Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

  • Subject Areas
    • Animal husbandry
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, ruminants - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association standards (Paragraphs 11.3.2) set a minimum proportion of fibrous feed and a maximum proportion of concentrate feed in the rations of cattle, sheep and goats after weaning. The Soil Association specifies a minimum of 60% roughage, fresh or dried fodder, or silage for all cattle, sheep and goats (after weaning). In this case, the Soil Association complies with the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 4.7. Soil Association Organic Standards. 11.3.5, and 12.3.7. Soil Association Standards use the most strict option provided within EU Regulation 2092/91 regarding herbivore feed rations, as follows. EU Regulation permits inspection bodies to authorise a reduction from 60% to 50% in the minimum proportion of fibrous forage in the daily ration of dairy animals during the first 3 months of lactation. The EU Regulation allows inspection bodies to authorise a higher carbohydrate, lower fibre, cereal-based ration to be fed to dairy animals in early lactation. This ration may promote higher daily milk yields but increase the risks to the health, welfare, and longevity of the animals. The higher concentrate ration risks compromising the health and welfare of the livestock.
Animal health plan - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.3.3. The livestock management plan must include a livestock health plan, preferably made with assistance of the farm veterinarian; showing how disease resistance will be built and how the use of veterinary medicines will be minimised. There are a number of detailed specifications that must be implemented in the livestock health plan. The plan must include health management during and after conversion, methods used to monitor and diagnose disease, disease control measures, the methods used to reduce pre-existing livestock health problems. The Soil Association have templates available to assist producers in formulating these livestock management and health plans. In their requirement for a livestock health plan, the Soil Association standards comply with the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 5.1. Soil Association standards contain detailed specifications not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards require that the livestock management plan should include a livestock health plan, preferably made with the assistance of the farm vet. EU Regulation mentions the requirement for a livestock health plan as part of the general requirements for a management plan for the organic-production livestock unit in Annex III, Paragraph 1, but includes no further relevant guidance or requirements. The Soil Association standards specifications and guidance for livestock health plans are intended to provide a standard means to apply best practice and promote positive animal health, and to allow the monitoring of health indicators for a progressive reduction of veterinary treatments. Livestock health plans are a management tool for producers and a health and welfare evaluation tool for organic inspectors. They are seen as best practice in UK livestock husbandry, contributing to the fulfilment and verification of the practices and positive outcomes of organic livestock husbandry.
Animals breeding, birth - SE KRAV 2006
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Animals shall be given the opportunity to be alone during giving birth and laying eggs. Cows shall be allowed to calve alone and may only in exceptional cases be tethered. Indoor calving shall take place in a calving box. Sows shall farrow alone and farrowing may take place in a farrowing hut or if indoors in a separate space with sufficient freedom and space. There shall be enough nesting material for sows (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1, 5.2.2 and 5.2.3).
Specific conditions for cows and pigs giving birth is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Animal welfare is one of the most important areas of organic production. Conditions in some conventional systems are far from providing animals the possibility of giving birth in a more natural and undisturbed way. Therefore it is important to clearly express this in organic standards.
Beekeeping, general requirements - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The Bio AUSTRIA General Standard for bee-keeping is basically the requirement of the EU Regulation 2092/91 including some more detailed points: hive protection, management of colonies, building and storing of honey combs, wax processing, processing of extracted honey, honey storing and analysing, bees health. Additionally to the followings of the standard there must be made a wax analysis (mixed sample of hives medium walls and wax stocks) of residues of inadmissible Varroa- and wax moth-pesticides. • Honey must not be kept in containers made of synthetic substances (instead of stainless steel), because even food proved synthetic substances seem to emit softening agents which are supposed to be absorbed by honey changing the scent of it. • The residues must not be more than 0.5 mg/kg wax per active substance which corresponds to the provable limit. • In general there are big residue problems (the average values of wax are between 1.7 mg and 6 mg Apistan/kg, other chemicals can have much higher values). • Thymol (against Varroa) is not permitted because the residues in honey change the scent of it. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.18)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it provides analysis of wax for Varroa and wax moth control substances which are forbidden in organic agriculture. Residues may not exceed 0.5 mg/kg wax per substance. Further rules are specifications to the EU Regulation 2092/91 for bee keeping. Principle of care/precaution. No justification was provided by the standard-setting organisation.
