries, which are not under EU Regulation), whereas EU Regulation allows 5 to 30% non-organic ingredients. Organic ingredients are widely available in France. Non-organic products may contain pesticides or GMOs. Moreover, allowing non-organic ingredients may slow down the development of organic agriculture.
Labelling claims, processed products - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The ultimate processing country should be indicated on the package. For ingredients the operator should always be able to give the information of the country of origin. This can be done through direct information on the package, web pages, telephone customer service etc (KRAV standards paragraph 2.13.16).
This is not covered in EU egulation 2092/91. Many customers are interested in where their food comes from. The origin of ingredients might change, therefore it is up to the operator if they want to print information on the package or would like to inform in other ways.
Labelling claims, processed products - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The term, "organic," may only be used on labels and in labelling of raw or processed agricultural products, including ingredients, that have been produced and handled in accordance with the NOP rules. There are provisions for multi-ingredient products containing 100%, minimum 95%, minimum 70% and less than 70% organic ingredients. Only the term "organic" is defined, derivatives or other terms giving the impression that a product is organic are not covered by the regulation.
Use of organic: both EU and US require compliance with the EU Regulation 2092/91 in order to label products organic. However, US specifies that the term organic may not be used in a product name to modify a non-organic ingredient in the product. This is not addressed by EU. US allows the word organic to be used in the ingredient list of products containing less than 70% organic ingredients without certification of the handling operation; EU does not. US contains regulations for the labelling of 100% organic products; EU does not. The definition for 95%-organic products also refers to non-agricultural ingredients whereas the EU only refers to agricultural ingredients. US allows products for export to be labelled according to the foreign national organic standard. EU does not. The intent of these sections is to ensure that organically produced agricultural products and ingredients are consistently labelled to aid consumers in selection of organic products and to prevent labelling abuses. These provisions cover the labelling of a product as organic and are not intended to supersede other labelling requirements specified in other Federal labeling regulations. Further justifications for the labelling provisions are described in the attached extract of the NOP "Entire Standards".
Labelling claims, processed products, food additives - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Food additives should be described by name and not only number in the ingredients panel (KRAV standards paragraph 2.13.13).
This is not required by EU Regulation 2092/91. It is important to give the most possible information to the consumer.
Labelling claims, production places - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
A certified production place (factories, slaughterhouses etc) can not be marked as KRAV certified independent of the products (KRAV standards paragraph 2.14.3).
This is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Production places where both organic and conventional products are processed shall not be able to market the production place itself as organic as it can confuse consumers.
Labelling claims, products derived from the wild - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Organic products, that have been collected from wild areas, have to be labelled unambiguously as such. (NL standards on production, Part B.IX. Wild grown products 3.)
The NATURLAND standard is more precise. In the EU Regulation 2092/91 no specific labelling instructions for collected wild products are given. To increase transparency and give more information to the consumer.
Labelling claims, shops and supermarkets - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There are requirements for how a shop or a supermarket can call themselves KRAV authorised. They shall contribute to increased availability of organic products through having a wide range certified products and have a well informed staff. The range of products shall reflect what is available on the market and the objective is that the consumer shall be able to choose organic alternatives from all product groups. The standard also covers repacking of products at the shop or supermarket. (KRAV standards chapter 15).
Standards for shops and supermarkets are not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. To authorise shops for handling of organic products and for promotion of organic production will increase the knowledge about organic agriculture and the availability of products. With well trained personnel it also increases the security that organic products are handled in the right way and not commingled with other products.
Labelling claims, textile products - CZ KEZ Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Textile fibres and products can be labelled with the indication "Coming from organic farming", packaging has to bear the KEZ logo with following text: IFOAM ACCREDITED. All inputs and processing aids must be specified on the label.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover textile fibre production or its labelling. The standard-setting body could not give a justification.
Labelling of animal products, beef - DE Naturland Standards 2005 Organic beef can only be marketed with reference to NATURLAND, if the animal had been born on an organic farm. (NL standards on production Part A.I.9. Labelling and marketing) The NATURLAND standard has further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. Natureland standards require the cattle to be born on an organic farm. Whereas according to the EU Regulation beef from animals that were born on conventional farms can be marketed as organic after being managed organically for a 12-month conversion period. This is in order to avoid cases of BSE on organic farms.
Labelling of animal products, milk - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The labelling of milk is determined by the certification status of the feed: Milk may only be marketed under the label "In Conversion to Demeter" if the dairy cows are fed from areas of the farm, which have this certification level. Demeter certification of the milk is possible as soon as the feed comes from Demeter certified areas. (DI production standards, 5.7.1. Milk, dairy cows and calves; DI production standards, 5.5.1. Brought in feeds and in conversion feeds)
The DI standard is more complex. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate Demeter specific labelling. The label "In conversion to Demeter" is only given to products, that have full organic certification status already. There is no possibility for animal products to be labelled as in conversion according to the EU Regulation. The quality of the feed influences the quality of the animal product.
Labelling of animal products, pigs - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Piglets of conventional origin that are exceptionally brought into a Demeter farm to start a new herd and after approval by the respective organisation, can be labelled as 'In conversion to Demeter' or 'Biodyn' after a conversion period of 6 months. During the conversion period, they must be managed and fed according to the Demeter standards. (DI production standards, 5.7.4. Pigs; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 17)
The DI standard is more complex. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 there is no in conversion labelling for animals and animal products. In both cases piglets can only be brought in for breeding (to start a new herd) and not with the purpose of fattening. According to the EU Regulation those animals could be converted to organic (6 months conversion period). According to Demeter standards they can never reach Demeter status, but can be labelled as "in conversion to Demeter" after the same period. No justification available
Land management, mulches and plastic - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Floating mulches, plastic for covering soil and plants and silage plastic should not be made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Used materials should be taken away from the land or place it has been used (KRAV standards paragraph 4.7.5).
This is not regulated in EU Regulation 2092/91. PVC has huge environmental effects and all use should be reduced to a minimum. Plastic and mulches should be handled so that they do not cause environmental problems and are not polluting the farm or soil.
Land management, nutrients, leaching - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
To prevent leaking of nutrients into water a permanent, unfertilized, overgrown buffer zone of 3 metres should be left beside watercourses, wetlands and lakes that are water-bearing the year round. In winter a cover of vegetation is encouraged. Catch crops should be grown when possible. Animal manure should be handled so that nutrient losses are minimised (KRAV-standards paragraph 3.1.9 and 4.1.4).
Prevention of leakage of nutrients is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91 except that the use of input should not result in contamination of the environment (article 7). The leakage of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus is one of the biggest environmental problems in agriculture in Sweden.
Livestock and animal products, traceability - SP CRAE MAPA/CAAE Standards 2001
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Spanish organisations CRAE MAPA/CAAE 2001 have special traceability standards for animal and meat products. CRAE-MAPA and also CAAE Andalucia have specific organic standards, outlined in a 5 page document. They contain requirements in 7 areas: a) identification of the animals on the farm (6 articles); b) transport of slaughtered animals; c) identification of slaughtered animal pieces in the slaughter house (7 articles); d) the identification of slaughtered animal pieces in the slaughter house room for cutting animal in small parts. A specific register should contain the following data: (8.1) date of entrance of the animal to the slaughter house; 8.2) number or authentification code for the living animal; (8.3) origin of the animal, identified by the record number of cattle operation (nº operator); (8.4) number of transport identification accompanying animals; 8.5) date of slaughtering; (8.6) number of seal or seals of each animal parts obtained; (8.7) destination of each part of the animal (nº of registered operator, in/or another region or place and (if it is the case) names of the slaughter houses.
CRAE-MAPA and CAAE organic regulation is more detailed on traceability measures compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. To reduce the risk of mistakes or fraud. Organic production and processing should be at the forefront of traceability issues.
Livestock housing and free range conditions - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In case of mammals the area of space available for reclining must be equal to at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have explicit requirements for reclining areas of mammals. To contribute to animal welfare.
Livestock housing and free range conditions, area, pigs - NL Skal Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Skal has set specific norms for sows and pigs (Rule Text: 2.6 article 7 and 8): A sufficient amount of maternity stables, a minimum of 4.4 m² per sow space to lie down in, a total minimum space of 7.2 m² per sow and 40 m² of unpaved outdoor area per sow is required. Indoors the surface area per pig must be 0.6 m². Per 20 kg pig 0.1 m² extra outdoor area is required.
Skal has set more detailed norms for sows and pigs, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 has not regulated these norms in detail. Annex VIII in the regulation only mentions 7.5 m2 per sow and 2.5 m2 unpaved outdoor area. All animals need enough space and outdoor areas for natural behaviour.
Livestock housing and free range conditions, area, poultry, NL Skal Standards
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Skal has defined the norms for turkeys (Rule text: 2.11 article 3, 4, 5 and 6): Turkey pullets must have access to 10 m² outdoor areas with shrubs and trees, during the daylight, when they are 8 weeks old, except from winter days in case of sickness. A maximum of 25 kg of animal per m² is allowed at any age. In the stable 50% of the surface must be available for scratching. Animals must have access to perches or elevations with a minimum length of 20 cm per animal. The stable must have openings to the pasture with a total length of 4 meter per 100 m² stable surface evenly distributed over the sides of the stable.
Stable and detailed outdoor requierements for turkeys are not defined in EU Regulation 2092/91 with the exception of the minimum outdoor area of Annex VIII (10 m² per head). All animals need enough space and outdoor areas for natural behaviour.
Livestock housing and free range conditions, general requirements, poultry - NL Skal Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
SKAL has set norms for poultry, concerning extension, space per animal, equipment, stocking rates. SKAL Rule Text: 2.4 article 1,2,3,4, 6 and 16: 8 week old hens must go outside, unless winter temperatures, with enough room to range freely and take a sandbath (2.5 m² per chicken). Only 7 young hens per m² stable are allowed. Shrubs and trees have to be present in the outdoor area. Per m² stable only 5 nests are allowed. 50% must be free-range area with dry bedding. Each hen must have 20 cm of perch. 1 nest per 6 hens must be available.
SKAL standards are more detailled compared to EU Regulation 2092/91. SKAL requires shrubs and trees to be present in the outdoor area and has further restrictions on animals per m² stable, on nests and perch space. EU is more general on open air runs (not specified for poultry) and is defining only the animlas per m² indoors and outdoors. All animals need enough space and outdoor areas for natural behaviour.
Livestock housing and free range conditions, general requirements, poultry - NL Skal Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
SKAL has set specific norms for meat pullets. see SKAL Rule Text: 2.5 article 2 and 3: Pullets must have 1,5 m² per pullet outdoor area. 50% of the outdoor area must be covered with shrubs and trees. The total number of animals allowed per m² is 28 till the age of 2 weeks, 14 till the age of 6 weeks, and 7 starting from the age of 6 weeks.
SKAL standards are more detailled compared to EU Regulation 2092/91. SKAL requires shrubs and trees to be present in the outdoor area and is grading the maximum number of animals per m² depending on the age of the animals. All animals need enough space and outdoor areas for natural behaviour.
Livestock housing and free range conditions, poultry - AT Bio Austrial General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In addition to the general rules for animals there are special rules for free-range broilers about stocking density, the litter, the light, outdoor access and pasture. The total allowable number of broilers per farm is 9600. Maximum 35 animals/m2 of barn area are permissible until the end of the 4th week of age, direct and concentrated glare from the sun should be avoided. No low frequency neon lighting is to be used. In newly constructed barns, the distance to the exit/entry pop-holes may not exceed 12 m for chickens. Barn areas that are farther than 12 m from an opening to the outdoor exercise yard are not calculated as barn area. If there are more than one exit opening, each one must be at least 40 cm wide. 4 weeks are necessary for empty outdoor areas between the runs. A covered yard area right beside of the barn must be at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement and has to be spread with litter. This yard must be easily accessible for the broilers (even when there is snow on the ground) and should be protected from wind. It must be available for the animals during daytime (also in winter) without restriction – apart from temperatures below 0° C (danger of frost). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.15)
The Bio Austria General Standard is very detailed while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have such specific requirements for free-range broiler husbandry. Animal welfare and health, protection of the environment. The main reason is to fulfil consumer expectations; integrity of organic farming (husbandry).
Livestock housing and free range conditions, stocking rate, minimum - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The stocking rate is determined by the possibilities for fodder production, as dictated by climate and the local conditions. Soil fertility should be maintained and developed by keeping animals and applying their manure. The minimum stocking rate has to be defined by the certification organisation in each country. The maximum stocking rate may not exceed 2.0 livestock units/ha, corresponding to a maximum of 1.4 manure units/ha, if feed is brought in. (DI production standards, 5.2. Stocking rate)
Compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91, the DI standards define not only a maximum but also a minimum stocking rate. Furthermore, the maximum stocking rate as defined by Demeter Interantioal is lower than the one indicated in the EU Regulation. Demeter farms must incorporate livestock, but they must be kept and fed in accordance with the given conditions of the site.
Livestock housing and free range conditions, stocking rate, ruminants - NL Skal Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
he amount of space in a stable and minimum days on pasture for dairy sheep, goat and cows is defined. SKAL Rule Text: 2.3 article 4: dairy sheep need 1.5 m² per animal in a stable (indoor) and 2 m² when they have lambs. Goats need 1.8 m² per animal and 1 m² outdoor area
SKAL has set norms for the housing of dairy cattle, which require more space per animal than given by the EU Regulation 2092/91 annex VIII. (1.85 m² per sheep/goat with 1 lamb indoor). The amount of space needed per animal should be large enough.
Livestock housing, access to water - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The animals should always have access to water (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.21).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 8.1.1, which covers housing conditions, it is stated that animals must have easy access to water and feeding. It is unclear if EU Regulation 2092/91 covers animals’ supply of water when animals are outside. The clause 8.1.1 is about housing. The sentence about water and feed is general but it seems to be meant when animals are inside. Outdoor requirements are covered in other paragraphs.
Livestock housing, area - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
For mammals the area of space available for reclining must be equal to at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.10.1.4, 3.11.1.4, 3.12.1.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have explicit requirements for reclining areas of mammals. To contribute to animal welfare.
Livestock housing, area, cattle - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Cattle should be kept in housing systems that allow permanent free movement. There should be enough space so that all animals can eat or rest at the same time. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.2. Keeping cattle, 4.2.2.1.1 Non-penned cowsheds)
The BIOLAND standard is similar but more detailed. In the EU Regulation 2092/91 there is a general requirement that livestock housing must meet the livestock's biological and ethological needs and that livestock must have easy access to feeding and watering. Furthermore the stocking density in buildings shall provide for the comfort and well being of the animals. To enable natural behaviour appropriate to the species in livestock housing.
Livestock housing, area, pigs - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
he size of pig production units is limited in all cases to 1500 slaughter pigs per year or 200 sows or their equivalent in the case of farrowing-fattening units. These maximum figures for each production unit may be exceeded where 100 % of the feed is produced on the holding.
French regulation limits the size of pig production units, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Limiting the size limits environmental pollution, noise and odour. It is a way of encouraging small farms, of human scale, socially acceptable and easier to hand down to the next generation.
Livestock housing, area, pigs - Nature et Progres Standards 2002
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The size of pig production units is limited in all cases up to 500 pigs per year. Furthermore the size of the unit must be calculated as a function of the application capacity of the soil of the farm.
Nature et Progres standards limit the size of pig production units, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. To limit the size is to limit the environmental pollution, noise and odour. It is a way of encouraging small farms of human scale, with diversified productions, socially acceptable and easier to hand down to the next generation.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005 For fattening poultry not more than 2000 animals and for laying hens not more then 600 may be reared in one stable (towards end of fattening period max 500 poultry,for turkey max. 250 animals/stable, for geese and ducks max. 250 animals /stable). The number of animals per stable, the stocking density in-house, is lower in the Bio Suisse regulation compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU defines the max number of animals per stable as 4800 poultry, 3000 laying hens, 5200 guinea fowl, etc. From an ethological point of view a lower number of animals per square meter and a lower maximum number of animals per stable is considered as more animal-friendly.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
DEMTER has to comply with the Swiss Ordinance on animal husbandry and rules the area of stable size in the same way as the latter. In the stable not more than 6 hens per m2 can be kept, additionally a wintergarden must be provided with 43m2 per 1000 animals and in addition to this there must be an outdoor area (pasture) of 5m2 per animal.
EU Regulation 2092/91 also requires no more than 6 animals/m2, but the size of wintergarden is not defined, and the size of pasture required is 4m2/animal which is less than the size required by Swiss Ordinance and therefore also by DEMETER. From an ethological point of view a lower number of animals per surface area and a lower maximum number of animals per stable is seen as more animal-friendly.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
With the exception of stock sizes of less than 100 animals and mobile housing systems, an outdoor climate area of at least one third of the total minimum housing area is mandatory for fattening chicken and turkey. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.5. Poultry, 4.2.5.3 Poultry for fattening, 4.2.5.3.2. Exterior climate area)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require an outdoor climate area. According to the EU Regulation poultry must have access to an open air run whenever this is allowed by the climatic conditions, and at least during 3/4 of their lifetime. The animals must have the opportunity to execute their natural behaviour.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - FI Governmenal Regulation on organic animal production 2000 The minimum inside area for laying hens is one square meter for five hens. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows six laying hens per one square meter. More area was required before the EU Regulation entered in to force in 2000. More area inside is preferable due to the long and cold winter period when it is necessary to keep the animals indoors.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The total usable area of poultry houses for laying hens and table poultry of any production unit must not exceed 1,600 m2.
French regulation limits the size of the total area of poultry house for laying hens and table poultry, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only limits it for table birds. We see no reason not to apply the same rules to laying hens as to table poultry. Limiting the size limits environnemental pollution, noise and odour. It is a way of encouraging small farms, of human scale that are socially acceptable and easier to hand down to the next generation.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The area of poultry houses for table birds on each production site must not exceed 400 m2.
French regulation limits the area of poultry house for table poultry whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Limiting the size limits environmental pollution, noise and odour. It lowers the risks of sanitary problems. It is more acceptable for nearby residents.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - Nature et Progres Standards 2002
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The total usable area of poultry houses for laying hens and table poultry of any production unit must not exceed 800 m2.
Nature et Progrès standards limit the size of the total area of poultry house for laying hens and table poultry to 800 m², whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only limits it for table birds to 1600 m². Limiting the size limits environnemental pollution, noise and odour. It is a way of encouraging small farms, of human scale, with diversified productions, that are socially acceptable and easier to hand down to the next generation.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The maximum stocking density in aviaries is dependent on the individual housing system and must be agreed with the NATURLAND adviser. In no case should more than 12 hens/m² ground area be kept. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.5.1. laying hens)
The NATURLAND standard is more differentiated. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the stocking density is calculated on the base of the area, which is accessible to the animals, and there is no specific restriction for aviary systems. However, in the EU Regulation there is the general requirement to ensure the well-being of the animals and adapt the indoors stocking density to the situation (Annex I.B.8.8.2.) To ensure the well-being of the animals and provide detailed rules adapted to the specific production system.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association standards have a set of maximum poultry housing densities, minimum space for perching per bird, and maximum number of birds per nest for laying chickens. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 20.7.3. Soil Association standards contain further restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards specify a maximum of 6 laying hens for each nesting box, while the EU Regulation figure is 8. Soil Association standards specify separate maximum housing stocking rates for turkeys and geese of 2 birds per sq. metre in fixed housing and 3 birds per sq. metre in mobile housing, but EU Regulations apply the same figure for all classes of poultry, i.e. 10 birds per sq. metre (fixed) and 16 birds per sq. metre (mobile), which are also the maximum densities for all other classes of poultry in the Soil Association standards. The Soil Association standards' lower maximum number of laying hens per nesting box is intended to ensure an adequate level of welfare for each bird by improving access to nesting boxes. The specific housing density requirements for turkeys and geese in Soil Association standards take account of the larger size of these birds. Although both sets of standards include the same maximum weight of birds per sq. metre of housing area, the specific maximum housing densities for turkeys and geese in Soil Association standards help to ensure adequate health and welfare conditions for these larger birds.
Livestock housing, bedding material - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Straw which is used as bedding material in animal housing should preferably be grown on the farm itself or come from another organic farm. If conventional straw is used, it should not come from an intensive farming system. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.1 General, 4.2.1.3 Movement and Rest Area)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require animal bedding matieral to be of organic origin. To avoid contamination of the animal manure with residues from agrochemicals. Animals usually will eat part of the litter.
Livestock housing, bedding material - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Straw used for animal bedding must come from organic farms. In the case of non-availability it must be purchased from low intensity cultivation systems. (NL standards on production, Part B.1. Animal husbandry 1.)
The NATURLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require the bedding material to come from organic or low intensity sources. To avoid contamination with harmful substances. Most types of animals will eat part of the bedding material.
Livestock housing, bedding material - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Livestock bedding areas without bedding material or the use of peat as bedding are not permitted. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.12.11. Soil Association standards forbid the use of peat as bedding. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the use of "suitable bedding materials". The extraction of peat causes damage to environmentally valuable semi-natural habitats.
Livestock housing, cleaning - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Only the products listed in the corresponding appendix can be used for cleaning of equipment used in animal production. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.5.Shed hygiene and appendix 8)
The lists of admissible products are very similar. However on the NATURLAND list, formic acid and formaldehyde are not included. Exclusion of hazardous substances.
Livestock housing, cleaning - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
In the case of mammals reared in uniform age groups, the housing and facilities must be entirely emptied, cleaned and disinfected after each group has been removed.
French regulation requires a period when the buildings are empty, cleaned and disinfected for all mammals reared in uniform age groups, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only requires it for poultry. Mammals reared in uniform age groups are exposed to the same sanitary risks as poultry.
Livestock housing, cleaning - UK Compendium 2005 Buildings must be cleaned and disinfected between batches of poultry. Runs must be left empty between batches for specified minimum periods. UK Compendium requires a minimum rest period for poultry runs of 2 months, and in particular, specifies a minimum rest period of 2 months per year for the runs of poultry for meat production. UK Compendium, Annex IB, Paragraph 8.4.6. The UK compendium is more precise with regard to the minimum rest period, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 leaves the precise rest period between batches for poultry runs to be decided by member states. UK Compendium follows the requirements of EU Regulation in deciding on national level on minimum rest periods for runs accommodating the different classes of poultry.
Livestock housing, darkness, poultry - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The KRAV standards require that both hens and chickens should have at least 8 hours a day without artificial light (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.19).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 8.4.4 also requires that laying hens shall have at least 8 hours without artificial light. However, these KRAV standards also apply to chikens. The KRAV standards cover both hens and chickens, the EU Regulation 2092/91 only covers laying hens. There are conventional systems for chicken rearing which use 24 hours of light to get the animals to eat more and as such grow faster.
Livestock housing, daylight - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Animals should have adequate access to daylight. The area for letting in daylight should be at least 5% of the floor area (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.18).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 8.1.1 states that the building must permit plentiful natural ventilation and light to enter, but the KRAV standards are more specific. The KRAV standards are more specific and easier to verify.
Livestock housing, ecological aspects - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Ecological aspects have to be considered in the construction and maintenance of livestock housing. Materials and substances harmful to health or the environment should not be used and native materials must be preferred. The use of non-renewable energy should be reduced. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.1 General, 4.2.1.6 Construction and Maintenance of Livestock Buildings)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailled. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the ecological aspects of the construction of livestock housing To cope with the ecological principle of organic farming and avoid contamination.
Livestock housing, flooring - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The main part of the area for moving and resting in animal housing for mammals must be a solid floor. Slatted floors must be in an excellent condition and the perforation must be appropriate to the size of the animals. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.1 General, 4.2.1.3 Movement and Rest Area)
The BIOLAND standard is similar but more precise. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires more than 50% of the floor to have a solid and unslatted surface, but it does not explicitly refer to any further characterisitics of the perforated elements. However, there is a general requirement that animal housing must meet the livestock's biological and ethological needs. To avoid injury to the animals and to consider the needs of every single type of animal (species, size, age?) in the construction of animal housing.
Livestock housing, flooring - FR Nature et Progres Standards 2002
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Slatted floors and grid constructions are prohibited.
Nature et Progres standards prohibit the use of slatted floors and grid constructions, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 allows a proportion of slatted floors for every species to a maximum of 50% for herbivores and to 66 % for poultry. Slatted and grid constructions are not good for animal welfare and generate highly concentrated manures, which are potentially polluting for soils and waters.
Livestock housing, flooring - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Slatted floors are prohibited for mammals except for cattle & pigs in upland areas. In these cases, at least three quarters of the total covered floor area must be made of solid material and cannot therefore be made up of gratings or grids.
