Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

  • Subject Areas
    • Animal husbandry
      • Animal health management
Go back to overview Go to complete documents for this section
Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Animal fodder, synthetic vitamins - CZ KEZ Standards 2005 The use of synthetic vitamins is generally permitted, both for monogastric animals and for ruminants. (KEZ Standards, Part 2, 9.2). EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex II/D 1.2 allows the use of synthetic vitamins only for monogastric animals. The use of synthetic vitamins of types A, D and E for ruminants is allowed under limited conditions. KEZ Standards contain further requirements; they require recommendation from a veterinarian and permission of the certification body for their use in any case. The standard-setting body could not give a justification.
Animal health plan - UK Compendium 2005 After starting with a paragraph defining veterinary terms to be used in subsequent paragraphs, the UK Compendium then requires the preparation and implementation of a Livestock Health Plan, based on positive animal welfare and the building up of positive health to achieve a progressive reduction of disease risks. UK Compendium, Paragraph 5.1.1 contains definitions of terms in addition to the EU Regulation text. Paragraph 5.1.2 then refers to the principles of positive welfare and positive health, and requires a Livestock Health Plan to be drawn up, implemented and monitored. This plan should be designed to suit the individual circumstances of the farm, to build up levels of health as a means to reduce disease risks, and thus to progressively reduce the reliance on veterinary medication for disease control. EU Regulation 2092/91 contains no requirement for a livestock health plan. UK Compendium, Paragraph 5.1.3 is identical to EU Regulation, Paragraph 5.1. For organic livestock husbandry, animal health plans provide a standard means to: a) ensure compliance with organic standards, b) apply best practice and promote positive animal health, c) allow the monitoring of health indicators for a planned, progressive reduction in the use of allopathic treatments. They function as a management tool for farmers and herd managers, and a health and welfare evaluation tool for organic inspectors. This planned and monitored approach to animal health is seen as best practice in UK livestock husbandry. It contributes to the fulfilment and verification of the practices and positive outcomes of organic livestock husbandry.
Animal health plan - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.3.3. The livestock management plan must include a livestock health plan, preferably made with assistance of the farm veterinarian; showing how disease resistance will be built and how the use of veterinary medicines will be minimised. There are a number of detailed specifications that must be implemented in the livestock health plan. The plan must include health management during and after conversion, methods used to monitor and diagnose disease, disease control measures, the methods used to reduce pre-existing livestock health problems. The Soil Association have templates available to assist producers in formulating these livestock management and health plans. In their requirement for a livestock health plan, the Soil Association standards comply with the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 5.1. Soil Association standards contain detailed specifications not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards require that the livestock management plan should include a livestock health plan, preferably made with the assistance of the farm vet. EU Regulation mentions the requirement for a livestock health plan as part of the general requirements for a management plan for the organic-production livestock unit in Annex III, Paragraph 1, but includes no further relevant guidance or requirements. The Soil Association standards specifications and guidance for livestock health plans are intended to provide a standard means to apply best practice and promote positive animal health, and to allow the monitoring of health indicators for a progressive reduction of veterinary treatments. Livestock health plans are a management tool for producers and a health and welfare evaluation tool for organic inspectors. They are seen as best practice in UK livestock husbandry, contributing to the fulfilment and verification of the practices and positive outcomes of organic livestock husbandry.
Animals breeding, birth - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Animals shall be given the opportunity to be alone during giving birth and laying eggs. Cows shall be allowed to calve alone and may only in exceptional cases be tethered. Indoor calving shall take place in a calving box. Sows shall farrow alone and farrowing may take place in a farrowing hut or if indoors in a separate space with sufficient freedom and space. There shall be enough nesting material for sows (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1, 5.2.2 and 5.2.3).
Specific conditions for cows and pigs giving birth is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Animal welfare is one of the most important areas of organic production. Conditions in some conventional systems are far from providing animals the possibility of giving birth in a more natural and undisturbed way. Therefore it is important to clearly express this in organic standards.
Free range conditions, rest periods, poultry - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Poultry runs must be left empty between batches for specified minimum periods. For laying poultry, the Soil Association standards minimum rest period is 9 months, and it is 2 months per year plus 1 year in every 3 years for table poultry. Soil Association Organic Standards, Paragraphs 20.8.4-20.8.6. Soil Association standards contain further restrictions than the UK Compendium, which sets national rules in accordance with the EU Regulation 2092/91 requirements. UK Compendium, Annex 1B, Paragraph 8.4.6 complies with the requirements of EU Regulation by specifying minimum rest periods for runs accommodating the different classes of poultry in UK. Compared to the UK Compendium, Soil Association standards specify significantly longer minimum rest periods for poultry runs between batches. Soil Association standards for minimum rest periods in poultry runs aim to break the life cycle of parasitic worms. The secondary aim is to give time for the built-up fertility of the land to be used.
Livestock housing and free range conditions - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In case of mammals the area of space available for reclining must be equal to at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have explicit requirements for reclining areas of mammals. To contribute to animal welfare.
Livestock housing, area - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
For mammals the area of space available for reclining must be equal to at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.10.1.4, 3.11.1.4, 3.12.1.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have explicit requirements for reclining areas of mammals. To contribute to animal welfare.