Conversion of land, livestock production - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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A conversion period of 4 years is required; crops may be sold with 'DEMETER' denomination in the fourth year of conformity with DEMETER standards. As soon as all plots with fodder production have completed the conversion period, also animal husbandry is considered as DEMETER. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period is possible). In case of a certified production according Bio Suisse Standards, DEMETER approval may occur in the second year of conformity with DEMETER Standards.
DEMETER requires a minimal conversion period of 4 years for pastures, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 permits a reduction of the conversion period for pastures down to 6 months for non-herbivore species if no disallowed substances have been applied to the respective plots. Essential agricultural knowledge and skills in the biodynamic mehod are important prerequisitites for successfull farming. To acquire this knowledge and to gain credibility in the consumers eyes, DEMETER strictly defines the beginning of conversion as starting with the first inspection and requires a four year conversion period.
Conversion of land, livestock production - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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A conversion period of at least 2 full calendar years is required. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period is possible)
The Swiss Ordinance requires a conversion period of 2 years for pastures, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 permits a reduction of the conversion period for pastures down to 6 months for non-herbivore species if no disallowed substances have been applied to the respective plots. This rule is contributing to maintain consumer confidence.
Conversion of land, livestock production - UK Compendium 2005 As a derogation from the principle that all farmland and livestock enterprises must undergo the full conversion period, this may be reduced to 1 year for areas used for non-herbivorous livestock under certain conditions. These conditions are that the land in question has received no prohibited inputs for a year before the start of the conversion period and that authorisation is obtained from the inspection body. UK Compendium states that areas used for non-herbivorous livestock may have a reduced conversion period of 1 year only if they have received no prohibited inputs for at least 1 year before the start of the conversion period. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows a reduced conversion period of 1 year for any land used for non-herbivore livestock, and it allows this conversion period to be further reduced to 6 months if prohibited inputs have been absent for 1 year. UK Compendium aims to reduce the health risk to the consumer that might result from contamination of organic products with prohibited substances. This helps to verify the organic status of livestock products. It continues the historically more restrictive UK standards on organic livestock conversion periods. The amendment was requested by UK inspection bodies.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006
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Conversion of all animals shall be started within 4 years after the beginning of the conversion according to the Danish Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Section 2.1: Conversion to organic agricultural production. However, according to 'section 4.1.8 animals for own use within the limits of non-commercial animal production (see attached file) are allowed as long as there is no organic production of the same animal species on the farm. The number and type of animals must be rapported to the Plantdirectorate. The manure from the non-commercial animals is considered organic, when used on own farm.
According to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Agricultural Production, October 2006 it is generally required that all animals are converted and the conversion of them shall start within 4 years after the entering into conversion of the farm except for non-commercial animal production for own use. According to EU Regilation 2092/91 Annex IB, Article 1.6 rearing of conventional livestock may be allowed on an organic holding provided they are of a different species than the organic animals, and they are reared on units where the buildings and parcels are clearly separated from the buildings and parcels where the organic animals are reared. Organic farming is a land based activity with a holistic approach. It is not logic to convert one kind of animal production and not the other. Besides, the requirement reduces the risk of fraud. However, for non-commercial animal production where only few animals are kept for own use it may be reasonable to set less strict rules.
Conversion, livestock and animal products - UK Compendium 2005 During the conversion period, livestock, except poultry, reared for organic meat must be reared from birth as organic. If their offspring are to be used as organic meat animals, breeding ewes, female goats and sows must be managed as organic from mating. Breeding cattle must be managed as organic for at least 12 weeks before the birth of offspring to be reared for organic meat. There are other periods specified for other classes of livestock to be managed as organic if their products are to be sold as organic. UK Compendium specifies that, for offspring to be sold as organic meat, the breeding female must be in organic management after mating for small ruminants and pigs, for at least 12 weeks before birth for cattle, and all these offspring must be reared as organic from birth. EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that organic management must be for at least 12 months or three quarters of lifetime, whichever is longer, for bovines and equidae reared for meat, and six months for small ruminants and pigs. EU Regulation makes no mention here of the management of breeding females after mating. For milk production, UK Compendium requires that cattle must be in organic management for 9 months before the milk can be sold as organic, with organic feed management for at least 6 months. EU Regulation requires 6 months organic management for all milk producing animals. The UK Compendium livestock conversion rule aims to eliminate any possible consumer health risks that might arise from non-organic livestock management by ensuring that organic meat animals have been in organic management since birth, and even during their gestation. UK Compendium makes no mention of equidae because this is a class of livestock rarely used for food in UK. The amendment was requested by UK inspection bodies.