Concerning mammals, French regulation only allows slatted and grid construction for pigs in upland areas and for cattle, and to a maximum of 25% of the floor area, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 allows it for every species to a maximum of 50%. Slatted and grid construction are not good for animal welfare. They should be strictly limited.
Livestock housing, flooring - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The requirement that at least half of the indoor area for mammals should have solid floor, is not applicable to sheep. Lambs should have access to solid beds with a sufficient thermal qualities as defined by general Norwegian legislation.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I B paragraph 8.3.5 requires at least half of the indoor area to be solid for all mammals. The impact of the requirement in 8.3.5 would be detrimental to organic sheep production in Norway. Meanwhile animal welfare of sheep is well provided on floors that are not solid.
Livestock housing, general requirements - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Changes to the building construction which are necessary from an animal husbandry viewpoint (e.g. access to pasture, bays for rearing groups of calves, rebuilding of fully slatted floors etc.) are to be completed within a maximum five year conversion period. (DI production standards, 5.4. Management; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 6)
The DI standard is more precise by forcing adaptions for an appropriate animal housing within a five year timeframe. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 inappropriate housing (in certain cases) can be tolerated with a derogation up to 31.12.2010. As there are only 5 years left until the end of 2010 the implementation of the rule will probably now be the same. Converting farmers must have time to adapt the given conditions of the farm to the requirements of the Demeter standards. However, in order to increase credibility of organic and biodynamic farming the necessary changes should be encouraged.
Livestock housing, general requirements - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
§ 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain livestock living conditions which accommodate the health and natural behavior of animals, including: (1) Access to the outdoors (2) Access to pasture for ruminants (3) Appropriate clean, dry bedding. If the bedding is typically consumed by the animal species, it must comply with the feed requirements of § 205.237; (4) Shelter meeting the needs of animals (b) The producer of an organic livestock operation may provide temporary confinement for an animal under certain conditions
The detail of living condition standards differes between the US and the EU Regulation 2092/91. Both US and EU require outdoor access for any animals. US in addition requires pasture for ruminants, not allowing derogations, EU require pasture for herbivores 'wherever conditions allow'. EU waves outdoor access for herbivores in winter under certain conditions. EU allows tethering under specified conditions, US does not address tethering. US require bedding to meet feed requirements if is typically consumed by the animal species. EU does not address this. EU has detailed requirements for housing of poultry, US do not. EU defines minimum indoor and outdoor surface area and other characteristics of housing in the different species and types of production. No justification was available.
Livestock housing, general requirements, pigs - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The natural behaviour patterns of pigs should be provided for. They shall have the possibility for rooting and food searching behaviour on fallow land, forest or woodland. In the winter this should be in deep litter. Pigs should have access to a mud bath or a water bath in the summer. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1)
Annex 1, paragraph 8.3.8 states that there shall be exercise areas which must permit rooting. Different substrates can be used for that. Mud baths or water baths are not covered by EU Regulation 2092/91. The KRAV standards require that during the non frozen period pigs are out on land, in winter they can be kept in an exercise area. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows pigs to be kept in an exercise area the year around. There is a qualitative difference to root in substrate or in real soil. The pigs can also be used for uprooting leys etc. Pigs cannot sweat and need water or mud baths to regulate temperature. This is an animal welfare issue.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Housing systems for laying hens can be floor systems or aviaries with access to open air run (exceptions are possible). Detailed instructions are given about the characteristics of the area (indoors and outdoors), that can be taken into account for calculating the total area, accessible to the hens (including exterior climate area, the scratching area, open air run, covered with vegetation). In aviaries the stocking density is restricted to 12 hens/m² floor space. Details are given concerning the size of the windows, the design of the feeding and watering equipment, the handling of excrements, the perch rods, the nests, the openings. Possibility of dust bathing is mandatory. Housing systems with more than 200 hens must have an exterior climate area of a determined minimum size, which is permanently accessible to the hens. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.5.1. Laying hens, 4.2.5.1.1.-4.2.5.1.3; Bioland production standards, 9.4. Commencement of Validity and Transitional Arrangements)
The provisions of the BIOLAND standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Bioland requires a permanently accessible outdoor climate area and the limitation of the maximum stocking density in aviaries in relation to the ground area of the building. The EU Regulation does not indicate as many details concerning the housing system, but in addition to the specific indications for poultry (Annex I B, 8.4.) there is the general requirement, that housing systems must be appropriate to the species and account for the biological and ethological needs of the animals (Annex I B, 8.1., 8.2.) In order to ensure that BIOLAND certified laying hens are kept in accordance with the specific needs and natural behaviour of the species.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Hens shall have dust baths. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1).
This is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Dust bathing is one of the basic needs for hens. It is a way to get rid of parasites. All hens should have the possibility to dust bath, this is an animal welfare issue.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - UK Compendium 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Conditions for poultry housing are specified, regarding their integrity, flooring, bedding, perches, pop-holes and maximum stock numbers. UK Compendium, Annex IB, Paragraph 8.4.3.
The paragraph in UK Compendium contains text not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91, as follows: "poultry houses must be structured with their own dedicated grazing, air space, ventilation, feed and water." This rule is otherwise identical to the EU Regulation. The additional UK Compendium text is designed to facilitate the inclusion of more than one poultry house in a single building. It makes it clear that each house must be completely separate from any others nearby.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - UK Soil Associaition Organic Standards 2005 In poultry houses of more than 100 birds, social grouping must be encouraged by the arrangement of feeders and drinkers, and by the use of partitions. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 20.7.2. Soil Association standards contain a requirement not included in EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards require the use of partitions and the arrangement of feeders and drinkers to encourage small social groups to be formed among birds in a large poultry house. EU Regulation does not include this requirement. Natural populations of poultry tend to form smaller social groups than exist in large poultry houses, so the provision of partitions, etc. reduces the incidence welfare problems relating to social alienation among birds in a large house.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - UK Soil Associaition Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Soil Association poultry housing standards include minimum requirements for solid, unslatted and bedded floor areas, along with minimum areas of pop holes, drinking and feeding space, and numbers of drinkers per flock size. There are also certain stipulations regarding the types and maintenance of poultry bedding. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 20.7.4-20.7.7.)
Soil Association standards are more comprehensive than EU Regulation 2092/91. The Soil Association standards minimum requirements for solid, unslatted and bedded floor areas are set at 50%, but EU Regulation requires a minimum one third of floor area of these descriptions. Soil Association standards require minimum space per bird for various types of drinker and feeder, but the EU Regulation does not include such requirements. The Soil Association standards require the bedding to be topped up regularly, and kept dry and friable, whereas EU Regulation requires enough of the floor space to be available for removal of bird droppings. Soil Association standards are intended to ensure an adequate level of health and welfare for the birds by requiring a larger proportion of the housing floor area to be unslatted and bedded, with minimum feeding and drinking spaces per bird. The requirement for topping up bedding rather than for removing droppings reveals a difference of emphasis between the two sets of standards, in which the Soil Association focuses more on providing sufficient resources for the birds to enable their normal behaviours.
Livestock housing, grazing period - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The KRAV standards have specific standards on when animals can be kept inside even if the general provision is that animals should be outside whenever it is possible to keep them outside. Animals can be kept indoors in case of mating, insemination, giving birth, illness, insect attacks, and extreme weather conditions or before slaughter. Calves may be kept inside during the period of milk feeding. Sows may be kept indoors for maximum a month for mating/insemination, if kept inside for more then a week they shall have access to an outdoor run. Bulls are not allowed to keep inside if they are not going to be sent for slaughter in the near future. The producer shall document all animals kept indoors. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.4).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify when and for how long animals can be kept inside during the grazing period. In Annex 1 paragraph 8.3.1 states that mammals shall be outside whenever the physiological condition of the animal, the weather conditions and the state of the ground permit. In paragraph 8.3.4 it is a derogation to keep cattle, pigs and sheep for meat production inside during the final fattening stage, which can be maximum one fifth of the lifetime and not over three months. KRAV have more specific standards on when and how animals can be kept inside during the grazing period, the EU Regulation is much more general. From experience it is known there is always a risk that some animals are kept inside for too long time. KRAV standards disallow keeping animals inside during the final fattening stage. It is so important that animals are outside in the summer that this is seen as more important, it should also be possible to manage the animals outside even if coming closer to slaughter.
Livestock housing, nesting material, poultry - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The nests of laying hens must be provided with formable natural materials. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.13, 1.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is very detailed, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not say anything about the material of nests. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal integrity. Behavioural priorities of laying hens, littered nests are preferred by laying hens. Litter satisfies behavioural requirements of laying hens by allowing moulding and other behaviours performed during egg laying.
Livestock housing, perches, poultry - NL Skal Standard 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
SKAL has made norms for the size, material and position of the perches for poultry. SKAL's interpretation of perches is as follows: the material has to be wood, metal, or plastic. It has to be at least 30 mm² thick and 50% has to be above ground level.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 only defines the number of hens per perch/ m² and is more general (referring in Annex I part B 8.1.1, 8.2.2, 8.4.3): "they must have perches of a size and number commensurate with the size of the group and of the birds as laid down in Annex VIII" All animals need enough space and outdoor areas for natural behaviour.
Livestock housing, rearing, calves - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Calves should stay with their mothers at least for the first day of their life. After 7 days or for the latest after 5 weeks they must be kept in groups. Cattle of less than one year must not be tethered. (Bioland production standard, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.2 Keeping cattle, 4.2.2.3 Calves)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require calves to stay with their mothers, but the keeping of calves older than 10 days in single boxes is not allowed. Tethering of calves is not explicitly prohibited under the EU Regulation. To enable natural behaviour appropriate to the species in livestock housing.
Livestock housing, rearing, calves - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Calves should be allowed to suckle from the mother cow and must not be kept tied up or in single boxes. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.2.3 Calves)
The NATURLAND standard contais further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not recommend the suckling of the calf and the keeping of calves in single boxes is prohibited only for calves older than 10 days. To enable the performance of natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock housing, rearing, fattening - NO Governmnetal Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Indoor fattening is only allowed for slaughter pigs, not for cattle and sheep.
The derogation Annex I B, paragraph 8.3.4 of the EU Regulation 2092/91 is only applicable to slaughter pigs. The Norwegion Governmental regulation does not allow indoor fattening for cattle and sheep as the EU Regulation does. Indoor fattening should be restricted for animal welfare considerations. There is no tradition for indoor fattening of cattle and sheep in Norway.
Livestock housing, rearing, pigs - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association standards include a number of specific requirements and conditions regarding the servicing, farrowing and weaning of pigs. Pig service pens have to be of at least 10.5 sq. metres per head. It is recommended to settle sows into farrowing accommodation well in advance of farrowing, to use farrowing arcs of area approx. 2.5m x 2m, and to use straw bedding. It is prohibited to use farrowing crates and to deny food or water to drying off sows. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 13.6.2 and 13.6.4. Soil Association standards are more specific than the EU Regulation 2092/91 to ensure adequate welfare for organic pigs. EU Regulation requires compliance with directive 91/630/EEC, which permits the use of farrowing crates, which is prohibited by SA standards. Farrowing crates are prohibited because they impose confinement that restricts movement and prevents natural behaviour tendencies.
Livestock housing, rearing, poultry - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In order to avoid problems regarding the behavioural development during acclimatization to the hen house, pullets must be reared at low stocking densities with perches and access to an open range. The rearing system should be as similar as possible to the system used during egg laying. Bio Austria sets special provisions regarding stocking density, structuring of the house and outdoor access to covered outdoor areas (covered yard or wintergardens) and to grassland. Because these rules for pullet rearing are part of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus they are valid for all organic farms in Austria, not only for Bio Austria farms. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.14)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation does not have special rules for pullet rearing. Therefore it is permisable to use conventional pullets if none are available of organic origin. Since 1.1.2006 in the EU conventional producers of pullets for organic farming have to fulfil the requirements of section 4 (feed) and section 5 (disease prevention and veterinary treatment) but not other requirements, especially for husbandry management, housing and free range areas. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal and ecological/organic integrity
Livestock housing, rearing, poultry - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The specific instructions for housing systems used for pullet rearing are concerning the maximum stocking density in relation to the stage of development of the animals (age / weight), the size of the scratching area, the characteristics of perching facilities and size of openings. Daylight is mandatory as well as a permanent accessible outdoor climate area for stocks of more than 200 animals or if the open air run covered with vegetation is less than 2.5m²/animal. If possible 1 cock shall be kept together with 100 hens. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.5 Poultry, 4.2.5.2. Young hens 4.2.5.2.1 - 4.2.5.2.3; Bioland production standards, 4.3 Dealing with animals, 4.3.2 Measures in the business)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not indicate specific instructions for rearing pullets at the moment. Consequently the general instructions concerning poultry housing apply. Specific rules are currently under development. In order to ensure the system to meet the specific needs of the animals, it must be adapted and appropriate to the animals stage of development. Consequently specific indications are needed. Chickens must have the opportunity to practice, at an early stage of development, the elements of natural behaviour in order to learn it. Disturbances in the behaviour of laying hens, which can lead to severe problems, should be avoided. Robustness and a natural immunisation against microorganisms present on the farm should be supported by providing outdoor access at an early stage of development.
Livestock housing, rearing, poultry - Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Specific rules are described for pullet rearing, concerning the adaptation of the indoors stocking density in relation to the age / weight of the animals, the scratching area, illumination, perches and outdoor area. A dust bath is mandatory for pullets from the first week of life. A roofed outdoor area must be accessible from the tenth week of life. The contamination of the free range area with parasites or nutrients must be avoided. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.5.3.Pullets).
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not indicate specific instructions for rearing pullets at the moment. Consequently the general instructions concerning poultry housing apply. Specific rules are currently under development. To provide rules for any significant type of agricultural / food production.
Livestock housing, rearing, pullets - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_html.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_html.png
In order to avoid problems regarding the behavioural development during acclimatization to the hen house, pullets must be reared at low stocking densities with perches and access to an open range. The rearing system should be as similar as possible to the system used during egg laying. Bio Austria sets special provisions regarding stocking density, structuring of the house and outdoor access to covered outdoor areas (covered yard or wintergardens) and to grassland. Because these rules for pullet rearing are part of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus they are valid for all organic farms in Austria, not only for Bio Austria farms. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.14)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have special rules for pullet rearing. Therefore it is allowed to use conventional pullets if none are available of organic origin. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal and ecological/organic integrity
Livestock housing, rest periods - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Between batches of poultry, houses must be cleaned and disinfected, and must be left empty for long enough to break the life cycle of pests. Soil Association Organic Standards, Paragraph 20.7.6. Soil Association standards are more precise than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards specify that the period that poultry houses are left empty between batches must be long enough to break the life cycle of pests. Although EU Regulation requires that poultry houses must be left empty, cleaned and disinfected between batches, it includes no time specification for the period that the houses must be left empty. Leaving the poultry houses empty for long enough to break the lifecycle of pests will mean that there are no established populations of pests to infest the following batch of poultry. This will reduce health and welfare problems for successive batches of poultry.
Livestock housing, rest periods, poultry - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Poultry runs should have a rest period of a minimum 3 months between batches of poultry (ref. Annex IB, Paragraph 8.4.6)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 leaves the precise rest period for poultry runs between batches of poultry to be decided by member states, in Norway this is 3 months. The European Regulation leaves the precise rest period between batches for organic poultry runs to be decided by member states.
Livestock housing, ventilation - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 Efficient ventilation of livestock buildings must meet the following limits of maximum acceptable harmful gasses concentration: NH3 0.001% H2S 0.001% CO2 0.2% Air humidity should be kept at the level of 60-75% and air movement inside buildings to 0.3m/s (during summer hot months up to 1.0m/s). (4.8.7) The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify such limits. Animal welfare standards must be measurable, otherwise effective control is not possible.
Livestock housing, zero grazing - UK Soil Association 2005 Zero grazing systems are not permitted for cattle. (Zero grazing means feeding freshly cut forage to housed animals). Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 11.3.5. Soil Association standards are more precise than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association Standards prohibit zero grazing for cattle. Zero grazing is not specifically prohibited in the EU Regulation, but it states, "Herbivores must have access to pasturage whenever conditions allow." The Soil Association rule is a clear prohibition while the EU Regulation is not. The Soil Association rule aims to be clear and unambiguous in prohibiting zero grazing systems. Although the EU Regulation may imply such a prohibition, it could be open to other interpretations in certain situations. The prohibition of zero grazing systems encourages producers to maximise cattle's access to pasture.
Livestock management plan - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Livestock producers are required to implement a livestock management plan to help meet the Standards in a number of important areas. Soil Association standards require livestock producers to develop, agree with the Soil Association, and then implement and monitor a livestock management plan to help meet the Standards in a number of important areas, including the following: sourcing and converting livestock; health and welfare; feeding and grazing, including the stocking density and grazing rotation; housing; handling and transporting; and slaughter. The livestock management plan must be reviewed and updated regularly. Where relevant, the livestock management plan should be integrated with the cropping plan. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 10.3.1 and 10.3.2. Soil Association standards include specifications not made in the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation 2092/91 mentions the requirement for a livestock management plan in Annex IIIA.2, Paragraph 1, but includes no further relevant guidance or requirements. Soil Association standards provide more detail and guidance to make the livestock management plan a more useful farm-planning tool for producers and a better means to help the Soil Association inspectors to ensure compliance.
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter3.10.3) BA-Rules 2006: The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions: Only appliances with a delivery of max 0.3 joule per impulse may be used. Cow trainers may not be in operation for more than 2 days a week. The cow trainer must be installed along the length of and parallel to the trough. The distance between withers and cow trainer must not be less than 5 cm, meaning that only devices that are adjustable for each individual animal may be used. Cow trainers may only be used for cows (beginning of the first lactation period). The cow trainer must be raised to its maximal height before calving and until 5 days after calving. This is also indicated for several days before the animal comes in heat.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as in the EU Regulation 2092/91 cow trainers are not mentioned. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal integrity and livelihood - equity principle; old systems of barn do not function without a cow trainer (fouling, dirtiness and hygiene).
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU regulation which does not mention cow trainers (however, in general confining is not allowed by the EU Regulation - with a grace period until 2010). The requirements in the Bio Austria General Standard give the guarantee to reduce ill-effects to the health of cows. Old barn systems do not function without a cow trainer (fouling, dirtiness and hygiene). The non-use of cow trainer is supporting animal welfare.
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Electrical devices to condition cows are prohibited. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.2.1. Dairy farming)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailled. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not mention the prohibition of electrical devices. To enable natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The use of electrical cow trainers is not allowed. (DI production standards, 5.4.1. Cattle management)
The DI standard is more detailed, the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly prohibit the use of electrical cow trainers. To enable the natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock management, external responsibility, horses - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Horses on the farm, that are not under the responsibility of the farm manager, can be fed or treated with substances that are not in line with the standards, as long as these are not contaminating the farm in any way. The horse manure should be handled as animal manure from external sources. (Bioland production standards, 4.5.6 Horse feeding)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 conventional livestock from extensive husbandry can be kept on organic pastures for a limited period of time each year, without indicating details about the harmlessness of feed and treatment and the handling of manure. To avoid contamination with objectionable substances, i.e. GMO.
Livestock management, general reqquirements, horses - SP CCPAE Catalunya 2002
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The CCPAE Catalunya Organic Standards for horse breeding has 5 pages (Article 11.06 of General CCPAE standards, pages 154-158). The main points of these Horse Standards are: origin of the animals, conversion period, management, suckling and breeding of foals; animal welfare, free ranch areas and facilities for breeding horses, animal feeding, animal health and animal identification.
There are no specific standards of organic horse breeding within the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide clear rules for any significant type of agricultural / food production.
Livestock management, general requirement, ostriches - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Standards for organic rearing of ostriches exist in the French governmental regulation.
French regulation includes standards for organic ostrich rearing. There are no such standards in the EU Regulation 2092/91. French ostrich breeders asked for organic standards.
Livestock management, general requirements, deer - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The specific BIOLAND standards for deer regulate the following aspects: mandatory permanent pasture, minimum area size , characteristics of outdoor enclosures, minimum group size, stocking density, purchase of animals and conventional feeding stuffs. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.7 Keeping of Fallow-deer and Red Deer; Bioland production standards, 4.8.2 Possible permits for conventional purchase of animals, 4.8.2.5 Fallow-Deer and Red Deer; Bioland production standards, 10.4 Temporary regulations for purchased feed from non-organic origin, 10.4.4 Fallow and red deer)
Bioland has specific standards for deer husbandry. This is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide standards for all types of animal production, practised in the regions inspected and certified by BIOLAND.
Livestock management, general requirements, deer - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The NATURLAND rules for animals kept in reserves cover aspects such as the size of the herd, configuration of pasture areas (reserves), removal of antlers, feed and slaughter. (NL standards on production, Part B.II: 1.7 Game reserves 2.6 Fodder for reserve game 7. Transport and slaughtering)
The NATURLAND standard is more extensive. Husbandry of deer is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide strict rules for any significant type of agriculture / food production.
Livestock management, general requirements, deer - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The KRAV standards have several standards for deer. The environment should be natural and contain plants and food that deer prefer. There should be protection in the enclosure by trees or forest. Handling of deer should be done so that stress is minimised. All deer should be able to feed at the feeding station at the same time. The feed should 100% KRAV –certified, 30% of the daily intake can be concentrate. Deer kids should suckle until natural weaning. Deer should only be slaughtered in the enclosure or adjacent to the enclosure (KRAV standards, several paragraphs in chapter 5).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have any specific standards for deer. Deer are in several ways quite different to other ruminants. It is important that they are treated in the best way.
Livestock management, general requirements, deer - SP CRAE Rules 2002
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Standards for marketing animals and animal products with the organic label, the animals should be bred in accordance with the general standards and principles of regulation (EU) 1804/1999 (individually for the herbivores mammals establishment - REWRITE TO AID UNDERSTANDING), regulated by the present practical standards. The document is split into 6 main points regulating the following aspects: a) conversion period; b) animal origin; c) animal feeding; d) animal management, including the maximal units per area; e) animal housing and f) animal transport . The 5 page documents approved by the Advisory Council for Organic Farming (CRAE), is in force and has been applied by all the semi-public Spanish Certification bodies in Spain since 09-05-2002
The CRAE-MAPA standard for deer is more extensive. Husbandry of deer is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91 To provide clear rules for any significant type of agricultural / food production.
Livestock management, general requirements, rabbits - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In addition to the general rules for animals there are special rules for rabbits about the stock density, outdoor access and feed to stocks of over 50 fattening rabbits: (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.16) Husbandry conditions Housing area: minimum 0.125 m2 per fattening rabbit from weaning until the end of the 8th week of age = 8 animals per m2. After the end of the 8th week, 0.25 m2 per animal = 4 rabbits per m. Housing height: minimum 60 cm. Housing flooring: litter strewn resting area. Up to 50 % of the housing floor may be perforated. Outside access: paved and easy to clean, partial roofing possible. Minimum outside access area: 0.125 m2 per fattening rabbit. Group husbandry with manageable group sizes (max. 40 animals per group) Feeding The feeding rules are similar to the other BA Standards. Feeding facilities must be arranged in such a manner that even low-ranked animals receive sufficient feed. Branches with bark must be available for gnawing, and must be changed at least every 14 days.
The Bio Austria General Standard is very detailed also for rabbit husbandry, while as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover this area of concern. Because the EU Regulation do not cover legal rules for rabbit husbandry it was considered to be necessary to give minimum standards to this part of animal husbandry.
Livestock management, general requirements, rabbits - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The specific standards for BIOLAND rabbits regulate the following aspects: Maximum group size, characteristics of stable and roaming area, feeding and purchase of animals. (Bioland production standards, Keeping rabbits 4.2.8.; Bioland production standards, 4.5.7 Rabbit feeding; Bioland production standards, 4.8. Additional purchase of animals, 4.8.2.6 Rabbits)
Bioland has specific standards for rabbits husbandry. This is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide standards for all types of animal production, practised in the regions inspected and certified by BIOLAND.
Livestock management, general requirements, rabbits - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
There are standards for organic rearing of rabbits.
French regulation includes standards for organic rabbit breeding. There are no such standards in the EU Regulation 2092/91. French rabbit breeders asked for organic standards.
Livestock management, general requirements, rabbits - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
In addition to the general rules for animals there are special rules for rabbits / conversion period (10 weeks)/ outdoor access (as reg 2092) / use of pens or transportable grazing cages / possibility to conceal themselves / outdoor area shall mainly consist of soil with grass-vegetation / area must have a rest period of one year every second year / access to water obl. / maximum number of animals per hutch (25) / slaughter and angora in common bins, breeding animals can be kept in individual bins (and shall have nest boxes) / minimum area Angora (0,2 m2), fattening rabbits (0,3 m2), breeding rabbits (0,7 m2), floors (at least half shall be solid) / breeding (not more than 4 litters a year, young rabbits at least 5 weeks together with mother) / feeding young rabbits (at least 5 weeks with milk from rabbits) and others (min 60% roughage).
Governmental regulation is more detailed, since the EU 2092/91 does not have specific rules for rabbits. Because the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover legal rules for rabbits.
Livestock management, hens, nest material - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The nests of laying hens must be provided with formable natural materials. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.13, 1.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not say anything about the material of nests. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal integrity. Behavioural priorities of laying hens: littered nests are preferred by laying hens. Litter satisfies behavioural requirements of laying hens by allowing moulding and other behaviours performed during egg laying.
Livestock management, identification - US NOP 2002 US does not address the identification of animals. According to EU Regulation 2092/91 Livestock and livestock products are to be identified at all stages of their production, preparation, transport and marketing. US does not address this. No justification was available.
Livestock management, perennial cropping systems - Demeter International 2004
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Farms with intensive vegetable production or perennial crops should keep animals on the farm or at least cooperate with another biodynamic farm to set up a fertilising programme based on animal manure. (DI production standards 3.4.Market gardens, field vegetables, hops and other perennial crops)
The DI standard requires that animals are being reared on farms with intensive horticulture production or perennial cropping systems; where as in the EU Regulation 2092/91 no such requirement is stated. The fertilizing programme should be based on animals kept on the farm in order to promote the development of the farm as an individual living organism by using the own animal manure. Animal husbandry, with the accompanying fodder production is an important part of the agricultural enterprise. With respect to the development of the enterprise, the farm organism cannot do without livestock. This applies to the ruminant in particular. The fodder plants and the well-balanced manure that comes into being because of cattle, contribute considerably through the enlivening of the soil, to the long term flourishing of a farm. The harmonious co-operation of mankind with the three kingdoms of nature can lead to a living, ensouled farm organism.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The only mutilations allowed are castration and dehorning. Castration of calves has to be done before they are 8 weeks old. Calves should be anaesthetised during castration. Castration of pigs should be done before they are 7 days old. Dehorning of calves through burning is allowed before the age of 8 weeks. Dehorning of older animals can be done on a case by case basis for animal welfare reasons (KRAV standards paragraph 5.5.3 and 5.5.4).
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows mutilations for reasons of safety, improvment of health, welfare and hygiene, but not in a systematic manner. Mutilations must be carried out at the most appropriate age by qualified personnel and any suffering to the animals must be reduced to a minimum. Castrations are allowed if the above requirements are fulfilled. The KRAV standards allow fewer types of mutilations and have more precise time limits and requirements. If mutilations are only done at young age the risk for side effects is less. Ringing of bulls is not seen as a mutilation. Ringing of sows is not permitted by Swedish law.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Dehorning of ruminants is not allowed according DEMETER standards.
Whereas DEMETER disallowes dehorning of ruminants, EU Regulation 2092/91 allows it under certain circumstances. The horns of ruminants have significance for the development of life forces. They provide an opposing balance of forces to the intensive digestion and absorption processes. They are a part of the entire being. In comparison to other animal species, cattle manure has a particularly stimulating effect on soil fertility. The horns also have a large significance as a sheath in the production of the bio-dynamic preparations.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Dehorning of adult ruminants may only occur for safety reasons and not in the months of May - August. Dehorning must be carried out under narcosis.
Swiss Ordinance is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91: dehorning must be carried out by a veterinarian and under narcosis, while EU Regulation mentions only the dehorning of young animals, with a requirement to minimize the suffering of animals in general. Mutilations such as dehorning strongly interfere with the ethological well-being of the animal.They should only be done if absolutely necessary, if at all, and in the most gentle and careful way to avoid suffering of the animal.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - CZ PRO-BIO Standards 2004 PRO-BIO Standards do not allow dehorning by cauterizing.(PB Standards: Sec. II, Chapter 3, Part 4) PRO-BIO Standards are more detailed as they prohibit a specific method. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify the methods of dehorning. Annex I/B: 6.1.2. names only the reasons and conditions for such operations. Ethically non-acceptable methods may not be used in organic farming according PRO-BIO Standards.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Appropriate and careful handling of the animals and regular care is required. Horns cannot be removed by means of cauterising. Tail-docking for cattle and pigs, prophylactic cutting of pigs`teeth, nose rings or clamps and trimming of beaks is prohibited. Further physical operations may not be realised systematically. Hens during the laying pause must have at least 5 hours of daylight. (Bioland production standards, 4.3 Dealing with animals, 4.3.1 General; Bioland production standards, 4.3.2 Measures in the business)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the majority of the above mentioned physical operations, under the condition that they are not executed systematically, but some of the operations can be admitted for reasons of health, animal welfare, safety or hygiene and they must be carried out in an appropriate way. Nothing is mentioned within the EU Regulation about hens during the laying pause. Good care is essential for the well-being of the animals. Physical operations must be avoided wherever possible and this is why many operations commonly applied in conventional animal husbandry are prohibitted. The animals must be able to execute their natural behaviour (i.e.: digging into the earth is an important element of the natural behaviour of pigs, which is made impossible by the application of nose rings).
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Dehorning of animals and dehorned animals are not permitted on the farm. In well-justified cases, an exemption may be approved by the respective organisation but must be reviewed annually . (DI production standards, 5.4.1. Cattle management; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 9)
The DI standard is more demanding but less detailed. The EU Regulation is more precisely indicating the circumstances of dehorning: According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 systematic dehorning of animals is not allowed but can be done for a couple of reasons (security, health, animal welfare or hygiene) and under certain conditions (done by qualified personnel and at an appropriate age of the animal). Furthermore EU Regulation does not prohibit the presence of dehorned animals on the farm. In practice (in Germany) very few cases for the dehorning of single animals have been approved on Demeter farms, while regular dehorning of cattle is common on organic farms. The horns of ruminants have significance for the development of life forces. They provide an opposing balance of forces to the intensive digestion and absorption processes. They are a part of the total being of the cow. In comparison to other animal types, cattle manure has a particularly stimulating effect on soil fertility. The horns also have a large significance as a sheath in the production of the Biodynamic preparations.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - FI Governmenal Regulation on organic animal production 2000 Castration of pigs is forbidden after the age of 7 days. This standard is more precise than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Some of the treatments (attaching elastic bands to the tails of sheep, tail-docking, cutting of teeth, trimming of beaks) mentioned in Annex I B 6.1.2 are not allowed according to the Finnish animal protection law (396/1996):
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - FI Governmenal Regulation on organic animal production 2000 Teeth grinding of male piglets is only allowed in the case of teat biting and until the age of 8 days. This standard is more precise than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Some of the treatments (attaching elastic bands to the tails of sheep, tail-docking, cutting of teeth, trimming of beaks) mentioned in Annex I B 6.1.2 are not allowed according to the Finnish animal protection law (396/1996.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - FI Governmenal Regulation on organic animal production 2000 De-horning of calves is forbidden after the age of 8 weeks. This standard is more precise than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Some of the treatments (attaching elastic bands to the tails of sheep, tail-docking, cutting of teeth, trimming of beaks) mentioned in Annex I B 6.1.2 are not allowed according to the Finnish animal protection law (396/1996.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - UK Compendium 2005 Although practices involving mutilations such as tail docking and dehorning should not be systematically practised on organic farms, inspection bodies may authorise such practices to benefit the health, hygiene or welfare of livestock, or for safety reasons. All such operations should be recorded in the Livestock Health Plan, and they should be carried out by qualified staff with the minimum possible suffering for the animals. UK Compendium, Annex IB, Paragraph 6.1.2. The UK Compendium standards on operations involving animal mutilations, such as tail docking or dehorning, are identical to the EU Regulation 2092/91 except for their additional requirement to record the operations in the Livestock Health Plan, which is itself a separate requirement set out in UK Compendium, Paragraph 2.1.2. (see the relevant difference item). EU Regulation contains no separate requirement for a Livestock Health Plan, so it cannot include a requirement to include any specific operations in this health plan. The UK Compendium requires all operations affecting livestock health and welfare to be recorded in the Livestock Health Plan, not only those involving mutilations. The requirement is mentioned again specifically in Paragraph 6.1.2. to ensure clarity and enforceability.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Soil Association standards include a number of detailed requirements and restrictions relating to operations involving physical mutilation of different classes of livestock. Soil Association standards allow the disbudding or castration of calves, and the tail docking or castration of sheep and goats, on condition that these practices are justified for welfare reasons. Soil Association standards require such operations to be detailed in the animal health plan, and in this latter requirement, they comply with UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Paragraph 6.1.2. Disbudding of calves is permitted only up to 3 months old and castration of calves only to 2 months. Use of a rubber ring for the castration of calves, and for the castration or tail docking of sheep and goats, is permitted without anaesthetic only within the first week of life, after which, anaesthetic is required. For tail docking or castration of sheep and goats, the burdizzo method is permitted up to 6 weeks old, and use of a hot iron is permitted between 3 and 6 weeks old. Castration of pigs is permitted only with Soil Association permission in exceptional circumstances, and castrated pigs may not be sold as organic. Deer antlers may be removed only with Soil Association permission, which will only be given on grounds of safety or welfare, and in any case, not when the antlers are in velvet. No other mutilating operations are permitted in Soil Association standards. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 11.5.12 - 11.5.15, 12.2.1, 12.2.2, 13.2.2, 14.3.2 and 20.5.4.)
Soil Association standards contain detailed rules that EU Regulation 2092/91 explicitly permits inspection bodies to set. The Soil Association rules on livestock mutilating operations are designed to minimise animal welfare problems in the context of the culture and conditions in which livestock are kept in the UK. The aim is to allow only those types of mutilation that are widely practised in UK agriculture and only if they can be carried out without excessive pain and can be justified on the grounds of animal welfare. The rules are detailed for each class of livestock by the Soil Association standards, which is enabled by the discretion permitted for inspection bodies within the EU Regulation.
Livestock management, rearing, calves - CZ PRO-BIO Standards 2004 Calves must stay with their mother for at least 24 hours after birth. (PB Standards Part II, Chapter 3. 5) No similar paragraph is quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Ethically non-aceptable methods may not be used in organic farming according PRO-BIO Standards.
Livestock management, tethering - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
When animals are tethered (exceptions can be approved by BIOLAND for a limited period of time), they must be able to stand up, lie down, eat and clean themselves in accordance with their natural behaviour appropriate to the species. Electrical cow trainers are prohibited.
The BIOLAND standard is similar but slightly more detailed. The EU Regulation does not explicitly refer to the characterics of tethering devices, nor prohibit the use of electrical cow trainers. However, it requires that tethering is executed in line with animal welfare requirements with comfortably littered areas, as well as individual management and regular exercise. Cow trainers are not mentioned. To enable natural behaviour appropriate to the species in livestock housing.
Livestock management, tethering - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Tethering of cattle is possible during winter time in buildings which already existed before 24 August 2000, until 31st December 2010 and in small farms, provided that regular exercise is provided and rearing takes place in line with animal welfare requirements with comfortably littered areas as well as individual management.
The French regulation limits the tethering of cattle to the winter season, whereas in the EU Regulation 2092/91 this is not specified. There is no reason to tether cattle indoors when weather conditions allow them to go out.
Livestock management, tethering - Nature et Progrès Standards 2002
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Certain kinds of indoor tethering are forbidden. It must not be too tight : the animal must still be able to make certain movements. For example, "dutch" tethering system is not allowed.
Nature et Progrès standards forbid certain kind of tethering, whereas the EU does not differentiate between different kinds of tethering. Certain kinds of tethering are not compatible with animal welfare.
Livestock management, tethering - UK Compendium 2005 Defra do not allocate the paragraph that would correspond with the EU Regulation derogation on cattle tethering in older buildings. EU Regulations allow a derogation for livestock enterprises with older buildings, which were designed for the housing of tethered cattle, to continue the practice of tethering until the end of 2010, providing that certain conditions be met regarding the animals welfare. The UK Compendium contains no such derogation. This derogation on cattle tethering would be a redundant feature of UK organic standards. In the EU Regulation, it is included to give time for changes in husbandry practice and for the depreciation of the value of livestock housing built before the tethering prohibition was introduced. No such buildings have existed in UK for a long time, and animal housing is mostly in cubicles or loose houses.
Livestock management, tethering - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Livestock must neither be housed permanently nor tethered for prolonged periods. Flooring in livestock houses must not have more than 50% slatted area. Permission is required for the tethering of animals for special circumstances such as for shows, welfare, safety or for short periods. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 10.12.4 and 10.12.5. Soil Association standards omit certain derogations permitted within EU Regulation. EU Regulation allows a derogation for livestock enterprises with older buildings, which were designed for the housing of tethered cattle, to continue the practice of tethering until the end of 2010, providing that certain conditions be met regarding the animals welfare. EU Regulation has a further derogation that allows cattle in small holdings, where they cannot be kept in groups appropriate to their behaviour requirements, to be tethered with access to open areas only twice per week. Soil Association standards do not allow any prolonged tethering, and require their permission to be sought even for tethering for short periods or for welfare or safety purposes. In omitting the derogation for tethering in older buildings, Soil Association standards comply with the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 6.1.5, but the UK Compendium, Annex 1B, Paragraph 6.1.6 includes the derogation for smallholdings, which Soil Association standards do not. Cattle are rarely kept tethered in UK smallholdings, and buildings have not been designed for tethering, so there is no need for the Soil Association to provide similar derogations to the EU Regulation. However, some flexibility is provided requiring permission for tethering in certain circumstances.
Livestock management, tethering, age restrictions - CZ PRO-BIO 2004 Livestock must be older than one year before tethering is permitted. (PB Standards Sec. II, Chapter 3, Part 3.2) Keeping livestock tethered in organic farming is generally forbidden by EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I/B: 6.1.4, 6.1.5., 6.1.6 quoted exceptions are not limited by livestock´s age. PRO-BIO does not allow exceptions for livestock younger than one year. Ethical non-aceptable methods may not be used in organic farming according to PRO-BIO Standards.
Livestock management, tethering, methods - CZ PRO-BIO 2004 PRO-BIO Standards lists methods which cannot be used (throat frames, stretch chains, belts) for animal tethering. (PB Standards Sec. II, Chap. 3, Part 3.3) EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I/B (6) does not specify methods, which can or cannot be used to tether the livestock. PRO-BIO is more detailed as it specifies the methods which are permitted. Ethically non-aceptable methods may not be used in organic farming according to PRO-BIO Standards.
Livestock mangement, general requirements, rabbits - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The NATURLAND rules for rabbits cover aspects such as the size of the group, size and configuration of the run, outdoor access and feeding. (NL standards on production, Part B.II: 1.8 Rabbits 2.7 Rabbit fodder)
The NATURLAND standard is more extensive. Husbandry of rabbits is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide clear and detailed rules for any significant type of agriculture / food production.
Livestock mangement, general requirements, rabbits - SP CRAE-MAPA Rules 1999
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The organic rabbits standards approved by the old Spanish Council for the Organic Farming Regulation (CRAE) cover aspects such as the size of the grouping, conversion period, outdoor access and feeding and other issues to prevent diseases. This organic standards are being applied in all the regions in Spain.
The governmental CRAE-MAPA regulation includes standards for organic rabbit breeding. There are no such specific standards in the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide clear and detailed rules for any significant type of agriculture / food production.
Livestock manure, fertilizers, intensity and import The maximum application of Nitrogen in livestock manure is 140 kg total N per hectare per plan period (August 1 - July 31) and a maximum of 50 % of the Nitrogen (70 kg total N/hectare) may be conventional manure or other fertilizers listed in Annex 1 according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Section 3.4: Fertilisers and soil improvers. According to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Section 3.4: Fertilisers and soil improvers, the maximum application of Nitrogen in livestock manure is 140 kg total-N per hectare per plan period (August 1 - July 31). Maximum 50 % of the Nitrogen (70 kg total N/hectare) may be from conventional manure or other fertilizers in Annex I A. Besides, there are general limits (also for conventional farms) for the application of N to various crops depending on soil type and previous crop. According to the EEC 2092/91 Regulation, Annex I B, Article 7.1 the total amount of manure applied on the agricultural land of a holding may not exceed 170 kg N per hectare per year in accordance with Directive 91/676/EEC. There are no restrictions on the application of conventional manure or other fertilisers mentioned in Annex I A within this limit. The lower limit of 140 kg total N/ha has been set due to environmental concerns and studies showing that the legumes in the rotation, which are not accounted for in the calculation of total N-application, may deliver a considerable contribution to the nitrogen input. The requirement that maximum 50 % of the total N may come from conventional manure is set to reduce the dependency on conventional farming and to reduce the risk of contamination of the soil.
Livestock physical operations/mutilations - FI Governmental Regulation on organic animal production 2000
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Castration of pigs is forbidden after the age of 7 days. Furthermore some mutilations; attaching elastic bands to the tails of sheep, tail-docking, cutting of teeth, trimming of beaks) mentioned in Annex I B 6.1.2 are not allowed according to the Finnish animal protection law.
The Finnish Guidelines are more precise as they list the physical operations/mutilations, which are not allowed whereas the EU Regulation in Article 6.1.2. allow operations such as attaching elastic bands to the tails of sheep, tail-docking, cutting of teeth, trimming of beaks and dehorning if they are not be carried out systematically in organic farming. Some of these operations may, however, be authorised by the inspection authority or body, for reasons of safety (for example dehorning in young animals) or if they are intended to improve the health, welfare or hygiene of the livestock. Some of the treatments (attaching elastic bands to the tails of sheep, tail-docking, cutting of teeth, trimming of beaks) are not allowed according to the Finnish animal protection law (396/1996)
Manure fertilizers and compost - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Farmyard manure and compost should be derived from own organic operation or from other extensive farms.
In general the list of fertilizers is comparable with the EU Regulation 2092/91. Some fertilizers of the EU list are restricted in the positive list of the Swiss Ordinance (e.g. guano) No justification was available.
Manure fertilizers, application - FI Luomuliitto Standards for "Leppäkerttu" quality label 2004 It is required that all animal manure used for growing products intended directly for human consumption must be composted. There is no such requirement in the EU Regulation No. 2092/91. Composting of the manure is regarded as important in the eyes of the consumers.
Manure fertilizers, application - FR Nature et Progres Standards 2002
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Farmers have to compost animal manure for three months before using it as fertilizer.
Nature et Progres standards requires the composting of manure whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Using animal manure without composting may result in high levels of nitrogen on the fields that can pollute water stocks or create disorders in plants' growth. Using manure without composting may also contaminate fields with germs and parasites.
Manure fertilizers, application - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
US requires composting of manure unless it is applied to land used for a crop not intended for human consumption or it is applied 90/120 days prior harvest of a product for human consumption (depending on whether the edible portion has direct contact to the soil or not)
EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that the quantity of manure applied annually may not exceed 170 kg of nitrogen/year/ha; US does not. US sets restrictions on the time between application of raw manure and the harvest of crops for human consumption; this is not addressed by EU. EU requires controlled fermentation and or appropriate dilution of slurry/urine; US sets restrictions only if applied on land used for a crop intended for human consumption. EU sets specific requirements for the capacity of manure storage facilities; US does not. EU requires consideration of the source of manure allowing manure from organic production units and regulating the amount of manure from conventional sources. EU prohibits manure from "factory farms" (but still allows from "extensive husbandry" under certain conditions). US does not address manure source. Raw manure contributes significant benefits to soil nutrient, structure, and biological activity that other soil fertility practices and materials do not provide. The responsibility to use raw manure in a manner that is protective of human health applies to all producers, whether organic or not, who apply such materials. USDA acknowledged the commenters who noted that the OFPA cites food safety concerns relative to manure use and, therefore, that food safety considerations should be reflected in the practice standard for applying raw manure in the final rule.
Manure fertilizers, application, vegetables and herbs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Farmyard manure as fertilizers may not be applied as top fertilization to plants cultivated as vegetables being used as blossom or leaves or herbs between cultivation and harvest. Only for herbs compost from farmyard manure is allowed during vegetation.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it requires in addition to the limit of 170 kg N/ha a restriction for fertilization with farmyard manure to vegetables during the vegetation period. Quality and hygienic reasons for consumer protection.
Manure fertilizers, application, vegetables/herbs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Farmyard manure as fertilizers may not be applied as top fertilization to plants cultivated as vegetables, being used as blossom, or leaves or herbs between cultivation and harvest. Compost from farmyard manure iduring vegetation is only allowed for herbs. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.1, 4.1.3)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 annex I as it requires, in addition to the limit of 170 kg N/ha, for organic manure a restriction to fertilization with farmyard manure to vegetables during the vegetation period. Quality and hygienic reasons for consumer protection.
Manure fertilizers, composting - US NOP 2002 Provision for compost (§205.203, (2)): Composted plant and animal materials produced through a process that (i) established an initial C:N ratio of between 25:1 and 40:1; and (ii) maintained a temperature of between 131 F and 170 F for 3 days using an in-vessel or static aerated pile system; or (iii) maintained a temperature of between 131F and 170F for 15 days using a windrow composting system, during which period, the materials must be turned a minimum of five times. US requires composting of manure (with three exceptions where application of raw manure is acceptable). US defines 'compost' and sets requirements for composition, time, temperature, and number of times that it must be turned. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include regulations for composting, other than allowing the use of plant-based and other biological preparations. US allows micro-organisms and other biological amendments unless specifically prohibited. An organic producer using a composted material containing manure must comply with the nutrient cycling and soil and water conservation provisions in his or her organic system plan but is not constrained by the restrictions that apply to raw manure. Therefore, producers intending to apply soil amendments will require clear and verifiable criteria to differentiate raw manure from composted material. USDA developed the requirements in the final rule for producing an allowed composted material by integrating standards used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USDAs Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS).
Manure fertilizers, export - CH Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Export of manure can only occur to farms, which also comply with the maximum level of not more than 2.5 LSU/ha (Livestock units/ha). Purchase contracts for farmyard manure are only possible between holdings which provide the ecological services laid down in the Swiss Ordinance on Direct Payments of 7 December 1998 (ODP).
While the Swiss Ordinance excludes intensive stocking rates by strictly limiting manure exports from the farm, EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the manure used on the own farm to 170kgN/ha: Excessive manure can be exported to organic farms which also comply with the limit of not more than 170kgN/ha. By these means, the goal of closed circles in organic farming of self-sufficiency with fodder and nutrients can be reached.
Manure fertilizers, export - CH Swiss Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Export of manure can only occur to farms which also comply with the maximum level of not more than 2.5 LSU/ha (Livestock units/ha). Purchase contracts for farmyard manure are only possible between holdings which provide the ecological services laid down in the Swiss Ordinance on Direct Payments of 7 December 1998 (ODP).
While the Swiss Ordinance excludes intensive stocking rates by strictly limiting manure exports from the farm, EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the manure used on the own farm to 170kgN/ha. If manure is exported, the farm receiving the manure must also not exceed the limit of 170kgN/ha. The Swiss Ordinance intends to keep the stocking rate on each organic operation to an less-intensive level (not more than 2.5 LSU/ha). By these means, the goal of closed circles in organic farming, with self-sufficiency of fodder and nutrients can be reached.
Manure fertilizers, export - SI Rules 2003
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
SI Rules 2003 foresee a possibility of co-operation of an organic holding with other holdings in order to spread surplus manure. Further there are no specific demands related to the storage facilities for livestock manure in SI Rules.
SI Rules state that organic-production holdings may establish co-operation with other agricultural holdings with the intention of providing areas for the use of organic fertilizers, are more specific whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 only speaks about establishing such co-operation with the intention of spreading surplus manure from organic production (EU Regulation Annex I. B 7.). SI Rules do not describe the demands related to storage facilities for livestock manure as EU regulation does in Annex I. B 7.6.-7.7. Re storage facilities: The requirements for manure storage being identical to those in EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I. B 7.6.-7.7. are in Slovenia a part of other national regulations.
Manure fertilizers, general principles - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The basis of fertilization is the spreading of the farms own manure to support soil life and increase the humus content. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.1 Basic Principles)
The BIOLAND standard requires own manure basis for each farm, while there is no recommendation in the EU Regulation 2092/91 to have own manure as a basis of fertilization. The aim is to ensure the recycling of organic matter on the farm and build up a sustainable system to maintain and increase soil fertility.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The amount of nitrogen and phosphorous input per hectare is strictly limited, in general to max 2.5 LSU/ha or less depending on the crops.