Free range conditions, access, poultry - DE Naturland 2005
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Outdoor areas must be accessible for laying hens at all time of the year. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.5.1 Laying hens)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The hens must have access to a (covered) outdoor climate area even in bad weather conditions. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires an outdoor area to be accessible under suitable weather conditions and for at least one third of the hens lifetime. To ensure exposure to outdoor climate even in bad weather conditions and to help the animals to become robust.
Horses and other equines - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Equine animals cannot be certified organic under UK Soil Association Standards. Soil Association standards explain that, although equines cannot be certified as organic within these standards, there are a set of recommendations and requirements for their management when they are kept on organic land. It is recommended that equines are included with other livestock in a clean grazing rotation and to feed them organic or approved feed. There are also further requirements if more than five equines are kept, relating to manure management, avermectin treatment, GMO feeds, health planning and pasture management planning. Equine manure management must be the same as for other non-organic manure. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 3.8.)
Soil Association standards do not allow certification of equines, unlike EU Regulation. EU Regulation allows equine animals to be certified organic, and include stocking rate figures for manure management when keeping equines on organic land. Equines are very rarely used for any type of production activity on UK farms, so standards to certify them or their products as organic would be redundant. They would probably also be considered offensive to most UK consumers. In this context, some rules are useful to ensure that their presence on organic farms does not compromise the ecological or organic integrity of the land, crops or other livestock.
Livestock housing, bedding material - DE Naturland 2005
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Straw used for animal bedding must come from organic farms. In the case of non-availability it must be purchased from low intensity cultivation systems. (NL standards on production, Part B.1. Animal husbandry 1.)
The NATURLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require the bedding material to come from organic or low intensity sources. To avoid contamination with harmful substances. Most types of animals will eat part of the bedding material.
Livestock housing, cleaning - DE Naturland 2005
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Only the products listed in the corresponding appendix can be used for cleaning of equipment used in animal production. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.5.Shed hygiene and appendix 8)
The lists of admissible products are very similar. However on the NATURLAND list, formic acid and formaldehyde are not included. Exclusion of hazardous substances.
Livestock housing, general requirements, pigs - SE KRAV 2006
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The natural behaviour patterns of pigs should be provided for. They shall have the possibility for rooting and food searching behaviour on fallow land, forest or woodland. In the winter this should be in deep litter. Pigs should have access to a mud bath or a water bath in the summer. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1)
Annex 1, paragraph 8.3.8 states that there shall be exercise areas which must permit rooting. Different substrates can be used for that. Mud baths or water baths are not covered by EU Regulation 2092/91. The KRAV standards require that during the non frozen period pigs are out on land, in winter they can be kept in an exercise area. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows pigs to be kept in an exercise area the year around. There is a qualitative difference to root in substrate or in real soil. The pigs can also be used for uprooting leys etc. Pigs cannot sweat and need water or mud baths to regulate temperature. This is an animal welfare issue.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - SE KRAV 2006
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Hens shall have dust baths. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1).
This is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Dust bathing is one of the basic needs for hens. It is a way to get rid of parasites. All hens should have the possibility to dust bath, this is an animal welfare issue.