Limits for the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus provided by different means of fertilisation are restricted by Bio Suisse; for different crops specific limits apply - whereas the sum of phosphorus applied by fertilisation is taken into consideration as well as nitorgen levels. The EU Regulation 2092/91 sets general limits for ferilisation intensity only for nitrogen: maximum application per yeare is 170kg nitrogen/ha. In order to avoid excessive use of fertilizers and successive contamination of the environment by leached nutrients, BIO SUISSE limits use of both nitrogen and phosphorous to effective levels required by crops.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The amount of nutrient input must be justified by soil quality and crop requirements: evidence must be provided on the levels of nutrients used on the farm. In no case should rate of nutrient application exceed 2.5 LSU/ha.
Limits for fertilizer use are restricted not only for farmyard manure, but for the combination of all fertilizers used on the farm. Levels must not exceed the needs of the individual crops. The EU Regulation 2092/91 limits farmyard manure and commercial nutrients to a maximum of 170kg/ha, but does not differentiate individual needs of the crops. In order to avoid excessive use of fertilizers and successive contamination of the environment by leached nutrients, Swiss Ordinance limits the nutrient input to the effective levels required by the respective crops.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - CZ PRO-BIO The basis of good fertilization is using on farm manure and its proper application. Standards allow the purchase 50 kg N/ha/year. The whole total amount of organic fertilizers is 110 kg N/ha/year, and for perennial crops 90 kg N/ha/year. Pro-Bio Standards are more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91, Annex I /B 7, where the use of farmyard manure may not be higher than 170 kg N/ha/year. Closed nutrient cycling, environment protection. An effort to limit only plant production without animal husbandry at farms.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The application of fertilisers in agricultural production is restricted to 112 kg N/ha/year, being equivalent to 1,4 dung units/ha/year. A maximum of 0.5 DU/ha/year may be imported from outside the farm. Other numbers are indicated for specific production systems such as vegetable production in greenhouses (up to 330 kg nitrogen), orchards (up to 90 kg N), viticulture (150 kg N in three years but not more than 70 kg N in one year), hop cultivation (70 kg N), tree nurseries (90 kg N). In operations without animal husbandry the nitrogen supply must come from legume cropping, but the quantities needed in addition can be brought in in the form of other allowed nitrogen fertilisers. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.4 Quantity Limitation; Bioland production standards, 5 Horticulture and Permanent Crops; Bioland production standards, 5.1 Vegetable production, 5.1. Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.5. Fruit growing, 5.5.2 Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.6 Viticulture, 5.6.1 Soil Care, Greening and Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.4 Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.1 Fertilising and Soil Care
The BIOLAND standard is setting precise upper limits for nitrogen input in different cropping systems . The amount of farm yard manure allowed by the EU Regulation 2092/91 is restricted to 170 kg N/ha and year without stating a general restriction for other types of commercial fertilizers or specific production systems. Fertilising is to be designed in conformity with the location and the crops involved in such a way that the quality of the products (physiological nutritional value, taste, imperishability) may not be detrimentally affected in particular by the amount of nitrogenous fertiliser. In regard to the type, the amount and the time of application of fertiliser, care must be taken to avoid placing loads on the soil and the water (e.g. through heavy metals and nitrates).
Manure fertilizers, intensity - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The use of fertilizers is restricted. The total amount of fertilizers applied may in general not exceed the equivalent of 1.4 du/ha/year (112 kg N and 98 kg P2O5). In accordance with the NATURLAND extension services and related to the results of soil analyses and the specific demand of the crop, more than 110 kg N/ha and year can be applied in greenhouses. For perennials (including orchards), shrubs and christmas trees the limit is 90 kg N/ha/year. In viticulture only 150 kg/N/ha in three years is allowed, while in the latter the amount of one year may not exceed 70 kg N/ha. The amount of bought in fertilizers is limited with 0.5 DU/ha and year (40 kg N). (NL standards on production: Part B.I.Plant production, 1.Humus management and fertilization; Part B.III. Market gardening 1; Part B. V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees 1; Part B. Fruit cultivation 1; Part B. Viniculture and wine production 2; Part B. Permanent tropical plantations 1.)
The NL standard is very differentiated in limiting the amount of manure which can be applied for different types of crop production. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the amount of fertilizer (animal manure) is limited to 170 kg N/ha/year without any explicit limit for the amount of commercial fertilizers bought in. Fertilization shall primarily support the accumulation of humus complexes in the soil. The amount of fertilizer is to assure the activity of the soil in the long run. Over-fertilization shaould be avoided. The organic production is directly linked to the natural conditions and production capacities of the site.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Manure application rates should be at levels that do not contribute to ground and/or surface water contamination. The competent authority may establish maximum application rates for manure or stocking densities. The timing of application and application methods should not increase the potential for run-off into ponds, rivers and streams.
Whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 strictly limits the input of farmyard manure to a maximum level of 170kgN/ha, CODEX Alimentarius Guidelines does not set any limits for the level of nutrient input but leaves this up to the competent authorities. As the Codex Guidelines are a guidance for national regulations it does not make sense to set a maximum limit which would be applicable everywhere in the world.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - NL Skal Standard 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
At least 20% of the manure used in organic farming has to be from organic farming. SKAL has set a maximum norm of 135 kg N/ha/ year conventional farmyard manure and a total maximum of 170 kg N/ha/year, 35 kg N/ha/year has to be of organic farming origin.
With regard to the use of farmyard manure SKAL sets lower limits for manure from conventional origin, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 only mentions "Need recognized by the inspection body or inspection authority, Indication of animal species." It is important to set a norm for the maximum amount of conventional farmyard manure, since organic farmers tend to use this a lot, because of the lower price. The Regulation has not defined it specifically, stating that there is not enough organic manure at the moment. There has to be a defined way to ensure that organic manure is used first.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and export - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The aim is to create the operation as an organism, which is a closed circle of nutrients and crop and fodder production - neither fodder nor fertilisers should be imported or exported. The operation is expected to be balanced in this regard. If at all, manure can only be exported to other organic units complying with the maximum stocking rate. For transporting manure the maximum distance of the Bio Suisse regulation is applied, which requires not more than 20-80km transport distance depending on the kind of manure.
DEMETER is striving for a balanced autonomous operation based on own fodder and fertilizer production (excessive manure does not occur in these operations). EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the farm yard manure used on the own farm to 170kg N/ha, if manure is exported this can be done to another organic unit, not exceeding the limit fo 170kg N/ha and year. The balance between farmyard manure produced on the own farm and the nutrients required by plant production is essential for a sound and sustainable organic production method. The need of manure export does not occur on DEMETER farms - the opposite is more often the case.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and import - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Imported organic farm yard manures may not exceed 50% of the quantity which is needed for the crops on farm. Commercial mineral and organic fertilizers are accepted but restricted according to their quality and origin and should undergo composting.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the import of commercial fertilizers. It only limits the application of farm yard manure to 170kgN/ha. DEMETER does limit this application to the LSU equivalent that could be fed on the farms own fodder basis. DEMETER also limits the distance for transporting farm yard manure. Own animal husbandry is an important factor in a farm organism as definied by DEMETER. The lack of own animals should not be underlined by importing manures: instead own animal husbandry should be established. Furthermore, imported fertilizers can only be applied if used in combination with composted or prepared animal fertilizers.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and import - CH Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The source of brought-in manures is restricted by the positive list of admitted fertilizers in organic farming. For the export of manure of more than 1 LSU/year, a contract must exist with the farm receiving this manure. This farm must be managed according ecological principles and must not exceed adequate nutrient limits as set by the legislation.
Import of farm yard manure and compost can only occur if a contract exists with the exporting farm and nutrient needs of crops are not exceeded (evidence must be provided by calculation). EU Regulation 2092/91 also requires that farm yard manure is exported to an organic farm and all farms involved in the cooperation must comply with the nutrient limit of max 170kgN/ha. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced nor applied
Manure fertilizers, origin - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Farm yard manure must originate from organic farms. If not available from organic farms, not more than 50% of the necessary N and P205 may origin from non-organic farms, which are managed according the integrated production standard and additional ecological requirements as defined by Swiss ordinance. However at least 50% of manure produced on the farm must be used on farm. If farm yard manure is sold to other farms, these must be certified organic farms. The distance for transporting manure and slury is restricted to 20 - 80 km depending on the kind of manure.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the export of farm yard manure to other farms as long the limit of 170kgN/ha among organic farms is respected; it only restricts the maximum stocking rate to an equivalent of 170 kg N/ha. No limits for transporting distances for manure to other farms are foreseen in the EU Regulation. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self-sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced.
Manure fertilizers, origin - CH Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The source of brought-in manures is restricted by the positive list of admitted fertilizers in organic farming. For export of manure from the own operation of more than 1 LSU/year, a contract must exist with the farm receiving this manure. This farm must be managed according ecological principles and can not exceed adequate nutrient limits as set by the legislation.
Import of farm yard manure and compost can only occur if a contract exists with the exporting farm and nutrient needs of crops are not exceeded (evidence must be provided by calculation). The EU REgulation 2092/91 limits the nutrient input of farm yard manures to 170kgN/ha in general: this limit applies for the exporting farm as well as for the receiving organic farm. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced nor applied
Manure fertilizers, origin - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Manure from beef cattle in slatted floor boxes, conventional pig production, battery hens and caged fur animals are not permitted as fertilizers. There are exceptions for pig production with less then 50 animals a year and when the animals are kept in big boxes with straw bedding. There is also an exception for producers with beef cattle in slatted floors or conventional pig production which can use the manure from the conventional animals if they at the same time start to convert the animal husbandry to organic (KRAV standards paragraph 4.3.3).
In the EU Regulation 2092/91 the use of manure from ‘factory farming’ is not allowed. The KRAV standards are stricter than the Swedish interpretation of ‘factory farming’ in the EU Regulation. If the KRAV standards are stricter than the other countries it is not possible to assess the interpretations as the interpretations are not official.
Manure fertilizers, slurry - CZ PRO-BIO Standards 2004 Slurry and poultry excrements from conventional farming are prohibited. EU Regulation 2092/91, Annex II/A permits the use of slurry and poultry excrement if it is sourced from extensive animal husbandry. Manure originating from ethically non-aceptable breeding/husbandry systems, may not be used in organic farming according PRO-BIO Standards.
Manure fertilizers, stocking rate - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The maximum stocking density for animals is limited to the equivalent of 1.4 animal unit/ha, which corresponds to 112 kgN/ha and 98 kg P2O5/ha. (Bioland production standards, 4.4 Animal Density and Purchase of Additional Feedstuffs, 4.4.1 General; Bioland production standards, 10.3 Calculation of Animal Stock per Hectare)
The BIOLAND standard is more restrictive. The maximum animal stocking density per ha is lower in terms of kg N/ha than that allowed by the EU Regulation 2092/91 (170 kg N/ha). However both numbers are interpreted to be equivalent of two cows by the EU Regulation as well as by the BIOLAND Association. In fact the stocking density for cattle is the same, but it is lower for laying hens (140 instead of 230 animals/ha), broilers (280 instead of 580 animals/ha) and fattening pigs (10 instead of 14 animals/ha). The animal production must be adapted to the conditions of the site (capacitiy to produce animal feed and to use animal manure on the land).
Manure fertilizers, stocking rate - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The maximum stocking density for a NATURLAND farm is calculated by the equivalent of 1,4 dung units (equivalent to 112 kg N/ha and 98 kg P2O5/ha). (NL standards on production, Part B.II. Livestock production and Appendix 4)
The NATURLAND standard is more restrictive. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the maximum stocking rate is an equivalent of 170 kg N/ha (approx. 2.9 du/ha). To limit the input of nitrogen.
Meat, tenderising methods - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 The use of tenderising substances on live animals is prohibited. Electrical tenderisation of meat may be used with Soil Association permission. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 42.8.7 and 42.10.6. Soil Association standards are more detailed than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards prohibit the use of tenderising substances on live animals, but they allow the use of electrical tenderisation of meat, with their permission. EU Regulation does not refer to procedures for the tenderisation of meat. Introduction of tenderising enzymes into the vascular systems of animals before slaughter is an invasive technique with potential welfare problems.
Milk for offspings - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005 Specific lievestock rations should take into account the need of young mammals for natural and preferably maternal milk (Annex I B 16) The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires a minimal time period of suckling before weaning, whereas CODEX rules the matter in a more general way. No justification was available.
Milk for offspings - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Calves, lambs and kids should be allowed to suckle for at least the full colostrum period and then get their own kind of animals unprocessed KRAV-certified milk. Organic milk from other species can be used for motherless animals. If that is not possible unprocessed conventional milk can be used. In emergencies milk powder can be used, but if this is more then 30% of the daily feed intake a 12 month conversion time is required. The producer has to document all use of milk from other species, conventional milk and milk substitutes. Calves which do not suckle should be given the opportunity to suck in a natural position through an artificial teat (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.16 – 5.3.18).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 4.5 states that the feeding of young mammals must be based on natural milk, preferably maternal milk, though there are no requirements that animals should suckle. The KRAV standards require organic milk, in the normal case from the own species. The first days of suckling are important as the offspring gets the mothers micro flora together with the milk. That gives a protection against diseases. The requirement that calves shall suckle in a natural position even if hand reared is based on research showing that the milk ends up in the right stomach when suckling from above instead of drinking from a bucket below.
Milk for offsprings - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Young mammals must be fed with natural milk, preferably mother's milk. All mammals must be fed with natural milk during a minimum period of time.
BIO SUISSE and EU Regulation 2092/91 regulate the feeding of milk similarly. BIO SUISSE is less strict for the duration of feeding milk for the species sheep and goats (only 35 days compared to 45 days for sheep and goat in the EU Regulation). The immune system of the young mammals is strengthened by antibodies contained in the mothers milk. Via interaction of the young mammals with the udder the immune system of the mother may even respond to infections of the young animals and release adequate antibodies with the milk.
Milk for offsprings - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Young mammals must be fed with maternal milk: bovines/bubalus and equines 3 months, sheep and goats 35 days, pigs 40 days.
Swiss Ordinance and EU Regulation 2092/91 regulate the feeding of milk similarly. The Swiss Ordinance is less strict for the duration of feeding milk for the species sheep and goats (only 35 days compared to 45 days for sheep and goat in the EU Regulation). No justification could be given by the standards owners.
Milk for offsprings - Int IFOAM Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Young stock from mammals should be provided with maternal milk or organic milk from their own species, and should be only weaned after a minimum time that takes into account the natural behaviour of the relevant animal species. Operators may provide non-organic milk when organic milk is not available. (5.6.8 )
EU Regulation 2092/91 requires strict limits before weaning, whereas IFOAM rules the matter in a more general way. The immune system of the calve is strengthened by antibodies contained in the mothers milk. Via interaction of the calves salvia with the udder the immune system of the mother may even respond to infections of the calve and release adequate antibodies with the milk.
Milk for offsprings - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Calves shall be able to suckle for at least 3 days after birth. During shorter suckling periods than 1 month, calves shall drink from a teat until they are 1 month old.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 is not as precise on this specific area. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not set minimum periods for calves allowing suckling mother milk. Stimulating the suck reflex for calves will ensure the milk is taken up the best way and is important for development.
Milk for offsprings, held-back milk - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
When milk which has been held back as a result of treatment with antibiotics or chemically-synthesised veterinary medicine, cannot be used as feed for organic animals before the fifth day following the treatment. Feeding milk which has been kept back after this period is considered as organic feed portion. From 1 month before slaughter, no animals must be fed with milk that has been held back.
EU Regulation 2092/91 has no details on this specific area, what has to be done with milk when animals have been treated with antibiotics The EU regulation 2092/91 has no details on this specific area, and farmers were asking for clarification.
Milk for offsprings, lambs - CZ KEZ Standards 2005 Minimal weaning period (mother-milk-feeding) for lambs is 56 days. (KEZ Standards, Chapter rearing of livestock, 9.4) KEZ Standards require a longer weaning period than EU Regulation 2092/91. According to Annex I/B 4 the minimum period during when a lamb must be fed with natural (mother) milk is only 45 days. The standard-setting body could not give a justification.
Mushroom production, innoculum - DE Bioland standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Mushroom brood (Inoculum) must come from BIOLAND certified companies with preference, or at least from other certified organic origin. Cereals for the production of brood must be of BIOLAND or at least organic origin. (Bioland production standards, 5.4.4 Mushroom brood)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate the sources or quality of inoculum. To ensure BIOLAND / organic qualtiy throughout the whole production chain.
Mushroom production, not regulated - US NOP 2002 NOP does not have any provisions on mushroom production. NOP does not have any provisions on mushroom production. The EU Regulation 2092/91 has provisions. The NOP intends to provide standards for categories where the Act provides the authority to promulgate standards. NOP announced its intent to publish for comments certification standards for mushrooms. These standards will be build upon the existing final rule and will address only the unique requirements necessary to certify these specialized operations.
Mushroom production, protective measures - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Substrate can only be disinfected using thermal processes. For the disinfection of equipment only alcohol or acetic acid can be used. The application of pyrethrum is not allowed in mushroom production. (Bioland production standards, 5.4.3 Disinfection and Plant Protection)
The BIOLAND standard has additional requirements than the EU Regulation 2092/91 which does not explicitly refer to the disinfection of substrate. Pyrethrum can be used against pests. The regulation regarding substances for cleaning and disinfection only refers to animal production facilities and equipment. To avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Mushroom production, substrate - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Substrates must consist of materials from BIOLAND certified farms or at least certified organic origin. Substrates other than of BIOLAND origin can only be used after approval by BIOLAND. Organic animal manure to be used as substrate component requires organic bedding material. In the case of conventional wood, the origin must be traceable and if needed an analysis completed to show its harmlessness. Peat is admissible as top layer. Mineral substrate components can be used, if listed in the corresponding annex (10.1.4.). (Bioland production standards, 5.4 Mushroom Production 5.4.1 Basic Principles; Bioland production standards, 5.4.2 Substrate; Bioland production standards, 10.1.4 Mineral Complementing Fertilisers)
The BIOLAND standard is more demanding. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 up to 25% of the substrate can consist of certain types of conventional animal manure, if these are not available in organic quality. This is not allowed according to the BIOLAND standards. To ensure BIOLAND / organic quality throughout the whole production chain and to avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Mushroom production, substrate and inoculum - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Inoculums and substrate materials of NATURLAND or equivalent certification must be used. If these are not available, materials from other certified organic origin can be purchased after approval. The use of certain disinfection agents during the productive period is prohibited. The empty facilities can be cleaned and disinfected with the substances listed in the appendix 8. (NL standards on production, Part B.IV. Mushroom cultivation)
The provisions are more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 and in some aspects shave additional requirements. The use of substrates is regulated in the corresponding annex of the EU Regulation where up to 25% of the substrate can consist of conventional animal manure if the components required are not available in organic quality. The use of inoculums and disinfection agents for mushroom production is not regulated in the EU Regulation. To ensure NATURLAND quality throughout the whole production chain, to avoid contamination with objectionable substances from conventional substrate material or from cleaning agents.
NL SKAL standards 2005: GENERAL AREAS OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE - Production cycle -crop rotation
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
An appropriate rotation programme is defined by SKAL as one in two main crops. This is specified for horticulture: For covered cropping the rotation is defined in rotation within a year, between the years and for situations of more than 2 cultivations a year.
The EEC-regulation has not defined appropriate crop rotation, whereas SKAL requires a rotation of 1 in 2. See EU rule text: "Annex I, part A, 2.1 a) cultivation of legumes, green manures or deep-rooting plants in an appropriate multi-annual rotation programme;" This rule is set for two-year rotation, only because this is needed for horticulture. Other farming systems require a 1 in 6 rotation, which could be included in the regulation
NL SKAL standards 2005: INSPECTION AND CERTIFCATION - Risk based inspection
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
In case of infringement, Skal uses a maximum period of 2 years where an operator cannot market his products as "orgnanic" anymore.
The maximum period is not defined in the EC regulation. See rule Text: "Article 9 part 9b): where a manifest infringement or an infringement with prolonged effects is found, prohibit the operator concerned from marketing products with indications referring to the organic production method for a period to be agreed with the competent authority of the Member State." Not relevant
Nature et Progres standards 2002: Area of poultry houses
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The area of poultry houses on each production site must not exceed 400 m2 for table birds and 800 m² for other species.
Nature et Progres standards limit the area of poultry houses. EC regulation does not. To limit the size is to limit the environmental pollution, noise and odour. It reduces the risks of sanitary problems. It is more acceptable for nearby residents.
Nature et Progrès standards 2001, Mature fruits
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Fruits should be harvested at maturity devlopment stage. Artificial or chemical ripening of the fruits after harvest is forbidden.
Nature et Progrès standards forbid artificial or chemical ripening of fruit after harvest. EC regulation allows it with certain ripening agents (e.g. use of ethylen). Fruits harvested at maturity make better products. Moreover, harvesting immature fruit to avoid problems during long distance transport or long time storage does not correspond with the spirit of organic agriculture.
Naturland 2005: Natural ressources and ecosystems
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The management of the farm may not cause damages to the soil, the water and primary ecosystems. (NL standards on production: Part B.I.4. Tillage Part B.I.6. Soil and water conservation)
The NATURLAND standard is much broader. This aspect is not regulated in the EC reg. This aspect refers to the ecological principle of organic farming. A diverse and balanced ecosystem and the care of natural resources is an important element of organic farming.
Nutrients, potted plants - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Half of the nutrients for potted plants and in greenhouses shall come from the soil (KRAV standards paragraph 4.7.4).
This is not regulated in EU Regulation 2092/91. It is the soil that should be fertilized and not the plants. This makes it impossible to grow in substrates with low biological activity.
ORGANIC PRODUCTION UNIT
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
3.2. The operator should convert the whole farm: if not the whole farm is converted, clear separation must be granted.
Similar as EC regulation, which allows also a split production with special restrictions.
Oeganic farmimg knowledge - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
NATURLAND operators are required to PROVE their organic farming knowledge and ability and take part in an introductionary seminar, organised by NATURLAND. (NL standards on production A.I.8.Approval)
NATURLAND Standards require operators to prove their organic farming knowledge and to take part in an introductary seminar, but the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require any proof of organic farming knowledge and ability of the farmer. This is to help farmers who want to convert and to avoid problems of approval caused by lack of knowledge or ability.
Origin of livestock, general requirements - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
KRAV standards state that animal husbandry should if possible be integrated animal production i.e. mother and off spring should be at the same unit. If animals are brought in they should preferably come from one other farm, the maximum is three farms per year. Pigs from different stocks or ages should not be mixed. Brought in pigs should be separated from other pigs at the farm for three weeks (KRAV standards paragraph 5.1.11 and 5.1.12)
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have restrictions on from where or the number of farms from which animals are brought in. Importing animals on to a farm brings associated risk for introducing disease, therefore buying in animals and the number of farms is restricted in the KRAV standards. Transporting animals and changing conditions always stresses animals.
Origin of livestock, general requirements - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Animals have to be preferentially brought in from BIOLAND certified farms or from other organic farms. If organic animals are not available, in certain cases conventional animals can be brought in after approval by BIOLAND. These animals have to pass the conversion period, before animal products can be offered with reference to organic farming and the BIOLAND trademark is used. Cattle, that have been born on conventional farms and reared with feeding stuffs, that are not permitted, can never be sold using the BIOLAND trademark. Young laying hens can only be brought into farms with more than 100 laying hens, if they have been reared in accordance with the BIOLAND provisions for pullet rearing. Conventional laying hens of up to 18 weeks can be brought into smaller units after approval. (Bioland production standards, 4.8 Additional Purchase of Animals, 4.8.1 Principles; Bioland production standards, 4.8.2 Possible permits for conventional purchase of animals, 4.8.2.1 - 4.8.2.6; Bioland production standards, 9.2.4 Use of Trade Mark for Animal Products, 9.2.4.1 Product related Conversion)
The BIOLAND standard is similar, but more restrictive in the case of young laying hens. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 laying hens of conventional origin of up to 18 weeks of life can be brought in if organic hens are not available. According to Bioland this is only possible after approval and for farms with more than 100 laying hens only if they have been reared according to specific pullet rearing provisions. To ensure the BIOLAND standards to be complied with troughout the whole production chain.
Origin of livestock, general requirements - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Animals must be purchased from NATURLAND certified or equivalent farms. Exceptions are possible. If animals from conventional farms are purchased, they have to pass the conversion period before animal products are marketed with reference to organic production. The purchase of young laying hens of conventional origin can only be admitted for small units with up to 100 laying hens. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.3.Purchased animals)
The NATURLAND standard is similar to EU Regulation 2092/91(derogations to bring in animals of conventional origin) but restrictions are more detailed regarding the purchasing of young conventional laying hens and by requiring a higher certification level of organic certification (NATURLAND or equivalent), if available. To aspire NATURLAND quality throughout the whole production chain.
Origin of livestock, general requirements - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Brought in animals must come from certified biodynamic or at least organic farms. Brought in organic animals must be converted to Demeter before being marketed with reference to the Demeter trademark. The import of conventional animals for breeding or herd expansion can only be granted in case of rare breeds, to increase herd size, when another complete farm (land and animals) is leased. Animals, that were born on conventional farms can never be marketed with reference to Demeter. This does not apply to goats and pigs, that were brought in for breeding purposes. Bovines of conventional origin can never be marketed as Demeter nor as In conversion to Demeter. (DI production standards, 5.7. Origin of animals, brought in stock and marketing; DI production standards, 5.7.2. Beef cattle for fattening) DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 15)
The DI standard is more detailed by requiring animals from Demeter origin to be bought in and the conversion of organic animals to Demeter. Demeter quality is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. Regarding the possibilities of buying in animals from conventional origin the DI standard is less detailed. To ensure biodynamic quality throughout the whole production chain. To avoid problems with BSE in Demeter products.
Origin of livestock, general requirements - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 Non-organically reared piglets for meat production may be brought to organic farm, as soon as they are weaned, of a weight less than 25kg.(4.2. g) PL Ekoland Standards and EU Regulation 2092/91 differ on the weight limit for non-organically reared piglets brought onto organic farms. PL Ekoland Standards require piglets to weigh less than 25kg, whereas the weight limit under EU Regulation is 35kg. The main reason is to keep the green image of the Association and to insure consumers trust.
Origin of livestock, general requirements - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
§ 205.236 Origin of livestock. (a) Livestock products that are to be labelled as organic must be from livestock under continuous organic management from the last third of gestation or hatching: Except that, (1) Poultry must have been under continuous organic management beginning no later than the second day of life; (2) Dairy animals. Milk or milk products must be from animals that have been under continuous organic management beginning no later than 1 year prior to the production. There are exceptions when an entire, distinct herd is converted to organic production. (3) Breeder stock. Livestock used as breeder stock may be brought from a non-organic operation.
The detail of US NOP standards differs from the EU Regulation 2092/91. US require slaughter stock to be under continuous organic management from the last third of gestation or hatching, except for day-old poultry. EU requires slaughter stock to come from organic units and allows non-organic slaughter stock under certain conditions, e.g. conversion of the whole farm or in case of poultry. US requires 12 months conversion period for dairy animals before labelling milk and milk products as organic. EU requires continuous organic management and under certain circumstances (see above) a minimum of 6 months. US allows conventional breeder stock whereas EU has further restrictions on conventional breeder stock. No justification was available.
Origin of livestock, replacements - CZ KEZ Standards 2005 The amount of animals of each livestock species brought in from a conventional farm unit to establish or replenish the herd or flock of the organic farm may be permitted up to a maximum of 10% of the average annual size of the basic herd/flock. (KEZ Standards, Part 2, 8.2) Based on the fourth derogation of EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I/B 3.4 the percentages for each livestock species are defined . These percentages may be increased in special cases, up to 40 %, following the opinion and agreement of the inspection authority or body. Under KEZ standards there are no exceptions allowed; only 10% brought in animals in any case. The standard-setting body could not give a justification.
Origin of livestock, replacements - UK Compendium 2005 In a derogation from the rule that all livestock must have been organically managed throughout their lives, where appropriate organic livestock are unavailable, a limited proportion of non-organic animals may, with inspection body authorisation, be bought-in for herd/flock growth or renewal. The products of these animals must be subject to the rules for organic conversion with some stated modifications. UK Compendium Standards contain further restrictions on replacement stock compared to EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation allows 20% per year of the existing herd number of pigs, sheep and goats to be brought in as adult, non-organic livestock for conversion, where organic animals are unavailable. UK Compendium allows only a 10% per year figure for all livestock, except the 20% per year permitted for sheep. Before their products may be sold as organic, UK Compendium requires such animals to remain in organic management for a full period of conversion as specified in UK Compendium, Paragraph 2.2.1. (see UK Compendium Difference "Conversion of livestock - organic status of livestock products"), with a slight modification for milk from dairy animals. In UK Compendium, the increased regulation of the purchase of non-organic pigs and goats helps to maintain herd or flock biosecurity. The cross reference to the rules in UK Compendium, Paragraph 2.2.1. aims to eliminate any possible consumer health risks that might arise from non-organic livestock management by ensuring that organic meat animals have been in organic management since birth, and even during their gestation.
Origin of livestock, replacements - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Replacement livestock should be bred on the farm, but this is impractical and suitable organic livestock are are unavailable to buy, a limited proportion of non-organic, nulliparous, breeding female animals may be bought-in. Thius requires Soil Association permission and is only allowed at a rate of 10% of existing herd/flock size per year. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.6.8. UK Soil Association Standards contain further restrictions on replacement stock compared to EU Regulations. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 20% per year of the existing number of pigs, sheep and goats to be brought in as adult, non-organic livestock for conversion, where organic animals are unavailable, but only 10% for other livestock classes. Soil Association standards set a 10% per year limit for all classes of livestock. The products of such bought-in livestock are subject to the Soil Association rules for conversion, not those in EU Regulation 2.2.1. (See Soil Association Difference re. EU Regulation, Paragraph 2.2.1.) In Soil Association standards the further regulation of the livestock replacement purchases of non-organic pigs, sheep and goats helps to maintain herd or flock biosecurity and so benefits animal health. These rules on the organic status of the products of bought-in livestock aim to reduce consumer health risks from residues of prohibited inputs.
Origin of livestock, smallholders - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Smallholders are allowed to bring in fattening animals of conventional origin for home consumption if certified Demeter or organic animals are not available. The animals should be fed and kept according Demeter standards as much as possible and they cannot be marketed with reference to Demeter. (DI production standards, 5.7.B Animals brought in for fattening)
The DI standard has further details to the EU Regulation 2092/91. According to the EU Regulation there are no specific provisions for smallholders and conventional animals for fattening purposes (except poultry) cannot be bought in. However, as it is possible to have conventional farming units on an organic farm, conventional animals can be brought into these units, where they don't have to be fed with organic feeding stuffs. In order to enable Demeter certified smallholders to keep animals for home consumption, even if not all the requirements regarding biodynamic animal husbandry can be complied with. This is only possible in countries not belonging to the EU and only for self-supply.
PL EKOLAND standards: Landscape and biodiversity protection The EKOLAND standards have minimum standards for landscape and biodiversity protection. Each farm must provide extensive areas for biodiversity protection; the minimum area devoted to these activities is 5% of total farm acreage. Grazing must be planned in such a way which does not harm wild flora and fauna species. Burning out of old grasses and fallow land is forbidden. (Article 1.1 of EKOLAND Standards) The EU Regulation 2091/92 does not cover this area. Organic farming shall actively contribute to landscape and biodiversity protection. EKOLAND farmers found it important to keep the “green” image of their association. (Principle of ecology).
Packaging material - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The KRAV standards states that environmentally packaging material shall be preferred, minimal use of packaging materials should be strived for. KRAVs goal is to hase out PVC and other clorine based plastics. (Standard 2.12.13)
The environmental aspect of packaging material is not covered by EU Regulation 2092/91. To fulfill consumers demand for environmentally adapted production not only in the field or processing but also in other areas.
Packaging material, general requirements - Italian Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Italian Organic Standards (IOS) require operators to respect specific rules for packaging of organic products. Among these are; use of re-usable, re-cyclable and re-cycled and biodegradable materials where possible, avoiding contamination and the prohibition of preservatives and fumigants.
While the Italian Organic Standard has requirements on packing material, the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover packaging of organic food. The packaging of organic food should have a minimum impact on products and the environment; for this reason specific requirements are needed.
Packaging material, recycled - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
KRAV certified products can only be stored in recycled packages and wrappings which have been used for conventional products if it is well cleaned. There should be no risk of any contamination. (KRAV standards paragraph 2.12.7 and 2.12.8).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 there are general statements about contamination of organic products but nothing specific on packaging material. In practise there are a lot of containers and packaging material which have been used for conventional products which are then used in organic production. The recycling of packaging materials fits well with the principles of organic agriculture relating to resource use, but there is also a risk for contamination which has to be handled.
Parallel production, GMO - CZ KEZ Standards Complete exclusion of GMOs is required, not only in veterinary treatment but also in parallel conventional production. GMO's or their products may not be used in either part of the farm. The KEZ standards prohibit the use of GMOs in non-organic, split production, but the EU Regulation 2092/91 Article 6.1d) requieres only that genetically modified organisms and/or any product derived from such organisms must not be used, with the exception of veterinary medicinal products. EU Regulation does not deal with parallel conventional production and GMOs. Complete exclusion of GMOs and their products on the whole farm reduces the risk of contamination.
Parallel production, GMOs - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The use of GMO and/or derivates is prohibited. This applies immediately to the whole farm, regardless of the certification status of single farm units. Accidental contamination with GMO of organic produce can lead to decertification. (NL standards on production, Part A.II.6. Non-employment of GMO and GMO derivatives)
The NATURLAND standard contains further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation allows organic and conventional production at the same time in two separated production units of the same farm. The use of GMO in conventional unit is not prohibited by EU Regulation. NATURLAND standards prohibit GMO use on the whole farm. To avoid contamination with objectionable substances, ensure the organic integrity of Naturland products. Genetically modified organisms (GMO) and their derivates are incompatible with organic cultivation.
Parallel production, crops - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Parallel production of similar types of organic and non-organic products is permitted only for crops in farms undergoing a stepped conversion process, and not at all for livestock. Parallel production of crops is restricted to vines. In all other cases, parallel production is prohibited (cf. Paragraph 4.1.1. full farm conversion requirement).
BIO SUISSE standards contain an additional restriction not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. BIO SUISSE standards restrict organic and non-organic parallel production only to perennial vine crops in the circumstances of a stepped conversion, but EU Regulation allows parallel production of similar varieties of perennial crops during a stepped conversion of a maximum five-year period, in research crops, or in crops producing propagation material; in each case, segregation must be guaranteed and inspection must be performed in the conventional production unit of the operation. The other exception allowed in EU Regulation is parallel production of grassland crops only for grazing. By not allowing split production, the situation on the farm is more transparent and easier for inspection: the credibility of organic farming is supported with these measures.
Parallel production, crops - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Parallel production of the same crops is only possible in farms undergoing a step by step conversion and only for the production areas of wine, perennial fruit and ornamental plants (full separation of audit trail must be granted and inspected).
According to the Swiss Ordinance only during a step-by-step conversion period, some exception for the parallel production in perennial fruit crops is possible in the operation. EU Regulation 2092/91 does at any time accept the parallel production of different varieties of the same crop (if clearly distinguishable), if segregation is granted and inspection is performed in the conventional production unit of the operation. By disallowing parallel production the farm situation is more transparent and inspection is easier. These measures support the credibility of organic farming.
Parallel production, crops - PRO BIO 2004 Parallel production of the same crops is only possible in farms with areas, newly integrated to the conversion period and only for the production areas of grasslands and perennial crops. Any parallel production of the same arable crop is prohibited. Parallel production in animal husbandry is not possible. According to PRO-BIO policy, only during the conversion period is there some exceptions for the possible parallel production of perennial crops and grassland. EU Regulation 2092/91 accepts the parallel production of different varieties of the same crop (if clearly distinguishable), if segregation is granted and inspection is performed in the conventional production unit of the operation. In order to maintain credibility of organic products parallel production is generally not allowed. The exception gives the possibility of inclusion of new areas to organic farming.
Parallel production, grazing, livestock - NL SKAL Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Non-organic livestock are allowed to use the paddocks of organic units for a maximum period of 7 months and must be managed as certified extensively reared livestock, defined in annex II, list a point 3.
SKAL has defined a maximum period of 7 months, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 has not defined this period. see rule Text: Annex I, part B 1.7: By derogation from this principle, livestock not reared in accordance with the provisions of this Regulation can use, for a limited period of time each year, the pasturage of units complying with this regulation, provided that such animals come from extensive husbandry. The rule gives more clarity.
Parallel production, grazing, livestock - UK Compendium 2005 As a derogation from the principle that organic pasture should be for organic livestock, non-organic livestock are permitted to graze organic land for a maximum of 120 days per year, as long as these animals are extensively reared, organic animals are not grazing with them, and authorisation has been obtained from the inspection body. The UK Compendium contains further detail to the EU Regulation 2092/91. UK Compendium specifies a maximum annual period of 120 days that non-organic livestock may use organic pasture. EU Regulation merely states "a limited period of time each year" without specifying the maximum length of time. UK Compendium continues the previous UK limit of 120 days because this is more specific and enforceable than the unspecified EU restriction on the period that non-organic livestock may use organic pasture. The additional text was requested by UK inspection bodies.
Parallel production, livestock - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
In France, it is forbidden to alternate organic and non organic livestock in the same building or open air run, except during the initial introduction of organic livestock.
French regulation forbids alternating organic and non organic livestock in the same building or open-air run whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover this topic. Alternate organically and conventionally managed livestock in the same building is inconsistent (why give organic treatment to one animal and not to another?), and is detrimental to the credibility of the organic market. Moreover, there could be a pollution of the open-air runs with antibiotics.
Parallel production, livestock - SI Rules 2003
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Simultaneous non-organic extensive livestock is under certain restrictions accepted (compliance with good farming practices with regard to fertilisation, or different species of livestock, provided that they are not reared in an industrial method of production, or buildings and parcels are physically and functionally separated from buildings and parcels in which livestock are not reared in accordance with SI Rules). (Art. 18)
SI Rules 2003 (Art. 18) describe the technical requirements for simultanious organic/conventional livestock production and do not describe the principles as those listed in the EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I B 1.1. ? 1.4. The other provisions regarding the conditions for not-organic livestock on the same holding are the same as in EU Regulation Annex I B (1.5. ? 1.8.). The authors of the SI Rules wanted to be very practical and focus on the technical provisions while leaving aside the explanation of organic livestock rearing principles.
Parallel production, livestock - UK Compendium 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Where they are present on the same farm, non-organic livestock must be reared on units clearly separated from organic livestock, they must be of different species, and organic livestock enterprises or holdings must be kept physically, financially, and operationally separate from non organic enterprises or holdings. Compendium of UK Organic Standards, Annex IB, Paragraph 1.6
The UK Compendium contains further detail to the EU Regulation 2092/91. UK Compendium requires that organic livestock enterprises or holdings must be kept physically, financially, and operationally separate from non-organic enterprises or holdings. Both EU Standards and UK Compendium require that organic livestock be reared in land parcels and buildings separate from non-organic livestock on the same holding and be of different species. The additional UK Compendium text aims to ensure that organic livestock holdings and enterprises are kept entirely separate from non-organic holdings and enterprises. This helps to verify the organic status of livestock products, and it helps maintain biosecurity of organic livestock units. Livestock traceability, organic verification, and biosecurity are particular concerns in UK after recent national livestock health problems, such as BSE and Foot & Mouth Disease. Biosecurity may also help to reduce the occurrence of other endemic livestock diseases.
Parallel production, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
BIOLAND companies for the production of ornamental, herbaceaous and woody plants are only allowed to deal with conventionally produced plants, if the conventional branch generates a minor source of income.Bioland production standards, 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants (5.8.5 Additional Purchase and Trade Goods)
The BIOLAND standards allow producers of ornamental plants only a parallel production with conventional plants, if these constitute the minor share of their income. The EU Regulation 2092/91 permits conversion of single parts of an enterprise or farm as long as units are clearly separated, and therefore permits organic farmers to deal with conventional produce; but no limitation of share of incomes are defined. The reason is transparancy for the consumer, consumers expect organic products on a Bioland farm. Conventional produce can only be tolerated as a supplement in the assortment.
Peat - CH Demeter 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Peat can constitute only 70% of the substratum for the production of seedlings.
DEMETER restricts the use of peat to seedling production and within substrata to a maximum 70% whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 only lists peat as admitted 'fertilizer' limited to horticulture (market gardening, floriculture, arboriculture, nursery). Peat is a very limited resource which should be used as little as possible to ensure supplies for future generations. Furthermore peat production infringes on natural habitats, which is not in line with the aim for sound production methods of organic farming.
Peat - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Peat can only be used for growing seedlings and marsh beds. Not more than 70% of peat can be added to substratum for seedlings.
The Swiss Ordinance restricts the use of peat to seedling production and within substrata to maximum 70% whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 only lists peat as admitted 'fertilizer' limited to horticulture (market gardening, floriculture, arboriculture, nursery). Peat is a very limited natural resource which should be used as little as possible to ensure the supply for future generations. Peat production damages natural habitats which is not in line with the sound production methods which organic farming is aiming for.
Peat - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The components that can be used in soil and substrate preparations are defined by the corresponding annexes. The use of synthetic substrate materials is prohibited. Peat can be used in substrates and may not exceed 80% of the mixture for seedlings and 50% of the mixture for potted plants (with exemptions). The cultivation of crops without using soil or substrate is not allowed. NL standards on production: Part B. III. Market gardening 2. Part B. V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees 2 Appendices 1,2 and 9)
The NATURLAND standard has additional requirments and restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91. The list of components, that can be used is more restricted, i.e. composted community household wastes (appendix 9) are excluded, as well as liquid or semi-liquid manure and chicken manure from conventional origin (appendix 1). In the EU Regulation there is no limit for the amount of peat to be used. Synthetic substrates are not regulated. The cultivation of crops without soil or substrate is not regulated. Protection of the natural peat deposits. The vital soil is an indispensable element of organic farming.
Peat - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005 Peat is listed in Appendix 1 on the positive list, but may not be used for soil conditioning EU Regulation 2092/91 only lists peat as admitted 'fertilizer' limited to horticulture (market gardening, floriculture, arboriculture, nursery), whereas IFOAM restricts the application by excluding soil conditionning. No justification was given.
Peat - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Among a number of other prohibited soil inputs, it is prohibited to use peat as a soil conditioner. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.7.10. Soil Association standards have further restrictions than EU Regulation 2092/91 regarding the use of peat as a soil conditioner. Effectively, it may be used only in propogating media. EU Regulation permits peat for use in horticulture (market gardening, floriculture, arboriculture, nursery). Soil Association standard's prohibition on the use of peat as a soil conditioner is intended to reduce the damage to peat bogs. These are important habitats for wildlife, supporting many bird, invertebrate and plant species, some of which depend on peat bogs for their survival. Peat extraction for horticulture has been the main cause of the damage to British peat bogs in the past 50 years. Only 6% of British peat bogs remain undamaged. This damage could be repeated in other countries if its widespread use continues.
Peat, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The content of peat in substrates may not exceed 80% for seedlings and 50% for trees, herbaceous and ornamental plants. Exceptions are possible for crops, that require a low pH. Purchased composts, peat substitutes and additives must be examined with regard to their environmental compatibility and, in particular, to their pollutant content. (BIOLAND standards 5.8.6., 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.6 Soils and Substrates)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91, where the the use of peat in horticulture is not restricted. Purchased composts must not exceed the contents in heavy metals, laid down in the Annex II A. There is no requirement to examine the environmental compatibility of the components of substrate. To avoid the escessive exploitation of moor lands and to avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Peat, seedling production - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Peat is only allowed for the production of seedlings and can only constitute 70 % of the substratum. Peat must not be used as an organic soil supplement. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.5, 4.1.5.1 (4.5.1: mushrooms)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it allows the use of peat only for the production of seedlings and limits the proportion to 70 %. Annex II A of the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the use of peat only to horticulture but does not give more restrictions. Peat is a limited natural resource. Restriction of its use is in line with the approach of sustainability and the protection of natural resources. Reasons: nature conservation.
Peat, seedling production - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Peat is only allowed for the production of seedlings and can constitute only 70 % of the substratum. Peat must not be used as an organic soil supplement.
The Bio Austria General Standard allows the use of peat only for the production of seedlings and limits the proportion to 70 %. Annex II A of the EU Regulation allows the use of peat only for horticulture but does not give more restrictions. Peat is a limited natural resource. Restriction of its use is in line with the approach of sustainability and the protection of natural resources(nature conservation).
Pl EKOLAND standards 2005 EKOLAND standards: Soil and water protection (2) Short description: Soils and waters are limited resources of vital importance to farming and whole society and thus must be carefully used and protected. EKOLAND standards (1.3.1. – 1.3.3.): Farmers should undertake activities to protect soils from degradation – e.g. compaction and erosion (including “green fields” approach). They should minimize water use in production processes. Difference to the EU Regulation 2092/91: The EU Regulation does not cover this area. Justification/comments: Organic farming shall actively contribute to environmental protection. EKOLAND’s farmers found it important to keep “green” image of the association. (Principle of ecology).
Plant and livestock production, inputs certification - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The KRAV standards cover certification of inputs in organic production. The areas covered are – animal management agents – plant protection agents – plant growth stimulants – soil conditioning agents – fertilizers – sowing and potting soil – pesticide and disinfection agents in storage areas The standards are based on the relevant standards for plant production and animal husbandry with additions and clarifications. Only products which contain 100% organic ingredients can be called organic all other certified inputs can be labelled with a special logo which stating “approved for organic production”. (KRAV standards chapter 12).
Certification of inputs is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. The certification of inputs is a help to organic farmers to easily find which inputs that are allowed or not. The producer of inputs can also more easily communicate that a product fulfils the KRAV standards. Interestingly many consumer products are also certified to this system showing that consumer does not only want organic food but also potting soil and nutrients for flowers.
Plant cultivation, use of soil culture - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Vegetables may only be grown in a soil culture with the exception of chicory and cress. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.1.5) Cultivation on mineral wool, hydroculture, nutrient-film technique and similar procedures are not permitted. Chicory and cress may be sprouted in water.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have this specification. To maintain consumer confidence and organic integrity
Plant cultivation, use of soil culture - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Any hydorponics or soil independent (soil-less) production is prohibited.
The Bio Suisse standard has further restrictions. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not prohibit any hydroponic or soil independent production as Bio Suisse does. BIO SUISSE considers the soil as important medium for sound organic agriculture. Hydroponic systems are artificial systems independent from the soil, which therefore do not correspond with the basic principles of organic farming.
Plant cultivation, use of soil culture, use of artificial heat - Italian Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In Italian Organic Standards (IOS) soilless cultivation is prohibited, with the exception of seedlings for transplanting. Protected crops are allowed with detailed rules. Heating is allowed only for seedlings.
IOS Standards contain further details. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not address the issue of soilless cultivation (hydroponic), and protected cultivation is left to free interpretation. Soil-less cultivation opposes organic agriculture principles, since soil management is fundamental for this type of production. Moreover, protected crops are widely used in organic agriculture and need to be specifically ruled and defined, in order to guarantee healthy production and sustainable use of resources.
Plant material and bulbs, origin - CH Demeter Standards
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Seedlings and bulbs must origin from bio-dynamic and if not available from organic production. The non availability of bio-dynamic seed or seedlings must be documented. Planting material deriving from lines which were created with protoplasm or cytoplasm fusion technique can not be used.
Similar regulation as EU Regulation 2092/91 but cytoplasm and protoplasm fusion as breeding techniques in the propagation procedure are not accepted. Seed should be well adapted to the production technique and therefore it should already be bred with bio-dynamic methods in order to support the taste and individuality of each variety.
Plant material, origin, ornamental plants - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Seedlings have to be from own production or purchased from NATURLAND certified farms or equivalent. In case of proven non-availability they can be purchased from conventional sources. If the seedlings were vegetatively generated, the plants can be offered as a NATURLAND in conversion product. If the seedling was generatively obtained, the plant can be offered as a NATURLAND in conversion product after one year at the earliest. In both cases the plants can be fully certified NATURLAND products after two years. (NL standards on production, Part B.V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees, 3. Seedlings)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. There are no specific provisions for the production of ornamental plants in the EU Regulation 2092/91, consequently the general provisions for the use of plant propagation material apply. In case of unavailability of organic material and after approval untreated plant propagation material from conventional origin can be used and the plants can be sold as organic without any further conversion period. In order to ensure NATURLAND quality throughout the whole production chain, seedlings from NATURLAND farms should be used. Considering, however, the low stage of market development this is unlikely to be possible and there must be a possibility to use conventional material.
Plant processing inputs, hops - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The use of sulphur for conservation is prohibited in drying and processing. (Bioland production standards, 5.7 Hop Cultivation, 5.7.5 Preparation)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specifically regulate the drying and processing of hops. Sulphur for drying hops is explicitely excluded. The standard setting body did not give a justification.