Livestock housing, rearing, calves - DE Naturland 2005
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Calves should be allowed to suckle from the mother cow and must not be kept tied up or in single boxes. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.2.3 Calves)
The NATURLAND standard contais further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not recommend the suckling of the calf and the keeping of calves in single boxes is prohibited only for calves older than 10 days. To enable the performance of natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock housing, rearing, poultry - Naturland 2005
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Specific rules are described for pullet rearing, concerning the adaptation of the indoors stocking density in relation to the age / weight of the animals, the scratching area, illumination, perches and outdoor area. A dust bath is mandatory for pullets from the first week of life. A roofed outdoor area must be accessible from the tenth week of life. The contamination of the free range area with parasites or nutrients must be avoided. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.5.3.Pullets).
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not indicate specific instructions for rearing pullets at the moment. Consequently the general instructions concerning poultry housing apply. Specific rules are currently under development. To provide rules for any significant type of agricultural / food production.
Livestock management plan - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Livestock producers are required to implement a livestock management plan to help meet the Standards in a number of important areas. Soil Association standards require livestock producers to develop, agree with the Soil Association, and then implement and monitor a livestock management plan to help meet the Standards in a number of important areas, including the following: sourcing and converting livestock; health and welfare; feeding and grazing, including the stocking density and grazing rotation; housing; handling and transporting; and slaughter. The livestock management plan must be reviewed and updated regularly. Where relevant, the livestock management plan should be integrated with the cropping plan. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 10.3.1 and 10.3.2. Soil Association standards include specifications not made in the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation 2092/91 mentions the requirement for a livestock management plan in Annex IIIA.2, Paragraph 1, but includes no further relevant guidance or requirements. Soil Association standards provide more detail and guidance to make the livestock management plan a more useful farm-planning tool for producers and a better means to help the Soil Association inspectors to ensure compliance.
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - DE Naturland 2005
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Electrical devices to condition cows are prohibited. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.2.1. Dairy farming)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailled. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not mention the prohibition of electrical devices. To enable natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock management, general requirements, deer - DE Naturland 2005
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The NATURLAND rules for animals kept in reserves cover aspects such as the size of the herd, configuration of pasture areas (reserves), removal of antlers, feed and slaughter. (NL standards on production, Part B.II: 1.7 Game reserves 2.6 Fodder for reserve game 7. Transport and slaughtering)
The NATURLAND standard is more extensive. Husbandry of deer is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide strict rules for any significant type of agriculture / food production.
Livestock management, general requirements, deer - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards have several standards for deer. The environment should be natural and contain plants and food that deer prefer. There should be protection in the enclosure by trees or forest. Handling of deer should be done so that stress is minimised. All deer should be able to feed at the feeding station at the same time. The feed should 100% KRAV –certified, 30% of the daily intake can be concentrate. Deer kids should suckle until natural weaning. Deer should only be slaughtered in the enclosure or adjacent to the enclosure (KRAV standards, several paragraphs in chapter 5).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have any specific standards for deer. Deer are in several ways quite different to other ruminants. It is important that they are treated in the best way.
Livestock management, general requirements, deer - SP CRAE Rules 2002
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Standards for marketing animals and animal products with the organic label, the animals should be bred in accordance with the general standards and principles of regulation (EU) 1804/1999 (individually for the herbivores mammals establishment - REWRITE TO AID UNDERSTANDING), regulated by the present practical standards. The document is split into 6 main points regulating the following aspects: a) conversion period; b) animal origin; c) animal feeding; d) animal management, including the maximal units per area; e) animal housing and f) animal transport . The 5 page documents approved by the Advisory Council for Organic Farming (CRAE), is in force and has been applied by all the semi-public Spanish Certification bodies in Spain since 09-05-2002
The CRAE-MAPA standard for deer is more extensive. Husbandry of deer is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91 To provide clear rules for any significant type of agricultural / food production.
Livestock management, identification - US NOP 2002 US does not address the identification of animals. According to EU Regulation 2092/91 Livestock and livestock products are to be identified at all stages of their production, preparation, transport and marketing. US does not address this. No justification was available.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - SE KRAV 2006
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The only mutilations allowed are castration and dehorning. Castration of calves has to be done before they are 8 weeks old. Calves should be anaesthetised during castration. Castration of pigs should be done before they are 7 days old. Dehorning of calves through burning is allowed before the age of 8 weeks. Dehorning of older animals can be done on a case by case basis for animal welfare reasons (KRAV standards paragraph 5.5.3 and 5.5.4).