Plant processing inputs, viticulture - NL SKAL Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Skal has included the following specific additives to Annex VI for wine processing:E220 (sulfurdioxide) and E224 (Potassium-metabisulfide), citrus seed extract and ethyl alcohol.
Norms for processing of products that are not within the scope of the EU Regulation 2092/91, must correspond as much as possible with the processing standards in the EU Regulation. Exceptions are made for additives for cheese, non-food, dog and cat feed, wine and meat products, where SKAL has listed allowed additives. The EU Regulation has not regulated the processing of wine products yet. Rules for wine contribute to transparency and consumer trust.
Plant processing, viticulture - Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
When wine is produced from organically grown grapes, resource and energy intensive procedures are to be avoided. Organic waste resulting from wine production must be recycled and returned to the soil. Waste water must not cause environmental pollution. The Bio Austria General Standard allows 3 oenological practices and describes positive lists for treating agents for must, wine and also for cleaning and disinfection. In addition there are rules for packaging and labelling.
The Bio Austria General Standard is detailed concerning wine processing, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover wine processing. n case of wine of organic grapes there is a lack of legal rules within the EU Regulation. The declaration of wine needs to describe the oenological practices. This creates transparency and ensures consumer confidence.
Plant processing, viticulture - Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
When the production of wine is made from organically grown grapes resource and energy intensive procedures are to be avoided. Organic waste resulting from wine production must be recycled and returned to the soil. Waste water should not cause environmental pollution. The Bio Austria General Standard allows 3 oenological practices and describes positive lists for treating agents for must, wine and also for cleaning and disinfection. In addition there are rules for packaging and labelling.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover the processing of vine. In case of wine of organic grapes there is a lack of legal rules. The declaration of wine needs to describe the oenological practices. This creates transparency and ensures consumer confidence.
Plant processing, viticulture - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The NATURLAND standards regulate the production of wine: Processing procedures and additives, cleaning agents and disinfectants, packaging. The standard is applicable to the production of grape juice, wine, sparkling wine or spirits. It applies in addition to national regulations. (NL standards on production, Part VII. Viniculture and vine production, 5. Processing)
The production of wine is not yet regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide detailed rules for organic production of all important areas of food production.
Plant processing, viticulture - SP CCCPAE Cataluña standards and CPAEN Navarra standards 2001
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The CCPAE standards contains one article (17.12) for wine processing, permitting the use of ammonium sulphate (100 mg/l), tartaric acid (E 334) cristalizad from natural origin, maximal 1 g/litre for white wines and 0,5 g/litro for red wines. In those standards its also allowed to use anhidric sulphur (dióxide of Sulphur (E 220), Na metabisulphite (E 223) & Potasium metabisulphite (E 224) by 3 differents methods. The total quantity of SO2 in mg/litre allowed is 100, depending on the type of wine. Arabic gom (E 414) is allowed for the stabilization of the wine The organic standards for wine proceesing from the Council for Organic Production from Navarra (CPAEN), covering similar points as the CCPAE organic grape production and organic wine proceesing standards. The organic standards (28 pages) for wine production and organic wine processing from the Council for Organic Production from Navarra (CPAEN) is covering similar points as the CCPAE organic wine processing standards adding also some standards for viticulture production.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 has not regulated the processing of wine products yet. There are minor differences within CCPAE (see Cuaderno de Normas) and CPAEN organic wine processing Standards. Standards for processing of products that are not yet within the scope of the current EU Regulation, must correspond as much as possible with the processing standards in the EU Regulation. Rules for wine contribute to transparency and consumer trust.
Plant production, breeding techniques - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
No hybrids of cereals with the exception of corn (Zea Mays) can be used for the production of food and feed crops. No breeding techniques such as protoplasm and cytoplasm fusion or genetic modification may have been applied in the production of the plant propagation material to be used. (DI production standards, 3.1. Seed and propagation material)
The DI standard is more restrictive by prohibiting plant propagation material produced with breeding techniques based on genetic modification, protoplasm and cytoplasm fusion and hybridisation. The EU Regulation 2092/91 only excludes the use of genetically modified plant propagation material, but it does not refer to other breeding techniques. Hybrids in general have a lower quality concerning nutritional aspects. The breeding technique as well is in opposition to the understanding of biodynamic farming. For more details visit www.forschungsring.de.
Plant production, chicory - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Chicory roots should be forced in soil. (DI production standards, 3.4.2. Manures, soils and potting mixes)
There is no such explicit requirement within the EU Regulation 2092/91. Best development of nutritional aspects when the plants are in contact with soil.
Plant production, containers, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Containers for potted plants must preferably be made of decomposable materials. Otherwise, they must be reusable and recyclable. The use of PVC containers is prohibited. (BIOLAND standards 5.8.6., 5.8.7 Containers for Cultures)
The BIOLAND standards has a broader scope, this aspect is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. In order to cope with the ecological principle of organic agriculture (protection of the environment, avoiding rubbish production, preference of renewable resources).
Plant production, containers, ornamental plants - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Decomposable materials for planting pots are preferable. The use of PVC is not allowed. (NL standards on production, Part B.V.Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees, 5. Plant pots)
The NATURLAND standard has a broader broader. This aspect is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. This refers to the ecological principle of organic agriculture, where organic materials should be recycled.
Plant production, environment, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Areas where potted plants are stored must not be sealed except for the purpose of rain water collection. (Bioland production standards, 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.2 Surface Sealing)
The BIOLAND standard has additional requierements for potting plants. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the sealing of soil. In order to cope with the ecological principle of organic agriculture.
Plant production, environment, ornamental plants - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Areas where potted plants are arrayed for storage and sale should not be sealed. (NL standards on production, Part B.V.Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees, 6. Sealing of the soil)
The NATURLAND standard has a broader scope. This aspect is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. This aspect refers to the ecological principle of organic agriculture. Wherever soil is sealed the natural water cycle is interrupted and disturbed.
Plant production, green cover, orchards - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In orchards, planting with a mixture appropriate to the location is required throughout the year (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.3.3). In areas with extreme summer dryness the land planting period must be at least 10 months. The plantings must not be ploughed under from the beginning of September until the end of March. Mulch cuttings have to be made in such a way that beneficial organisms are protected (for example no cutting at the edges or alternate cutting).
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have requirements for land planting in orchards. Green coverage reduces erosion problems.
Plant production, green cover, vineyards - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The vineyard must be land-planted throughout the year, in order to provide a habitat for diverse flora and fauna. Species-rich mixtures should be sown. Land planting may be interrupted for up to 2 months for soil preparation, for winter furrowing of heavy soils, loosening of the soil, new sowing, summer drought and in new plantings. No land planting is necessary directly under the vines. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.4.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have specific requirements for land planting in vineyards. Green coverage reduces erosion.
Plant production, location, hops - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Organic hop plantation next to conventional plantations must be provided with protective planting at the latest within 5 years after the beginning of the conversion period. Newly created hop cultivation is only allowed on bordering or isolated areas. The minimum distance to conventional plantations must be 10 m. Otherwise hop harvested from the outer rows cannot be marketed with reference to organic agriculture. The creation of areas of ecological compensation are required for hop cultivation in specific areas. (Bioland production standards, 5.7 Hop Cultivation, 5.7.1 Location and Area)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. In the EU Regulation there is a general requirement of a clear separation of the organic production unit from any other production unit, however distances to conventional plantantions are not defined. Furthermore under BIOLAND standards in case of suspicion of contamination a product cannot be marketed with reference to organic agriculture unless it has been proven that the suspicion was wrong. Bioland is explicitely requiring an ecological compensation with diversified areas, whereas the EU Regulation has not such a specific requirement. In order to avoid contamination with objectionable substances. In order to cope with the ecological principle of organic agriculture.
Plant production, no special standards - US NOP 2002 NOP does not have any provisions for special plant production. NOP does not have any provisions for special plant production. The EU 2092/91 specifies for some plant protection products that they may only be used for special crops such as perennial crops, fruit trees, wines, olive trees and tropical crops. The US does not have such restrictions for plant protection products. The NOP intends to provide standards for categories where the Act provides the authority to promulgate standards. NOP announced its intend to publish for comments certification standards for apiculture, mushrooms, greenhouses and aquatic animals. These standards will build upon the existing final rule and will address only the unique requirements necessary to certify these specialized operations.
Plant production, soil less - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Vegetables may only be grown in a soil culture with exception of chicory and cress.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation does not have this specification. To maintain consumer confidence and organic integrity
Plant production, storage after harvesting - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The products may not be treated with chemical agents or radioactive irradiation after being harvested. Environmental contamination must be excluded whilst cleaning storage facilities. (Bioland production standards, 6 Storage)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed with regard to storage treatments. In the EU Regulation 2092/91 the use of pesticides is regulated, some of which can also be applied after harvest (i.e. ethylene, Quartz sand). Ionising irradiation is prohibited. However there are no provisions about the treatment of organic products under storage in particular. To ensure the high quality of BIOLAND products and avoid damages and contamination after the harvest.
Plant production, support stakes, hops - DE Bioland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Wooden constructions to support hop cultivation may only be made from wood of native species and can only be treated with environmentally friendly substances. (Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.2 Support Material)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91does not refer to the characteristics of supporting material for perennial crops. In order not to contribute to the destruction of tropical forests and comply with the holistic approach of organic agriculture as well as to avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Plant production, support stakes, orchards - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The use of tropical and subtropical timber for support stakes in orchards is prohibited. (NL standards on production, Part B.VI. Fruit cultivation 3.)
The NATURLAND standard has additional requirements with regards to the use of tropical timber, which is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. This refers to the holistic approach and the ecological principle of organic farming.
Plant production, support stakes, origin - Demeter International 2004
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
In northern climates no tropical or sub tropical woods are allowed for use as support stakes to reduce environmental impact. The tropical grasses, bamboo and tonkin, may be used. (DI production standards, 3.5.4. support stakes)
The DI standard has a broader scope; the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate this aspect. In order to reduce environmental impact within the tropics.
Plant production, support stakes, perennial crops - DE Biolaand Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
No tropical woods can be used as supporting material. Tropical or sub-tropical woods may not be used as supporting material. The tropical grasses, bamboo and tonkin are permissible. (Bioland production standards, 5.5.3 Supporting Material; Bioland production standards, 5.6.2 Supporting Material )
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the use of supporting materials in orchards and viticulture. In order not to contribute to the destruction of ecosystems in the tropics. This aspect refers to the holistic and ecological approach of organic farming.
Plant production, use of soil culture - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Soil-less growing techniques are not allowed (DI production standards, 3.4.2. Manures, soils and potting mixes)
Where as Demeter International standards prohibit soil less production, the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not treat the issue of soil-less growing techniques. It is considered that nutritional aspects develop best when the plants are in contact with soil.
Plant protection, carriers and wetting agents - SE KRAV Standards 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The KRAV standards requires that carriers and wetting agents used in plant protection products are examined and accepted by KRAV (4.4.4). There are simple criteria in the standard and also a reference to the IFOAM Basic Standards criteria for evaluation of these additives. (KRAV Standards Article 4.4.4. In appendix 4, 12 accepted carriers and wetting agents are listed.)
This is an additional requirement compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation does not have any specific requirements on carriers or wetting agents. For the organic farmer it is important to have a knowledge about all substances used on the farmland. It is known that some of the carriers and wetting agents also have biological effects.
Plant protection, copper - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Copper can be used for plant protection but only in the amounts which are allowed by the standards for heavy metals, 0,5 kg per ha per year (KRAV standards paragraph 4.4.2).
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg of copper per ha per year from 2006 and the use will be further restricted in the coming years. In Sweden copper has not been used in organic farming. Copper is a heavy metal with environmental effects. Wine is not grown in Sweden.
Plant protection, copper - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The annual amount of copper for plant protection is more restricted then in annex II B of EEC-regulation 2092/91. Per year are allowed 2 kg/ha, to fruits 2,5 kg/ha, to vineyard 3 kg/ha and to hope 4 kg/ha. (BA-Rules chapter 2.1.5, 2.3.3, 4.1.7, 4.3.8, 4.4.3, 4.4.7)
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006, but no restrictions are made in terms of different crops. Bio Austria General Standard restricts the amount of copper per ha in relation to different crops (2-4 kg/ha). The Bio Austria General Standard restricts copper application between 2-4 kg per ha in relation to different crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006. No restrictions are made in terms of different crops.
Plant protection, copper - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The annual amount of copper for plant protection is strongly restricted: Per year allowed levels are 2 kg/ha, for fruits 2,5 kg/ha, for vineyards 3 kg/ha and for hops 4 kg/ha.
The Bio Austria General Standard restricts the amount of allowed copper per ha in relation to different crops (2-4 kg/ha). The EU Regulation allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006. No restrictions are made in terms of different crops. Copper accumulates in the soil. A negative effect to the organisms in the soil is discussed. To reduce negative effects to the soil and the organisms in the soil the yearly amount of application is restricted.
Plant protection, copper - AT Bio CH Bio Suisse Standard 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Copper preparations are admitted for fungal disease control. Arable crops can not be treated with copper, except for potatoes, vegetables and hops. The annual amount of copper applied is clearly restricted for individual crops to a maximum 4 kg/ha metalic copper, for apple and pears 1.5 kg/ha and for berries 2 kg/ha).
Copper application is restricted to lower quantities and in terms of crops (application rate between 1.5-4 kg pure metallic copper, arable crops excluded except potatoes). EU Regulatoin 2092/91 admits 8kg of copper till the end of 2006 and maximum 6 kg of copper afterwards: no restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided.
Plant protection, copper - CH DEMETER
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Copper preparates are admitted for fungal diseases and for fruit and vine production exclusively. The upper limit for the yearly application is 3kg/ha metallic copper.
Copper application is restricted to lower quantities and specific application rates apply for different crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 admits 8kg of copper till the end of 2005 and max 6 kg of copper from the year 2006 onwards: no restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore copper applications are restricted.
Plant protection, copper - CH Regulance/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Copper may be applied against fungi in plant production. The limit is at 4kg/ha per year metallic copper or not more than 20kg averaged over 5 consecutive years.
Copper application is restricted to lower quantities (4 kg in general, not more than 6 kg for wine growing). EU Regulation allows 8 kg of copper until the end of 2005 and max 6 kg of copper from January 2006 onwards: no restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore copper applications are restricted to max 4 kg/ha metallic copper
Plant protection, copper - CZ PRO-BIO 2004 Total dosage of copper is maximum 3 kg Cu (2+)/ha/year (metallic copper). If copper preparations are used, the copper soil content has to be analysed each 6th year. Copper application is restricted to lower quantities, and if applied the soil copper content has to be determined. EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex II/B IV admits 8 kg/ha of copper (till the end of 2005 and max 6 kg/ha of copper from 2006 onwards (with special rules for perennial crops). Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote soil fertility; any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore copper applications are restricted. Standards require the use of preventive measures (crop rotation, crop cultivation, choice of varieties) too.
Plant protection, copper - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Use of copper is not allowed for plant protection purposes in any organic or conventional plant cultures in Denmark. The DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark" does not mention copper or any copper compounds. Copper is not allowed according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, while limited quantities of certain Copper compounds may be used according to Annex II B, Section IV of the EU Regulation 2092/91. Copper is a heavy metal which may accumulate in the soil and have a negative influence on the soil flora and fauna. Therefore the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark, has banned the use of copper products for plant protection purposes in Denmark.
Plant protection, copper - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guideline 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Copper preparates are admitted and listed in the CODEX positive list Appendix 2.
Whereas CODEX does not set limits for copper application per hectare and year, EU Regulation 2092/91 admits 8 kg of copper till the end of 2005 and max 6 kg of copper from the year 2006 onward: No restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations in either of the two regulations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore a restriction on the use of metalic copper is necessary.
Plant protection, copper - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Copper preparates are admitted and listed in the IFOAM positive list Appendix 3.
Whereas IFOAM restricts the application of copper to 8kg/ha and year, EU Regulation 2092/91 admits 8kg of copper till the end of 2005 and max 6kg of copper from the year 2006 onward. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore a restriction on the use of metalic copper is necessary.
Plant protection, copper - NL Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
No forms of copper are allowed in the Netherlands: see also at www.ctb-wageningen.nl
In contrast to NL the EU Regulation 2092/91 lists in Annex II part B several permissable copper preparations Organic farming principles say that the use of pesticides etc. should be avoided. The use of copper should therefore, from the Dutch government's point of view, not be allowed in Europe or at least be restricted.
Plant protection, copper - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The use of copper substances as plant protection products is not allowed in organic production.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 permits copper preparates (with restrictions). Copper preparates are an environmental strain and the use should be restricted. There are no productions in Norway where the use of copper preparates is crucial.
Plant protection, crop rotation - UK Soil Association standards 2005 It is permitted to grow crops without the use of a multi-annual rotation in such cropping systems as protected cropping, permanent pasture, perennial crops and wild harvesting, but the cropping system must not rely on external inputs nor involve continuous arable crops. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 5.1.14 and 5.1.15. Soil Association standards contain further detail to the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards set out the circumstances in which it is permitted to practice cropping without a multi-annual rotation. EU Regulation requires a multi-annual rotation for crop production to maintain soil fertility and to control weeds, pests and diseases, but it does not explain clearly those cropping systems that would not require such a rotation. The Soil Association standards are intended to place clear and unambiguous requirements on the producer regarding when it is appropriate to make use of crop rotations and when it is not. For example, it could be harmful to biodiversity and could cause pollution to initiate a cropping rotation on land that had been in permanent pasture.
Plant protection, documentation - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to crop rotation and soil and crop nutrient management practices, sanitation measures and cultural practices that enhance crop health. A biological or botanical substance or a substance included on the national list of synthetic substances allowed for use in organic crop production may be applied to prevent, suppress, or control pests, weeds, or diseases: provided, that, the conditions for using the substance are documented in the organic system plan.
No differences in general except that the US has slightly different concept regarding documentation of farm practices compared with the EU Regulation 2092/91. No justification could be provided by USDA.
Plant protection, general requirements - SI Rules 2003
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Plant protection requirements in SI Rules 2003 (Art. 15) are relatively detailed, e.g naming the priority actions for maintaining plant health, balanced nutrition and substrate treatment with steam in closed production areas. An annual production plan is required as the basis for the use of any plant protection substances from the Annex (List of allowed PPP) which needs an agreement from the inspection body.
SI Rules have further requiements to the EU Regulation 2092/91. Besides measures mentioned in the EU (Annex I A, 3), SI Rules also mention balanced nutrition of the plants and treatment of substrates with steam. In addition, the use of plant protection substances must take place in accordance with the annual production plan (Art. 15) that has to be approved by the inspection body, whereas EU Regulation does not mention such a plan. In addition, the general conditions for the use of substances in the traps and/or dispensers is also described here (Art. 15) and not in the Annex as in EU Regulation (Annex II. B. III.). The annual production plan, which has to be approved by the inspection body, is probably to increase the operator's attentiveness in this respect.
Plant protection, microorganisms - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Only the named microorganism species, Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana, Coniothyrium minitans, Phlebiopsis gigantea, Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Streptomyces griseovirides, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma ploysporium and Verticillium lecanii are approved for biological control according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark". Only certain named microorganism species are approved for biological control in organic plant production in Denmark whereas the species allowed for biological control are not specified in the EU Regulation 2092/91, Annex II B, Section II. The microorganism species approved for biological control in organic plant production in Denmark are the ones which have been approved for use in conventional and organic plant production by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark.
Plant protection, substances - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The plant protection agents listed in the corresponding annex 10.2. can only be used, if other agricultural measures to strengthen the health of the cropping system have been unsuccessful. Equipment for the application of plant protection agents must be free from residues of objectionable substances. The use of synthetic pesticides and growth regulators is prohibited. (Bioland production standards, 3.7 Plant Protection 3.7.1 Basic Principles; Bioland production standards, 3.7.2 Permissible Measures; Bioland production standards, 3.7.3 Prohibitions; Bioland production standards, 10.2.1 Biological and Biotechnical Measures; Bioland production standards, 10.2.2 Plant Protection and Care Agents; Bioland production standards, 10.2.2.1 Generally Permissible Agents; Bioland production standards, 10.2.2.2 Agents only Permissible in Horticulture and Permanent Cultures as well as in the mentioned crops)
The BIOLAND standard has further requirements to the EU Regulation 2092/91. There are certain (mainly natural) products on the BIOLAND list of permissible products, that are not mentioned in the EU Regulation.: i.e. stone meal, bentonite, prepared aluminium oxide, "waterglass" (sodium silicate), herb extracts, herb liquid manure and teas (e.g. nettle, horsetail, onion, horse radish, parsley fern), ethyl alcohol, milk and whey products, sodium hydrogen carbonate. These products are not considered as plant protection, but fortifying agents, which can be used in accordance with the EU Regulation 2092/91 in Germany. The following products are excluded or restricted in their use according to the BIOLAND standard, but permitted in the EU Regulation.: bees wax (not considered as plant protection agent in Germany), gelatine, extraction from Nicotina tabacum, rotenon, diammoniumphosphate, metaldehyde, pyrethoids in traps, ethylene and potassium alum, copper preparations with further restrictions (max metallic copper amount 3 kg/ha and year, in hop cultivation max 4 kg/ha and year, in potato cultivation only with permission of the BIOLAND Association. If agents with copper content are used, the copper content of the soil must be continuously monitored by means of soil analysis). In order to avoid negative influences on products as well as on the environment (i.e. by the accumulation of copper in soil), substances considered to be critical and whose beneficial effects can also be caused by other products or methods are prohibited by the BIOLAND Association. Moreover some of the substances (ethylene, potassium alum) are not relevant for plant production in the area certified by BIOLAND.
Plant protection, substances - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
If the agricultural and biodynamic methods of plant care and protection prove insufficient, the products listed in appendix 5 can be applied. (DI production standards, 3.3. Plant care and protection; DI production standards, Appendix 5 Allowable materials and methods for plant care and protection)
The DI list is generally similar to the positive list of the EU Regulation 2092/91. However, the use of certain products is excluded, including synthetic phyrethroids, metaldehyde, and copper can only be applied in lower quantities. Resistance to fungal, bacterial and insect attack in the crops should be supported by biodynamic measures. Nevertheless, there may be cases, in which the treatment with a certain product is necessary in order to avoid major damage. Contamination with harmful substances must be avoided.
Plant protection, substances, Azadirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Azadirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone are not allowed for plant protection purposes in any organic and conventional plant cultures in Denmark. The DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2 "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark" does not mention Azacirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone. Azadirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone are not allowed as "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark", while products based on these substances may be used as insecticides (or mainly as repellent - Quassia), if need is recognised by the inspection authority according to Annex II B of the EU Regulation 2092/91. No plant protection products based on Azadirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone have been approved for use in Denmark by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark. To be approved a full documentation for pesticide evaluation will be needed and no companies have applied for that. Rotenone e.g. is a broad insecticide and may be very harmful to aquatic organisms.
Plant protection, substances, hydrolysed proteins - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Hydrolysed proteins are not allowed as attractants in organic plant production in Denmark, because there are no products approved by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency undder the Danish Ministry for Environment. Hydrolysed proteins are not allowed according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark". According to Annex II B, Section I of the EU Regulation 2092/91 hydrolysed proteins are allowed as attractant in authorized applications in combination with other appropriate products of this Annex II, part B. Hydrolysed protein has not been approved for use as attractant in Denmark by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark.
Plant protection, substances, mineral oils - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Mineral oils are not allowed for plant protection purposes in organic plant production in Denmark according to DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark" because there is an alternative, paraffin oil. Mineral oils are not allowed according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark". According to Annex II B, Section IV of the EU Regulation 2092/91 Mineral oils are allowed as fungicide and insecticide for use in fruit trees, vines, olive trees and tropical crops, when the need is recognised by the inspection body or inspection authority. Mineral oils are not approved for use as insecticide or fungicide in organic farming in Denmark, because there is an alternative, paraffin oil, which, according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Producion 2006 may be used against insects, spinning mites and mildew in fruit trees and bushes before bluming and after harvest plus in roses and other horticultural plants. Mineral oils contain toxic substances, which may harm beneficial organisms.
Plant protection, substances, pyrethrins - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerarieaefolium are not available for plant protection purposes in organic plant production in Denmark, because there are no products approved by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, which contain pyrethrin as the only active substance. Pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerarieaefolium are allowed according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark", when need is recognised by the Plant Directorate, but no approved products with only natural Pyrethrins are available in Denmark. According to Annex II B, Section I of the EU Regulation 2092/91 Pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium are allowed when the need is recognised by the inspection body or inspection authority. No plant protection products based on Pyrethrins from Chrysanthemum cineraiaefolium without the synthetic synergist, piperonylbutoxid have been approved for use in Denmark by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark. The use of syntehtic pesticides or additives in organic crop production is against the principles of health, ecology and care
Plant protection, substances, pyrethrins - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerarieaefolium are not available for plant protection purposes in organic plant production in Denmark, because there are no products approved by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, which contain pyrethrin as the only active substance. Pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerarieaefolium are allowed according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark", when need is recognised by the Plant Directorate, but no approved products with only natural Pyrethrins are available in Denmark. According to Annex II B, Section I of the EU Regulation 2092/91 Pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium are allowed when the need is recognised by the inspection body or inspection authority. No plant protection products based on Pyrethrins from Chrysanthemum cineraiaefolium without the synthetic synergist, piperonylbutoxid have been approved for use in Denmark by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark. The use of syntehtic pesticides or additives in organic crop production is against the principles of health, ecology and care
Plant protection, substances, traps/dispensers - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Diammonimum phosphate, Pheromones and Pyrethroids (only deltamethrin or lambda-cyhalothrin) are not approved for use in traps or dispensers for plant protection purposes in organic plant production in Denmark because Diammonium phosphate and pheromones for use in traps and dispensers have not been approved by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, and Batrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata wied, which are the only insects Pyrethroids may be used against in organic farming, are not found in Denmark The substances to be used in traps and/or dispensers, Diammonimum phosphate, Pheromones and Pyrethroids (only deltamethrin or lambda-cyhalothrin) are not approved according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark". According to the EU Regulation 2092/91, Annex II B, Section III, Diammonium phosphate and Pheromones are allowed without restrictions, while Pyrethroids are allowed only against Batrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata. Diammonimum phosphate and Pheromones for use in traps and dispensers have not been approved by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark, and Batrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata wied are insects, which are not found in Denmark
Plant protection, substances, weed control - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
No herbicides are permitted. Also biocontrol agents or plant-extracts with herbicide effect are not allowed.
Demeter standards contain further restrictions regarding control methods of noxious weeds compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. Plant extracts or fungi with herbicide effects are not admitted by Demeter standards, whereas EU Regulation lists the latter in the positive list of ANNEX II B, such as 'microorganisms approved for pest control'. No restrictions concerning the target organism are listed, therefore these organisms are applicable for the control of noxious weeds. In general a problem with noxious weeds indicates inappropriate crop rotation or lack of soil management: Therefore the problem should be addressed by improved rotation and soil management and not with herbicide use.
Plant protection, substances, weed control - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The application of herbicides is not allowed. (Bioland production standards, 3.8.2 Prohibition of Herbicides)
The BIOLAND standard is more specific with regard to the use of herbicides. There is no explicit prohibition of herbicides in the EU Regulation 2092/91, but as no herbicides are listed in Annex II B, it is not possible to use any until now but might be possible in the future. The BIOLAND Association is generally rejecting the use of herbicides.
Plant protection, substances, weed control - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Preventive measures such as crop cultivation methods are to be applied in order to keep the crop healthy and reduce weeds to a tolerable level. The use of synthetic chemical substances for plant protection is prohibited. The allowed substances are listed in the appendix 2. For thermal weed reduction energy-saving methods have to be applied. (NL standards on production: Part B.I. Plant production 2. Part B.III. Market gardening 4)
The NATURLAND list of allowed substances is similar to the list of the EU Regulation 2092/91, but in some cases more detailed, i.e.: synthetic pyrethroids and metaldehyde are not allowed, copper can only be applied in lower quantities. Nothing is said about the use of energy for thermal weed control in the EU Regulation. The application of conventional crop protection agents is not compatible with organic agriculture. Contamination has to be avoided.
Plant protection, substances, weed control - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Noxious weeds should be controlled by a combination of soil management and crop rotation measures. Application of products that are prepared at the farm from local plants, animals and micro-organisms, are permitted for weed control when crop rotation measures are insufficient. (4.5.)
IFOAM indicated methods for the control of noxoius weeds in detail and admitted substances are indicated. EU Regulation 2092/91 lists the latter in the positive list of ANNEX II B, such as 'Microorganisms approved for pest control'. No restrictions concerning the target organism are listed, therefore under EU Regulation these organisms are applicable for the control of noxoius weeds. No justification could be provided
Poland - private standards of EKOLAND vs the EEC Regulation EKOLAND standards: Landscape and biodiversity protection (1) Short description: Minimum standards for landscape and biodiversity protection are defined. EKOLAND standards (1.1): Each farm must provide extensive areas for biodiversity protection; the minimum area devoted to these activities is 5% of total farm acreage. Grazing must be planned in a way which does not harm wild flora and fauna species. Burning out of old grasses and fallow land is forbidden. Difference to the EU Regulation 2092/91: The EU Regulation does not cover this area. Justification/comments: Organic farming shall actively contribute to landscape and biodiversity protection. EKOLAND farmers found it important to keep “green” image of the association. (Principle of ecology).
Poland - private standards of EKOLAND vs the EEC Regulation 2092/91 EKOLAND standards: Landscape and biodiversity protection (1) Short description: Minimum standards for landscape and biodiversity protection are defined. EKOLAND standards (1.1): Each farm must provide extensive areas for biodiversity protection; the minimum area devoted to these activities is 5% of total farm acreage. Grazing must be planned in a way which does not harm wild flora and fauna species. Burning out of old grasses and fallow land is forbidden. Difference to the EU Regulation 2092/91: The EU Regulation does not cover this area. Justification/comments: Organic farming shall actively contribute to landscape and biodiversity protection. EKOLAND farmers found it important to keep “green” image of the association. (Principle of ecology).
Principles of organic agriculture - SP CRAE 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The Regulatory Council for Organic Farming in the Canarian Island (CRAE) has defined organic principles including an Agroecology definition. The scientific fundaments of organic farming is the agroecology, an integrated science that takes care of the study of agriculture from a holistic perspective: considering not only the technical or agronomic aspect, but also other dimensions: 2.) the societal 3) economic and 4.) environmental one. The aims of the agroecology are: to achieve that the agrarian activity is sustainable (able to maintain indefinitely in the time and by its own means, with the minimum of external support), from anyone of the four considered points of view. It can be download from the webpage: http://www.gobiernodecanarias.org/agricultura/alimentacion/ecologica/manual.htm in spanish
CRAE have further defined organic principles within the EU Regulation 2092/91. The text is defining the agroecology as a fundament of organic agriculture considering social aspects, not included in the EU Regulation. To include an holistic perspective in organic farming.
Principles of organic agriculture - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The principles of organic farming are introduced and explained. Soil Association standards include a subsection dedicated to the principles of organic production. Here, it is explained that the organic approach applies to the whole system of farming and food production, and the text includes a comprehensive set of principles, which are divided into the four categories of Agricultural, Environmental, Food Processing and Social. Soil Association standards also include a subsection dedicated to further explanation of the principles of organic food processing. Here, they explain that organic foods are wholesome, authentic, unadulterated, and of high quality. These terms are defined, and additional principles are explained, such as environmental conservation at the processing site and environmental responsibility regarding packaging and transport. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 1.2.)
Soil Association standards contain sets of principles not included in EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation includes some fragmented explanations of principles of organic farming and food production but not in a dedicated section and not so clear and complete. Organic principles show the values involved and the reasons why the standards have been written. This is to communicate to producers and processors what should be the basic aims of their involvement with organic food and farming. The categorisation of the principles of production show that they are based on practical considerations.
Principles of organic agriculture, sustainability - Nature et Progrès Standards 2002 The stakeholders in organic agriculture engage themselves to progress on environmental, social and economical aims. Nature et Progrès standards require that the stakeholders work to improve their practices on environmental, social and economical topics, but EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include such a preamble with such principles. Organic production is not only the respect of technical practices but also a global ecological approach of one's activity, including environnemental, social and economical aims such as preservation of wild and cultivated biodiversity, limitation of energy consumption, use of recyclable materials, promotion of fair trade and relationships, etc.
Principles of organic agriculture, understanding nature - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
People working in agriculture (farmers) should constantly strive after an understanding of the connections in nature using observation, thinking and perception. (DI production standards, 1.principles, paragraph 4)
DI standards contain recommendations regarding the attitude of organic farmers, but there is no mention of farmers attitudes or levels of understanding contained in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Biodynamic work requires that one is strongly connected with the essential nature of the Biodynamic method, its principles and aims. To this end it is necessary to live into the natural processes using observation, thinking and perception.
Proceesing inputs, food colouring agents - FI Governmental Regulation on additives and production aids in processed organic animal products 2000 E170 Calcium carbonate is not allowed as a food colouring agent. So far the EU Regulation No. 2092/91 does not contain special provisions on additives and production aids allowed in processed organic animal products. The product is regarded as unnecessary in the production of animal products.
Processing and storage - Italian Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Italian Organic Standard (IOS) defines clearly which procedures and methods are allowed for the processing and storage of organic products. Organic food should be produced by means of processing technologies and procedures based on biological, physical and mechanical methods and in a way which maintains the qualities of each ingredient and of the finished product. Specific rules are set for filtration techniques, clarification adjuvants, preservation procedures and storage conditions.
The Italian organic standard specifies a list of possible processes for each kind of food, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. There is a need for detailed rules for the processing and handling of organic products.
Processing and storage, separation - NL Skal Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Skal has specified 'physically separate' for processing (Rule Text: Annex II part B, 3): The unit must have areas separated by place or time within the premises for the storage of products as referred to in Article 1, before and after the operations.
The SKAL standards contain precise definitions for the phrase 'physically separate', which is required for storage of organic and non-organic products, as 'another space' or 'products have to be separated by species' or 'the products have been sealed and contamination is impossible'. Contamination should be avoided as much as possible. Cases of contamination are not good for the image and reliability of organic products.
Processing inputs - Nature et Progres Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The list of authorized additives and technical auxiliaries is limited to a strict minimum.
Nature et Progrès standards limit the use of food additives and processing aids. Compared with the EU Regulation 2092/91 the use of E250, E252, E300, E407, E413 E501 and others are forbidden. Some additives, authorised by EU Regulation, present risks of toxicity or are not absolutely neccesary.
Processing inputs - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The KRAV standards accept 28 additives for food processing (KRAV standards appendix 7).
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 47 additives for food processing. Among these are sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. The KRAV standards allow fewer additives. Nitrates are not allowed for meat products. The number of processing aids allowed is about the same for the KRAV standards and the EU Regulation. Many consumers are interested in organic food because fewer additives are used.
Processing inputs - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The KRAV standards base the acceptance of additives and processing aids for food processing on own criteria plus the elaborate criteria for evaluation of additives to the criteria in the IFOAM Basic Standards for evaluation of inputs, additives and processing aids (KRAV standards paragraph 9.2.2).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 there are no criteria for the evaluation of additives and processing aids. The assessment of additives and processing aids can be very difficult, good criteria can then be of great help. The criteria for evaluation of inputs in the IFOAM Basic Standards are elaborate.
Processing inputs, anti-coagulation agents - FI Governmental Regulation on additives and production aids in processed organic animal products 2000 E450 Potassiumdiphosphate is allowed but only as anti-coagulation agent at a maximal level of 1.5 g/kg as of P2O5 So far the EU Regulation Number 2092/91 does not contain special provisions on additives and production aids allowed in processed organic animal products. The product is regarded as necessary in making of (partly traditional) animal products.
Processing inputs, cheese - FI Governmental Regulation on additives and production aids in processed organic animal products 2000 E500 Calcium chloride is allowed but its use is limited to cheese making. So far the EU Regulation Number 2092/91 does not contain special provisions on additives and production aids allowed in processed organic animal products. The product is regarded as necessary in making of (partly traditional) cheese products.
Processing inputs, cheese - FI Governmental regulation on additives and production aids in processed organic animal products 2000 E160a (ii)Beta carothene is allowed but only for colouring the wax in cheese making. So far the EU Regulation No. 2092/91 does not contain special provisions on additives and production aids allowed in processed organic animal products. The product is regarded as necessary in the making of traditional varieties of cheese such as Edam cheese.
Processing inputs, cheese - NL SKAL Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
SKAL has included the following specific additives to Annex VI for cheese processing: Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrochloric acid (HCl).
Norms for the processing of products that are not within the scope of the EU Regulation 2092/91 must correspond as much as possible with the processing standards in the EU Regulation. Exceptions are made for additives for cheese, non-food, dog and cat feed, wine and meat products. The EU Regulation has not regulated the processing of cheese products in detail. Since the cheese processing demands several additives, these should be permitted in general.
Processing inputs, dog and cat feed - NL SKAL Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
SKAL has included the following specific additives to Annex VI for dog and cat feed: ethylalcolhol, calcium, vitamins, minerals, spore elements, pure amino acids, organic acids, rosemary extract, fishmeal and chicken meal.
Norms for processing of products that are not within the scope of the EU Regulation 2092/91 must correspond as much as possible with the processing standards in the EU Regulation. Exceptions are made for additives for cheese, non-food, dog and cat feed, wine and meat products, which are not listed in the EU Regulation The EU Regulation has not regulated the processing of dog and cat feed products yet.
Processing inputs, meat products - FI Governmental Regulation on additives and production aids in processed organic animal products 2000 Additives E249 (potassium nitrate) and E250 (sodium nitrate) are permitted in meat products to a maximal level of 80 mg/kg of potassium nitrate. So far the EU Regulation Number 2092/91 does not contain special provisions on additives and production aids allowed in processed organic animal products The product is regarded as necessary in making of (partly traditional) Finnish animal products. There is no sufficient experience nor tradition of making nitrate free organic meat products (such as sausages).
Processing inputs, non-food - NL SKAL Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
SKAL has included the following specific additives to Annex VI for non-food processing: ethylalcohol, glycerol, propyleenglycol.
Norms for processing of products that are not within the scope of the EU Regulation 2092/91 must correspond as much as possible with the processing standards in the EU Regulation. Exceptions are made for additives for cheese, non-food, dog and cat feed, wine and meat products. The EU Regulation has not regulated the processing of non-food products yet. Since non-food products can be of agricultural origin, it is important to include this area in the regulation too.
Processing inputs, packaging - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Substances that come in contact with food like cheese wax should not be treated with preservatives (such as anti-fungal agents), pest control substances, and synthetic or natural colouring agents (KRAV standards paragraph 9.2.3).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 there are general statements about contamination of organic products but nothing specific on preservatives in substances used in close contact with food like cheese wax. This area is probably intended to be covered by EU Regulation 2092/91 but it is not clearly stated. It is important to as clearly as possible state what is allowed or not.
Processing, animal feedstuffs - SP CAAE Standards 2001
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Organic standards for processing animal feedstuffs of the Andalusian Committee for Organic Farming (CAAE), from 06/06/2001 (MO-RP-09), have specific requirements regarding ingredients and labelling. It should be indicated if the feedstuffs are made with 100 % organic feed ingredients or only 100 % organic in conversion ingredients. Standards regulate what must be written on the labels.
CAAE Standards for processing animal feedstuffs are specific, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 is in this area more general. To ensure a better processing of organic animal feedstuffs.
Processing, feed and seeds - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Only processes allowed for food processing can be used for processing of feed and seed. Allowed processes are mechanical, physical, biological and enzymatic processes. Water, ethanol and fats are allowed as solvents for extraction. Smoking and precipitation is also allowed (KRAV standards paragraph 2.12.5, 5.3.8 and 9.2.4).
This is not clearly described in EU Regulation 2092/91. Processing of feed and seed are important parts of organic agriculture. It is important to be as clear as possible when writing standards.
Processing, filtering techniques - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Filtration techniques that lead to chemical changes on a molecular level are only allowed after a special examination by KRAV. Filters that contain asbestos or affect the product negatively are not allowed (KRAV standards paragraph 9.2.3).
Filtration techniques are not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. The KRAV standards are more elaborate on filtration techniques.
Processing, general requirements - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
There is a list of possible processes for each kind of food (milk, meat, vegetables). For example, egg products have only 10 possible processes (heating, cooling, freezing, breaking...)
French organic regulation specifies a list of possible processes for each kind of food, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Processing has an effect on the nutritional quality and taste of the final product. Organic products should be unique in both of these aspects. Therefore only certain processes should be allowed.
Processing, general requirements - Nature et Progrès 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
There is a list of possible processes for each kind of food (milk, meat, vegetables). In any case, only mechanical processes, physical processes, cooking and fermentation are allowed.
Nature et Progrès standards specify a list of permitted process, detailed for each kind of food, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Processing has an effect on the nutritional quality and taste of the final product. Organic products should aim to be both of high nutritional quality and taste. Therefore only non-agressive processes, that respect the integrity of the product, should be allowed.
Processing, general requirements - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The KRAV standards list which processing methods that are allowed for processing of organic production. Allowed methods are Mechanical and physical processes, – Biological processes such as fermentation and brewing (such as for example using lactic acid cultures and mould cultures), – Enzymatic processes where the effect is to coagulate (such as rennet) or cleaving substances (such as the enzyme amylase), – Extraction. Only water, ethanol or fats may be used as solvents, – Smoking, – Precipitation, Irradiation is not permitted. KRAV does not permit processes that lead to the creation of foreign molecules. (KRAV standards paragraph 9.2.3).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 irradiation is not permitted. Which processes that are allowed are not stated. The KRAV standards are more restrictive when limiting the processes which can be used. The prohibition for not allowing processes that leads to molecules which does not exist in nature is not covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91. For consumers it is probably important that organic products are done with processes which also can happen in nature.
Processing, general requirements - SP CCPAE Cataluña Rules 2003
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
CCPAE (Cataluña) has a list of possible processes for each kind of food (milk, meat, vegetables). The CCAPE Cataluña has general organic standards revised on 17th January 2003, with 3 chapters devoted to organic food processing. It can be download in the webpage www.ccpae.org
CCPAE organic regulation specifies a list of possible processes for each kind of food, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Processing has an effect on the nutritional quality and taste of the final product. Organic products should be unique in both of these aspects. Therefore only certain processes and methods should be allowed.
Processing, milk - Nature et Progrès Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Organic milk processing units must be dedicated entirely to organic food processing.
Nature et Progrès standards require dedicated organic milk processing units, but EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. The aim is to urge milk processers to convert, and to avoid accidental or deliberate fraud.
Processing, milk - SP CCPAE Cataluña Rules 2003
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The CCPAE general standards document contains 3 chapters (10, 16, 17) related to organic milk production and the processing of milk products. Chapter 10 is related to milking processes and conservation of milk on the farm. Chapter 16 covers standards for milk processing industries and chapter 17 is related to organic processing of milk based products. It can be downloaded from the CCPAE webpage in spanish and catalanish (www.ccpae.org)
CCPAE has specific standards for organic milk processing while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify this area. To ensure a higher confidence in organic food and the quality of farming systems for milk products.
Processing, mixed production - Italian Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Specific conditions are required if the same unit handles and processes both organic and conventional products.
The Italian organic standard specifies precautions to be taken in parallel processing of organic and non organic food, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. There is a need for detailed rules for the processing and handling of organic food.
Processing, origin of ingredients - FI Luomuliitto Standards for "Leppäkerttu" quality label 2004 The basic ingredients of processed products must be 100 percent of Finnish origin and at least 75 percent of ingredients in total. It is recommended that 100 percent of animal feeds are of Finnish origin. EU Regulation No. 2092/91 does not address the issue of geographical origin of the ingredients. Domectic source of ingredients of processed products is regarded important in the eyes of consumers and from the point of view of organic principles.
Processing, preservatives, milk - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
When preserving milk only bacteria cultures and acidification substances of plant origin may be used. Chemical feed preservatives including formic, propionic and acetic acid are not allowed (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.28).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I paragraph 4.17 and annex II D1.5 allows the following preservatives for animal feed: E 200 Sorbic acid, E 236 Formic acid, E 260 Acetic acid, E 270 Lactic acid, E 280 Propionic acid, E 330 Citric acid. On organic production as little chemical preservatives as possible should be used.
Production equipment, ecological impact - DE Naturland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
When purchasing means of production and equipment the ecological impact has to be considered. The use of rainforest timber is not allowed. Energy should be saved. (NL standards on production Part A.II.3. Purchase of means of production and equipment)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly refer to the ecological impact of means of production and equipment nor to the handling of energy whereas NATURLAND does. This requirement refers to the ecological principle of organic farming.
Quality management systems - FI Luomuliitto Standards for "Leppäkerttu" quality label 2004 "The Ladybird-quality logo is owned and administrated by Luomuliitto. It is granted to farmers, food processors and farm input manufacturers producing organic products according to the quality standards of Luomuliitto. The standards are additional to the EU Regulation No. 2092/91 and consist of compulsory requirements and recommendations. The compulsory requirements include the membership of Luomuliitto and production based on quality management system (ISO9001 or equivalent). " EU Regulation No. 2092/91 does not address issues related to quality management systems. The former private, national certifier, Luomuliitto, wants to keep up with some of its own standards such as composting of the manure and domestic ingredients which requirements are regarded as important in the eyes of the Finnish consumers. Furthermore Luomuliitto wants to promote new progressive ideas such as combining the organic production and quality management.
Rabbit standards - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
In addition to the general rules for animals there are special rules for rabbits / conversion period (10 weeks)/ outdoor access (as reg 2092) / use of pens or transportable grazing cages / possibility to conceal themselves / outdoor area shall mainly consist of soil with grass-vegetation / area must have a rest period of one year every second year / access to water obl. / maximum number of animals per hutch (25) / slaughter and angora in common bins, breeding animals can be kept in individual bins (and shall have nest boxes) / minimum area Angora (0,2 m2), fattening rabbits (0,3 m2), breeding rabbits (0,7 m2), floors (at least half shall be solid) / breeding (not more than 4 litters a year, young rabbits at least 5 weeks together with mother) / feeding young rabbits (at least 5 weeks with milk from rabbits) and others (min 60% roughage).
Governmental regulation is more detailed, since the EU 2092/91 does not have specific rules for rabbits. Because the EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover legal rules for rabbits.
Recertification - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The KRAV standards request that a certification body that can be recognised shall be either IFOAM accredited or ISO 65/EN 45011 accredited. KRAV also makes a comprehensive assessment of the certification body. For recertification of a product KRAV uses an assessment list a range of requirements which differs if it is a vegetable or an animal product. (KRAV standards chapter 17).
All organic products produced inside the EU have organic status in the whole community. Certification bodies in the EU are accepted and supervised by the competent authorities in the respective countries. For import the EU 2092/91 has one system where a third countries system for supervision of certification bodies and standards for organic production are accepted (article 11.1). The other system in function is an approval for an individual import into the EU. It is the importer who asks the competent authority in the country of import for an acceptance of the product. The difference between the two standards is that EU Regulaion 2092/91 is regulating the word “organic” on products in the EU and the KRAV standards are regulating the use of the KRAV-logo. KRAV treats certification bodies inside and outside the EU in the same way and the same standards. Products certified by KRAV produced outside the EU has also to be accepted by the competent authorities.
SA Cert Difference Template
SA Cert Difference Template
SA Cert Difference Template
SI Rules 2003: Beekeping
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Detailed bee standards do exist. The main requirement are the same as in the EU regulation. Special rules exist for: Only one type of bees is allowed: Aplis mellifera carnica. / Specified minimum distance to highways and urban centres (1 km) and industrial centres (3 km). / No transitional period is provided. However the period of artificial feeding with non-organic feed is limited to the period from 20. August till 5. September of the current year and to an amount of 10 kg per hive. / Veterinary treatments as described in (6.4) are not mentioned.
Areas for organic beekeeping in Slovenia were designated in 2003 in accordance with EEC Annex I C, 4.1. In the following areas the SI Rules are more restrictive compared with the EEC regulation: - All beekeeping units in the same area must comply with the SI Rules (Art. 36); there is no derogation foreseen as in EEC Annex I C, 1.3. - The type of bees is strongly restricted whereas the EEC has no such obligation SI Standard is more precise than the EEC regulation: - The SI Rules (Art. 38) requires that "the time to inform the inspection body before the moving of the beehives by the beekeeper is specified to at least 48 hours before the moving takes place. The EEC has not such a rule. - Specifies minimum distance to highways and urban centres (1 km) and industrial centres (3 km), whereas EEC Annex I C, 4.2 is not specifying and distances. - Time to inform the inspection body before the moving of the beehives by the beekeeper is specified to at least 48 hours before the moving takes place. To allow only one type of bees is a reasonable limitation on the basis of provisions in EEC Annex I C 3.1; this breed is autochtonous in Slovenia and was adapted to the local conditions by careful selection through centuries
SI Rules 2003: Labelling and Trade
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
SI Rules describe the labelling of organic products in Slovenia and specifically demand the use of an official label for Slovenian organic products. Further, a condition for labelling a product as organic is that a certificate has been issued for it and the SI Rule refer to this certificate many times when describing movement of products on the market, in processing etc. SI Rules are less specific in demands for labelling of products under conversion to organic farming. In contrast to EU Regulation, SI Rules specifically exclude that the products of hunting or fishing may be labelled as “organic”.