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows mutilations for reasons of safety, improvment of health, welfare and hygiene, but not in a systematic manner. Mutilations must be carried out at the most appropriate age by qualified personnel and any suffering to the animals must be reduced to a minimum. Castrations are allowed if the above requirements are fulfilled. The KRAV standards allow fewer types of mutilations and have more precise time limits and requirements. If mutilations are only done at young age the risk for side effects is less. Ringing of bulls is not seen as a mutilation. Ringing of sows is not permitted by Swedish law.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Dehorning of ruminants is not allowed according DEMETER standards.
Whereas DEMETER disallowes dehorning of ruminants, EU Regulation 2092/91 allows it under certain circumstances. The horns of ruminants have significance for the development of life forces. They provide an opposing balance of forces to the intensive digestion and absorption processes. They are a part of the entire being. In comparison to other animal species, cattle manure has a particularly stimulating effect on soil fertility. The horns also have a large significance as a sheath in the production of the bio-dynamic preparations.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Appropriate and careful handling of the animals and regular care is required. Horns cannot be removed by means of cauterising. Tail-docking for cattle and pigs, prophylactic cutting of pigs`teeth, nose rings or clamps and trimming of beaks is prohibited. Further physical operations may not be realised systematically. Hens during the laying pause must have at least 5 hours of daylight. (Bioland production standards, 4.3 Dealing with animals, 4.3.1 General; Bioland production standards, 4.3.2 Measures in the business)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the majority of the above mentioned physical operations, under the condition that they are not executed systematically, but some of the operations can be admitted for reasons of health, animal welfare, safety or hygiene and they must be carried out in an appropriate way. Nothing is mentioned within the EU Regulation about hens during the laying pause. Good care is essential for the well-being of the animals. Physical operations must be avoided wherever possible and this is why many operations commonly applied in conventional animal husbandry are prohibitted. The animals must be able to execute their natural behaviour (i.e.: digging into the earth is an important element of the natural behaviour of pigs, which is made impossible by the application of nose rings).
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - Demeter International 2005
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Dehorning of animals and dehorned animals are not permitted on the farm. In well-justified cases, an exemption may be approved by the respective organisation but must be reviewed annually . (DI production standards, 5.4.1. Cattle management; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 9)
The DI standard is more demanding but less detailed. The EU Regulation is more precisely indicating the circumstances of dehorning: According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 systematic dehorning of animals is not allowed but can be done for a couple of reasons (security, health, animal welfare or hygiene) and under certain conditions (done by qualified personnel and at an appropriate age of the animal). Furthermore EU Regulation does not prohibit the presence of dehorned animals on the farm. In practice (in Germany) very few cases for the dehorning of single animals have been approved on Demeter farms, while regular dehorning of cattle is common on organic farms. The horns of ruminants have significance for the development of life forces. They provide an opposing balance of forces to the intensive digestion and absorption processes. They are a part of the total being of the cow. In comparison to other animal types, cattle manure has a particularly stimulating effect on soil fertility. The horns also have a large significance as a sheath in the production of the Biodynamic preparations.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - UK Compendium 2005 Although practices involving mutilations such as tail docking and dehorning should not be systematically practised on organic farms, inspection bodies may authorise such practices to benefit the health, hygiene or welfare of livestock, or for safety reasons. All such operations should be recorded in the Livestock Health Plan, and they should be carried out by qualified staff with the minimum possible suffering for the animals. UK Compendium, Annex IB, Paragraph 6.1.2. The UK Compendium standards on operations involving animal mutilations, such as tail docking or dehorning, are identical to the EU Regulation 2092/91 except for their additional requirement to record the operations in the Livestock Health Plan, which is itself a separate requirement set out in UK Compendium, Paragraph 2.1.2. (see the relevant difference item). EU Regulation contains no separate requirement for a Livestock Health Plan, so it cannot include a requirement to include any specific operations in this health plan. The UK Compendium requires all operations affecting livestock health and welfare to be recorded in the Livestock Health Plan, not only those involving mutilations. The requirement is mentioned again specifically in Paragraph 6.1.2. to ensure clarity and enforceability.
Livestock management, tethering - UK Compendium 2005 Defra do not allocate the paragraph that would correspond with the EU Regulation derogation on cattle tethering in older buildings. EU Regulations allow a derogation for livestock enterprises with older buildings, which were designed for the housing of tethered cattle, to continue the practice of tethering until the end of 2010, providing that certain conditions be met regarding the animals welfare. The UK Compendium contains no such derogation. This derogation on cattle tethering would be a redundant feature of UK organic standards. In the EU Regulation, it is included to give time for changes in husbandry practice and for the depreciation of the value of livestock housing built before the tethering prohibition was introduced. No such buildings have existed in UK for a long time, and animal housing is mostly in cubicles or loose houses.
Livestock management, tethering - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Livestock must neither be housed permanently nor tethered for prolonged periods. Flooring in livestock houses must not have more than 50% slatted area. Permission is required for the tethering of animals for special circumstances such as for shows, welfare, safety or for short periods. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 10.12.4 and 10.12.5. Soil Association standards omit certain derogations permitted within EU Regulation. EU Regulation allows a derogation for livestock enterprises with older buildings, which were designed for the housing of tethered cattle, to continue the practice of tethering until the end of 2010, providing that certain conditions be met regarding the animals welfare. EU Regulation has a further derogation that allows cattle in small holdings, where they cannot be kept in groups appropriate to their behaviour requirements, to be tethered with access to open areas only twice per week. Soil Association standards do not allow any prolonged tethering, and require their permission to be sought even for tethering for short periods or for welfare or safety purposes. In omitting the derogation for tethering in older buildings, Soil Association standards comply with the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 6.1.5, but the UK Compendium, Annex 1B, Paragraph 6.1.6 includes the derogation for smallholdings, which Soil Association standards do not. Cattle are rarely kept tethered in UK smallholdings, and buildings have not been designed for tethering, so there is no need for the Soil Association to provide similar derogations to the EU Regulation. However, some flexibility is provided requiring permission for tethering in certain circumstances.
Livestock mangement, general requirements, rabbits - DE Naturland 2005
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The NATURLAND rules for rabbits cover aspects such as the size of the group, size and configuration of the run, outdoor access and feeding. (NL standards on production, Part B.II: 1.8 Rabbits 2.7 Rabbit fodder)
The NATURLAND standard is more extensive. Husbandry of rabbits is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide clear and detailed rules for any significant type of agriculture / food production.
Manure fertilizers, general principles - DE Bioland 2005
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The basis of fertilization is the spreading of the farms own manure to support soil life and increase the humus content. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.1 Basic Principles)
The BIOLAND standard requires own manure basis for each farm, while there is no recommendation in the EU Regulation 2092/91 to have own manure as a basis of fertilization. The aim is to ensure the recycling of organic matter on the farm and build up a sustainable system to maintain and increase soil fertility.
Parallel production, livestock - FR Regulation 2000
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In France, it is forbidden to alternate organic and non organic livestock in the same building or open air run, except during the initial introduction of organic livestock.
French regulation forbids alternating organic and non organic livestock in the same building or open-air run whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover this topic. Alternate organically and conventionally managed livestock in the same building is inconsistent (why give organic treatment to one animal and not to another?), and is detrimental to the credibility of the organic market. Moreover, there could be a pollution of the open-air runs with antibiotics.
Parallel production, livestock - SI Rules 2003
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Simultaneous non-organic extensive livestock is under certain restrictions accepted (compliance with good farming practices with regard to fertilisation, or different species of livestock, provided that they are not reared in an industrial method of production, or buildings and parcels are physically and functionally separated from buildings and parcels in which livestock are not reared in accordance with SI Rules). (Art. 18)
SI Rules 2003 (Art. 18) describe the technical requirements for simultanious organic/conventional livestock production and do not describe the principles as those listed in the EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I B 1.1. ? 1.4. The other provisions regarding the conditions for not-organic livestock on the same holding are the same as in EU Regulation Annex I B (1.5. ? 1.8.). The authors of the SI Rules wanted to be very practical and focus on the technical provisions while leaving aside the explanation of organic livestock rearing principles.