SI Rules 2003 (Art. 4) demand that organic products on the territory of Slovenia bear denotation “ekoloski”. Organic products produced in Slovenia must carry the official denotation “ekoloski” (“organic”) and relevant official label, under the condition that minimum 50% of organic ingredients are of Slovenian origin. Additional indications such as “biolosko” or “biodinamicno” (biological, biodynamical) are allowed if the product das been produced according to the Rules. SI Rules put a lot of emphasise on the certificate for organic product issued by the inspection body: "…an agricultural product may be labelled as “organic”…if a certificate has been issued for the product" (Art. 4.). It further describes the content of this certificate (Art. 6) where also stands: "…The certificate shall display the first name and last name and/or business name and address of the producer, each preparer and each vendor, the name and code number of the inspection authority, the type of product and/or foodstuff and, at the request of the inspection authority, also the quantity of product and/or foodstuff, to which the certificate applies." The SI Rules refer to the certificate several times when describing movement of products on the market, in processing etc. EU Regulation, on the other hand, mentions a certificate only in relation to the imported products (EU Regulation Art. 11). According to SI Rules, agricultural products or foodstuffs produced or prepared during the conversion period may bear the label “organic” and clearly show the words “under conversion” (Art. 8), while EU Regulation is much more specific in description of the labelling of such products in order to prevent misleading of the purchaser (EU Regulation Art. 5, 5. (c)). In addition, SI Rules define that the products of hunting or fishing may not be labelled as “organic” (Art. 4) whereas EU Regulation does not have this formulation. The demand for obligatory use of state label is supposed to improve the recognition of Slovenian organic products. The use of a certificate in the trade also with domestic products should improve the transparency of organic production and trade and prevent fraud.
SI Rules 2003: Livestock origin
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
SI Rules state that for livestock brought into an organic livestock production unit, the maximum weight for piglets is less than 25 kg (35 kg in EU regulation Annex I B (3.6.).(Art. 24). SI Rules allow the numbers of animals being increased, following the approval of the inspection authority.
SI Rules 2003 foresee lower maximum weight for non-organic piglets to be brought to organic unit: 25 kg instead of 35 kg in EU regulation Annex I B (3.6.). SI Rules allow the numbers of animals being increased, following the approval of the inspection authority, without specifying the maximum, whereas EU regulation Annex I B (3.10.) states that the percentages may be increased up to 40%. In the same paragraph, EU regulation foresee as the possible special case for increasing the mentioned percentages also the case when the breeds are in danger of being lost to farming; SI Rules do not mention this case. No justification was provided by the standard setting body.
SP CAAE standards 2001: standards for processing animal feedstuffs
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Andalusian Committe for Organic Farming (CAAE), has a private standard, named (MO-RP-09) 06/06/2001 organic standards for proceesing animal feedstuffs, regarding ingredients for processing and labelling. This organic standards are also applied at national level by several of the 15 public certifications bodies.
CAAE Standards for animal feestuffs processing are specific and detailed and not regulated in the EU Reg. 2092/91. To ensure a better organic feedstuffs processing system.
SP CCPAE standards Catalunya 2002: Organic horse standards The CCPAE a public certification body for Catalunya Region contains 1 article (11.06) in the general standards (pages 154-158) containing organic standards for horses. It can be download in spanish and catalanish at the webside www.ccpae.org Specific rules for organic breeding of horses is not specifically regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide strict rules for any significant type of agricultural / food production.
Scope of organic regulation - US National Organic Program 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
US regulates cultivated crop, wild crop, livestock, livestock feed and handling (preparation and processing) operations. For labelling purposes US only regulates the term 'organic', not derivatives or diminutives. Exemptions: US exempts producers and handlers with less than $5000/year total organic sales from certification requirements, although they must comply with the regulation.
EU Regulation 2092/91 is only applied to unprocessed agricultural products, processed agricultural products and feedstuff. US, in addition applies the regulation to processed non-food products although there are no specific provisions or exemptions (e.g. additives for producing cosmetics or textiles) for non-food products. EU regulates the terms 'organic', 'biologic', and 'ecologic', including their translations, derivatives, and diminutives. US only regulate the term 'organic'. US exempt producers and handlers with less than $5000/year. EU does not. Retail operations are not required to be certified by US, but by EU (with some exemptions). US exempt handlers that process products containing less than 70% organic ingredients from certification. EU prohibits such operations from identifying 'organic' ingredients on the information panels of products. No justification was given
Sea salt production - FR Nature et Progres 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
There are standards for the collection and preparation of sea salt.
Nature et Progrès standards include standards for sea salt production. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Salt is a major ingredient in food. Therefore, it was necessary to define organic standards for sea salt production, including manual harvest, environmental management of saltworks, use of non-polluting materials for harvesting, transport and storage, monitoring of polluants, etc..
Seed and plant material, origin - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Seed must origin from bio-dynamic and if not available from organic production. The non-availability of organic seed must be proven by the farmer. Hybrids of cereals with the exception of corn (Zea mays) are excluded for the production of feed and food. Planting material deriving from lines which were created with protoplasm or cytoplasm fusion technique can not be used. Seed should be procured from European countries (less transport, less pollution).
EU Regulation 2092/91 does allow hybrids, whereas DEMETER does not allow the use of hybrids in any cereal (with the exception of corn). Furthermore, cytoplasm and protoplasm fusion as breeding techniques are not accepted by DEMETER standards. Seed should be well adapted to the production technique and therefore it should already be bred with bio-dynamic methods in order to support the taste and individuality of each variety. Therefore biodynamic seed and propagation material must be used if available.
Seed and plant material, origin - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Seeds, plants and plant propagating material must come from organic holdings. Only if non availability is proven can non-organic sources be used. Government requires to establish a list of available organic seed in a database (OrganicXsees-database provided by FIBL).
Swiss Ordinance requires evidence that seed was ordered by the user in good time. EU Regulation 2092/91 has similar rules for seed source, but does not require evidence of the ordering timescale. In order to enhance the efforts for organic seed production, also farmers are forced to actively search sources of organic seed.
Seed and plant material, origin - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Organic plant propagation material must be used if available. For perennial crops vegetative propagation material from BIOLAND certified origin must be preferred. In case of unavailability and with the approval of BIOLAND, plant propagation material of conventional origin can be used. Conventional seedlings for perennials must pass the conversion period in a separated place before being sold with reference to BIOLAND. After August 2006 only organic plant propagation material shall be used. (Bioland production standards, 3.6.2 Organically Produced Seeds and Plant Materials; Bioland production standards, 3.6.5 Young Plants for Perennial Crops; Bioland production standards, 5.8.4 Seedlings)
The Bioland standard is similar but slightly more restrictive in the requirement to use Bioland material with preference and in expressing the intention not to use conventional material after 2006. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 conventional seeds can be used after approval if no variety of the requested quality is available in a country, according to the national data base. The handling of BIOLAND certified material is not regulated. To ensure organic quality throughout the whole production chain and in order to stimulate the development of the organic seed production sector. The date is derived from the date of revision of the EU seeds regulation. A complete prohibition of conventional seeds after 2006 however is unlikely.
Seed and plant material, origin - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Seeds and vegetative propagation material must originate from biodynamic agriculture if available. Open pollinated varieties of biodynamic origin should be preferred. For vegetable production and potatoes propagation material from organic origin can be used, if biodynamic material is not available. If organic sources are not available, untreated material of conventional origin (excluding young plants/seedlings) may be used after approval by the respective organisation. Unavailability must be documented. (DI production standards, 3.1 Seed and propagation material; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 1)
The DI standard is more detailed in the aspect to require prefence of open pollinated varieties and plant propagation material from biodynamic sources. In case of unavailability and after approval conventional material can be used. The EU Regulation does not refer to open pollinated varieties and does not regulate biodynamic quality. The use of conventional seeds or vegetative plant propagation material can be approved if the desired crop and variety is not available in organic quality according to the national data base for organic seeds. The aim is to grow plants of the best nutritional quality and to ensure biodynamic quality throughout the whole production chain. Hybrids are considered to have a lower quality concerning nutritional aspects. Hybridisation as breeding technique is in opposition to the understanding of adequate biodynamic methods. For more details visit www.forschungsring.de.
Seed and plant material, origin - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Seeds and vegetative reproductive material should be from plants grown in accordance with the provisions of Section 4.1 of these guidelines for at least one generation or, in the case of perennial crops, two growing seasons.
Codex Alimentarius Guidelines rules the use of organic seeds comparable with the EU Regulation 2092/91 but allows when not untreated seeds are available treated seed with substances not listed in the Annex 2. In addition the EU Regulation requires member countries to have a data base on the availability of organic seed. In many countries outside the EU it is not always possible to get untreated seed.
Seed and plant material, origin - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Organic seed and plant material should be used. In case of non availability, non organic seed is admittable (4.1.1. and 4.1.2).
EU Regulation 2092/91 rules the use of organic seeds similar as IFOAM. However if no organic seed is available as well untreated conventional seed and plant material, chemically treated seend and plant material may be used. The EU Regulation does not allow conventionally treated seed anymore. Furthermore the EU Regulation requires member countries to have a data base to document the availability of organic seed. In some countries it is not possible yet to get untreated seed for some species. However derogations must be limited in time and monitored by the certification body.
Seed and plant material, origin - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The producer must use organically grown seeds, annual seedlings, and planting stock: Exceptions: In case equivalent organically produced varieties are not commercially available the following is allowed: (1) Non-organically produced, untreated seeds and planting stock; (2) Non-organically produced seeds and planting stock that have been treated with a substance included on the "National list of synthetic substances allowed for use in organic crop production". (3) Non-organically produced annual seedlings may be used when a temporary variance has been granted; (4) Non-organically produced planting stock to be used to produce a perennial crop only after the planting stock has been maintained under a system of organic management for a period of no less than 1 year; and (5) Products treated with prohibited substances may be used when the application of the materials is a requirement of Federal or State phytosanitary regulations. Organically produced seed must be used for the production of edible sprouts.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires the EU Member States to set up a database on the availability of seed varieties and seedlings. The US does not have an equivalent database. The EU specifies in Regulation (EG) 1452/2003 the conditions for authorizations for use of conventional seeds. The US does not. The EU aims at publishing a list of seeds and propagation material where no authorizations may be granted. The US does not mention this. EU does not allow using conventional seedlings. US do when a temporary variance has been granted. US specifically require organic seeds for edible sprouts; EU does not. US allows treatment of propagation materials with prohibited substances when mandated by phytosanitary regulations. EU does not contain such a provision. There was no official justification provided by USDA.
Seed and plant material, origin, peat - CH Bio Suisse 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Seedlings must be certified organic. If non available this has to be proven. Any use of treated seedlings leads to disapproval of the crop emerging from it. Peat can constitute only 70% of the substratum for the production of seedlings.
Similar regulation for seedling as for seed as the EU Regulation 2092/91, however there is no restriction in the use of peat in the substratum in the EU Regulation. Vegetative propagation material is considered organic if it derives from mother plants grown organically for at least one generation or, in the case of perennial crops, two growing seasons. BIO SUISSE and EU rules define these periods for mother plants identically. Peat is a very limited natural resource for many areas of the world. Restriction of it's use is in line with the approach of sustainability in organic farming. No peat is admitted as general soil conditioner.
Selling produce, loose weight - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Selling produce in loose weight in shops and supermarkets can be done from a KRAV labelled box if the packaging or refilling date is clearly stated. Signs with the KRAV mark shall be placed close to the product panel (KRAV standards paragraph 2.13.14 and 2.3.15).
Sales of organic products in shops and supermarkets are not regulated by EU 2092/91. Many organic products are sold in loose weight and it is important that organic products can compete on equal conditions. There is a wish by consumers to reduce the amount of packaging material. It is not possible to request all shops and supermarkets to be certified for handling of organic products.
Slaughter and livestock husbandry - US NOP 2002 US has no specific provisions for husbandry practices and slaughter. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows artificial insemination but not embryo transfer. US does not address this however the use of hormones in the absence of illness in the US is not allowed. EU does not allow operations such as dehorning, cutting of teeth and other to be carried out systematically. EU defines minimum age for slaughter of poultry. US does not address this. No justification was available.
Slaughter, general requirements - SE KRAV Standards 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The standards for slaughter of animals are detailed standards on how animals should be transported, kept in the lairage, stunned and slaughtered. Groups of animals are not allowed to be mixed with for them unknown animals. The slaughter of the animals should normally take place on the same day as arrival to the slaughterhouse. The waiting animals should have access to water and for animals kept more than 4 hours access to roughage and bedded lying areas. The movement of animals within the slaughterhouse should be without physical violence and electric pods are not allowed. Animals should be checked individually for successful stunning and bleeding to death should occur without the awareness of unstunned animals. Each animal should be checked to ensure that it is dead. (KRAV Standards Chapter 10).
KRAV standards are more detailed and have additional requirements to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation states that the slaughter must be handled in such a way that stress to the animals is reduced to a minimum. Animal welfare in all parts of an animals life and on the way death is seen to be very important by all stakeholders involved; producers, handlers, traders, supermarkets, NGOs and consumers.
Slaughter, minimum age - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Minimum age at slaughter is defined for each species of poultry (81 days for chickens, etc.)
Minimum age at slaughter is the same for every strain of poultry, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require this minimum age if the farmer uses slow growing strains. By definition, slow growing strains mature after the other strains. There is absolutely no reason to slaughter them before the others. Plus 81 days is the minmum age for slaughter of chickens under the Label Rouge, the French conventional quality standard.
Slaughter, minimum age - UK Compendium 2005 The minimum ages for slaughter of various classes of poultry are specified, with an exception allowed in the case of slow growing strains. Capons are included in the list in the EU Regulation 2092/91 but not in UK Compendium. Capons are omitted from the list in the UK Compendium, to avoid redundancy of information, because this class of poultry is not reared in UK due to the requirement for a vet for the castration process.
Slaughter, minimum age, pigs - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
Minimum age of slaughter for pigs is 182 days.
French regulation defines a minimum age at slaughter for pigs. There is no such obligation in the EU Regulation 2092/91. The aim is to avoid organic pigs with poor meat quaity. 182 days is the minimum age for slaughter of pigs under Label Rouge, the French conventional quality standard.
Slaughter, minimum age, poultry - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005 Minimal age for broilers at the day of slaughter is 63 days. EU Regulation is more detailled than BIO SUISSE. BIO SUISSE sets limits only for broilers, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 adds limits for all kinds of fowl. Furthermore BIO SUISSE accepts an age of 63 days for broilers, whereas the EU Regulation requires 81 days for chicken as minimal age at slaughter. Among fowl, only broilers are kept on an an economic scale in Switzerland. Consequently BIO SUISSE has no regulation for other fowl. For broilers the minimum age for slaughter is 63 days due to the lack of market demand for heavier animals. Too quick growth infringes the healthy development of the sceleton and the behaviour of fowl. A sound growth of animals is an ethological requirement in organic farming.
Slaughter, stunning, general requirements - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
It is prohibited to slaughter animals without pre-stunning. There are a series of detailed rules to specify how animals are stunned and killed. Equipment must have an effective cleaning and maintenance schedule. Staff must be suitably trained and qualified. There must be adequate back-up equipment. Tenderising substances must not be used on live animals. Animals must be effectively restrained without causing injury or distress, and only immediately before stunning or killing. Animals, except poultry, must be effectively stunned before shackling and hoisting. The stunning process must render the animal unconscious without distress and maintain unconsciousness until the animal is dead. There are a series of detailed specifications for the various methods of stunning that are permitted for each different class of livestock, together with the minimum stun-to-bleed times in each case. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 42.8.)
Soil Association standards are more detailled than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards prohibit the slaughter of animals without pre-stunning. There are detailed maximum times between stunning and bleeding of animals. EU Regulation states only that the slaughtering process must be conducted so that the stress to the animals is reduced to a minimum. Soil Association standards are intended to ensure that the animal welfare problems associated with slaughtering processes are minimised. They specify a set of required conditions, along with stunning and killing methods available in UK, that should involve the least risk of distress for the animals.
Slaughter, stunning, methods - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There are a number of permitted methods of stunning, killing and slaughtering specified for different classes of livestock. Only pigs may be stunned using carbon dioxide, and Soil Association permission is required for this. The operation of the carbon dioxide stunning system is subject to a number of specified conditions. The operation of the carbon dioxide system must be constantly monitored by a specifically trained, licensed slaughterman, and pigs must be killed by the gas and bled as soon as possible. The carbon dioxide system must include back-up equipment for use in case of failure. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 42.8.8-42.8.15 and 42.9.12-42.9.14.)
Soil Association Standards are more specific than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards require that carbon dioxide must not be used to stun any animal apart from pigs, and permission must be gained for its use with pigs. EU Regulation does not contain any prohibition or other reference to the use of carbon dioxide for stunning. Carbon dioxide stunning may cause distress to animals in the stunning process. The stunning is not instant and may cause respiratory distress. Susceptibility to distress is affected by pig breed and other variables, so the Soil Association would require to know all the relevant details to decide on any permission for use of carbon dioxide in pig slaughter.
Slaughter, veterinary inspections - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The results from the veterinary inspections of the animal before and after slaughter should be communicated by the farmer to KRAV (KRAV standards paragraph 5.5.8).
The results of veterinarian inspections are not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. The results of veterinarian inspection gives good evidence as to whether the animals have been treated well, been dirty etc. It is a good tool for the certification body.
Slury import, from biogas production - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In principle slurry from biogas production has to come from substances of organic farming. A deviation is possible for production units where the approval for building was given before 31.12.2004. The general restrictions for the use of products of annex II are valid (3, 4 and 5). The deviation is valid until the end of 2010, if there are substrates which are provably delivered by the Bio Austria farm to the biogas co-production. Substrates of conventional farming may only enter a biogas co-production, if they are allowed according to the restricted Bio Austria list of brought in fertilisers (see 'restrictions in the positive list of fertiliser input'). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 for biogas fermentation with approval since 2005 as they require to use only substances of organic farming while the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows all products of Annex II A. The main reason is to create high consumer confidence.
Social Justice - Int. IFOAM Standards - 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Operators should have a policy on social justice. Violation of basic human rights and social injustice lead to non approval of the operation as organic. Forced labour and discrimination is prohibited. Child labour is accepted with clear constraints.(8)
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not address the matter. As organic farming is a method respecting nature in its whole, human beings who also belong to the system should also be treated in a respectful way.
Social Justice - Italian Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The Italian Organic Standards (IOS) requires the organic operator to respect some social and labour principles within her/his relationship with any member of the team of the farm/firm.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not address social justice principles. In harmony with the IFOAM principles of fairness, the IOS requires the organic operator, to respect together with the environment the social justice principles of equal opportunities, working conditions, and absence of discrimination.
Social justice - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
In the KRAV standards operators are requested to have a written policy on social justice, exempted are compamies with less than 10 employees and those who operate under a state system that enforces social laws. Involuntary labour shall not be used. The operators shall provide their employees and contractors equal opportunity and treatement and not act in a discriminatory way. They shall also have the freedom to associate, right to organise and to bargain collectively. Children shall have the possibility to attend basic education (KRAV standards paragraph 2.3.10).
Social justice is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Social justice is an important part of organic agriculture. More and more consumers have concerns about whether the products that they buy are produced under acceptable conditions.
Social responsibity - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
All NATURLAND certified operations with 10 or more employees have to meet certain minimum requirements regarding the form and content of contracts with workers, equal treatment of workers, amount of wages and mode of payment, optional payment in terms of services or products, amount and distribution of working hours and social benefits. In any NATURLAND certified operation, the basic rights of the people who live and work there must be respected. At least the local or if those are less demanding, the international legal provisions (UN conventions on human rights / children's rights, ILO conventions), have to be complied with. Forced labour is prohibited, workers have the right to associate in order to lobby for their own interests, all workers must be equally treated and discrimination is not tolerated. Child labour is tolerated only under certain conditions considering the well-being of the child. The employer must assure the health and safety of the workers. (NL standards on production Part A. III.Social responsibility)
Aspects of social responsibility are not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. This chapter refers to the holistic approach of the NATURLAND standards and to the principle of fairness of organic agriculture.
Soil and potting mixes - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Soils and potting mixes should preferably be generated from the farm itself and must consist of at least 25% prepared composts. Peat can only be used in propagating beds and potting mixes and is limited in quantity (max. 75%). Synthetic soil improving agents are not allowed. (DI standards 3.4.2.Manures, soils and potting mixes)
The use of the biodynamic preparations in the manure and compost is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method. The farm "organism" should strive for independence from outside inputs. Peat is restricted because of nature protection reasons. The use of the biodynamic preparations in the manure and compost is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method. The farm organisms should strive for independence from outside inputs. Peat is restricted because of nature protection reasons.
Soil management, artificial mulch - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
A maximum of 5% of the free range area used for growing vegetables may be covered at any one time by mulch foil, mulch fleece or mulch paper. Operators with less than 4 ha of area for vegetables may cover up to 2,000 m2 using the above methods stated. (Bioland production standards, 5.1.5 Use of Technical Mulch Materials)
The BIOLAND standard has a broader scope. The soil cover with mulching material is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. In order to reduce waste.
Soil management, fertility - SI Rules 2003
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In order to improve the fertility and biological activity of the soil the SI Rules 2003 (Art. 14) require an annual production plan as the basis for the use of any substances for maintaining and improving fertility and biological activity of the soil, which needs an agreement from the inspection body.
SI Rules require the operator to use the methods and substances for maintaining and improving fertility and biological activity of the soil as stated by the EU Regulation 2092/91 (Annex I A, 2.1 a), b), c)) but does not explicitly mention their priority to the use of substances in the Annex (List of Fertilizers and soil conditioners); it merely states that only substances from this list may be used. SI Rules state that the use of substances for maintaining and improving fertility and biological activity of the soil is defined in the annual production plan (Art. 14), whereas EU Regulation does not mention such a plan. Mentioning the annual production plan which has to be approved by the inspection body is probably to increase the operator's attentiveness in this respect.
Soil management, irrigation - CZ PRO-BIO Standards 2004 Irrigation should not endanger water resources or the soil. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not deal with irrigation. Strong consideration of environmental impacts is a principle of organic production.
Soil management, perennial crops - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In orchards land planting with a planting mixture appropriate to the location is required throughout the most part of the year.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed, since the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have requirements for land planting in orchards. Green coverage is required to reduce erosion problems.
Soil management, perennial crops - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
For perennial crops, the soil must be covered with vegetation all year round.
While BIO SUISSE requires a full vegetative cover of the soil on perennial crops, the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have any specific requirements. Multiple soil tillage and lack of cover crops lead to erosion and loss of organic matter in the soil. Constant vegetation will minimize such unfavourable effects in perennial crops.
Soil management, perennial crops - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Soil of perennial crops must be covered all year round.
While DEMETER requires a full vegetative cover of the soil in perennial crops, EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover this aspect. Multiple soil tillage and lack of cover crops lead to erosion and loss of organic matter in the soil. Constant vegetation will minimize such unfavourable effects in perennial crops and increases the level of organic matter in the soil.
Soil management, perennial crops - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Vineyards and hop plantations must have undercropping. In dry periods and in new plantations parts of the soil in vineyards can be kept without vegetation for three months. If this period is extended, the soil must be covered with organic material. While establishing an undercropping system, the nitrogen balance must be considered and legume species must be part of the composition. (Bioland production standards, 5.6 Viticulture, 5.6.1 Soil Care, Greening and Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.3 Greening)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require soil coverage for perennial cropping systems as BIOLAND does. There is only the general provision to use legume species and green manure in order to maintain and enhance soil fertility. In order to reduce the problems and disadvantages of the permanent mono-culture (erosion, problems with pests and diseases) in vineyards and to ensure the production of grapes, juice and wine of a high quality. Undercropping and soil cover can contribute to soil conservation and avoid erosion. Additionally habitat for beneficial insects is provided as a contribution to a balanced ecosystem.
Soil management, perennial crops - DE Naturland Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
In permanent cropping systems the soil must be covered with vegetation (with exemptions). (NL standards on production: Part B. I.Plant production