Parallel production, livestock - UK Compendium 2005
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Where they are present on the same farm, non-organic livestock must be reared on units clearly separated from organic livestock, they must be of different species, and organic livestock enterprises or holdings must be kept physically, financially, and operationally separate from non organic enterprises or holdings. Compendium of UK Organic Standards, Annex IB, Paragraph 1.6
The UK Compendium contains further detail to the EU Regulation 2092/91. UK Compendium requires that organic livestock enterprises or holdings must be kept physically, financially, and operationally separate from non-organic enterprises or holdings. Both EU Standards and UK Compendium require that organic livestock be reared in land parcels and buildings separate from non-organic livestock on the same holding and be of different species. The additional UK Compendium text aims to ensure that organic livestock holdings and enterprises are kept entirely separate from non-organic holdings and enterprises. This helps to verify the organic status of livestock products, and it helps maintain biosecurity of organic livestock units. Livestock traceability, organic verification, and biosecurity are particular concerns in UK after recent national livestock health problems, such as BSE and Foot & Mouth Disease. Biosecurity may also help to reduce the occurrence of other endemic livestock diseases.
Slaughter, stunning, general requirements - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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It is prohibited to slaughter animals without pre-stunning. There are a series of detailed rules to specify how animals are stunned and killed. Equipment must have an effective cleaning and maintenance schedule. Staff must be suitably trained and qualified. There must be adequate back-up equipment. Tenderising substances must not be used on live animals. Animals must be effectively restrained without causing injury or distress, and only immediately before stunning or killing. Animals, except poultry, must be effectively stunned before shackling and hoisting. The stunning process must render the animal unconscious without distress and maintain unconsciousness until the animal is dead. There are a series of detailed specifications for the various methods of stunning that are permitted for each different class of livestock, together with the minimum stun-to-bleed times in each case. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 42.8.)
Soil Association standards are more detailled than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards prohibit the slaughter of animals without pre-stunning. There are detailed maximum times between stunning and bleeding of animals. EU Regulation states only that the slaughtering process must be conducted so that the stress to the animals is reduced to a minimum. Soil Association standards are intended to ensure that the animal welfare problems associated with slaughtering processes are minimised. They specify a set of required conditions, along with stunning and killing methods available in UK, that should involve the least risk of distress for the animals.
Slaughter, stunning, methods - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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There are a number of permitted methods of stunning, killing and slaughtering specified for different classes of livestock. Only pigs may be stunned using carbon dioxide, and Soil Association permission is required for this. The operation of the carbon dioxide stunning system is subject to a number of specified conditions. The operation of the carbon dioxide system must be constantly monitored by a specifically trained, licensed slaughterman, and pigs must be killed by the gas and bled as soon as possible. The carbon dioxide system must include back-up equipment for use in case of failure. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 42.8.8-42.8.15 and 42.9.12-42.9.14.)
Soil Association Standards are more specific than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards require that carbon dioxide must not be used to stun any animal apart from pigs, and permission must be gained for its use with pigs. EU Regulation does not contain any prohibition or other reference to the use of carbon dioxide for stunning. Carbon dioxide stunning may cause distress to animals in the stunning process. The stunning is not instant and may cause respiratory distress. Susceptibility to distress is affected by pig breed and other variables, so the Soil Association would require to know all the relevant details to decide on any permission for use of carbon dioxide in pig slaughter.
Transport of livestock, general requirements - DE Naturland 2005
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Animals must be handled carefully whilst loading and during transport. Drugs and tranquillisers are prohibited. The maximum transport time should not exceed four hours and a maximum transport distance of 200 km. Transport times longer than eight hours are not permitted. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.7.Transport and slaughtering)
The provisions are similar but NATURLAND is more restrictive by recommending a limit of 200 km and 4 hours duration for animal transport. However transport of 8 hours is possible. The EU Regulation 2092/91 refers to the legal provisions of the member states but there is a EU Directive regulating the conditions of "long journey" (= more than 8 hours)transport. Reducing stress and suffering for the animals.