Livestock housing, cleaning - FR Regulation 2000
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
In the case of mammals reared in uniform age groups, the housing and facilities must be entirely emptied, cleaned and disinfected after each group has been removed.
French regulation requires a period when the buildings are empty, cleaned and disinfected for all mammals reared in uniform age groups, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only requires it for poultry. Mammals reared in uniform age groups are exposed to the same sanitary risks as poultry.
Livestock housing, cleaning - UK Compendium 2005 Buildings must be cleaned and disinfected between batches of poultry. Runs must be left empty between batches for specified minimum periods. UK Compendium requires a minimum rest period for poultry runs of 2 months, and in particular, specifies a minimum rest period of 2 months per year for the runs of poultry for meat production. UK Compendium, Annex IB, Paragraph 8.4.6. The UK compendium is more precise with regard to the minimum rest period, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 leaves the precise rest period between batches for poultry runs to be decided by member states. UK Compendium follows the requirements of EU Regulation in deciding on national level on minimum rest periods for runs accommodating the different classes of poultry.
Livestock housing, general requirements, pigs - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The natural behaviour patterns of pigs should be provided for. They shall have the possibility for rooting and food searching behaviour on fallow land, forest or woodland. In the winter this should be in deep litter. Pigs should have access to a mud bath or a water bath in the summer. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1)
Annex 1, paragraph 8.3.8 states that there shall be exercise areas which must permit rooting. Different substrates can be used for that. Mud baths or water baths are not covered by EU Regulation 2092/91. The KRAV standards require that during the non frozen period pigs are out on land, in winter they can be kept in an exercise area. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows pigs to be kept in an exercise area the year around. There is a qualitative difference to root in substrate or in real soil. The pigs can also be used for uprooting leys etc. Pigs cannot sweat and need water or mud baths to regulate temperature. This is an animal welfare issue.
Livestock housing, rearing, pigs - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association standards include a number of specific requirements and conditions regarding the servicing, farrowing and weaning of pigs. Pig service pens have to be of at least 10.5 sq. metres per head. It is recommended to settle sows into farrowing accommodation well in advance of farrowing, to use farrowing arcs of area approx. 2.5m x 2m, and to use straw bedding. It is prohibited to use farrowing crates and to deny food or water to drying off sows. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 13.6.2 and 13.6.4. Soil Association standards are more specific than the EU Regulation 2092/91 to ensure adequate welfare for organic pigs. EU Regulation requires compliance with directive 91/630/EEC, which permits the use of farrowing crates, which is prohibited by SA standards. Farrowing crates are prohibited because they impose confinement that restricts movement and prevents natural behaviour tendencies.
Livestock housing, rest periods, poultry - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Poultry runs should have a rest period of a minimum 3 months between batches of poultry (ref. Annex IB, Paragraph 8.4.6)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 leaves the precise rest period for poultry runs between batches of poultry to be decided by member states, in Norway this is 3 months. The European Regulation leaves the precise rest period between batches for organic poultry runs to be decided by member states.
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter3.10.3) BA-Rules 2006: The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions: Only appliances with a delivery of max 0.3 joule per impulse may be used. Cow trainers may not be in operation for more than 2 days a week. The cow trainer must be installed along the length of and parallel to the trough. The distance between withers and cow trainer must not be less than 5 cm, meaning that only devices that are adjustable for each individual animal may be used. Cow trainers may only be used for cows (beginning of the first lactation period). The cow trainer must be raised to its maximal height before calving and until 5 days after calving. This is also indicated for several days before the animal comes in heat.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as in the EU Regulation 2092/91 cow trainers are not mentioned. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal integrity and livelihood - equity principle; old systems of barn do not function without a cow trainer (fouling, dirtiness and hygiene).
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The use of electrical cow trainers is not allowed. (DI production standards, 5.4.1. Cattle management)
The DI standard is more detailed, the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly prohibit the use of electrical cow trainers. To enable the natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - CH Demeter Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Dehorning of ruminants is not allowed according DEMETER standards.
Whereas DEMETER disallowes dehorning of ruminants, EU Regulation 2092/91 allows it under certain circumstances. The horns of ruminants have significance for the development of life forces. They provide an opposing balance of forces to the intensive digestion and absorption processes. They are a part of the entire being. In comparison to other animal species, cattle manure has a particularly stimulating effect on soil fertility. The horns also have a large significance as a sheath in the production of the bio-dynamic preparations.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Dehorning of adult ruminants may only occur for safety reasons and not in the months of May - August. Dehorning must be carried out under narcosis.
Swiss Ordinance is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91: dehorning must be carried out by a veterinarian and under narcosis, while EU Regulation mentions only the dehorning of young animals, with a requirement to minimize the suffering of animals in general. Mutilations such as dehorning strongly interfere with the ethological well-being of the animal.They should only be done if absolutely necessary, if at all, and in the most gentle and careful way to avoid suffering of the animal.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - CZ PRO-BIO Standards 2004 PRO-BIO Standards do not allow dehorning by cauterizing.(PB Standards: Sec. II, Chapter 3, Part 4) PRO-BIO Standards are more detailed as they prohibit a specific method. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify the methods of dehorning. Annex I/B: 6.1.2. names only the reasons and conditions for such operations. Ethically non-acceptable methods may not be used in organic farming according PRO-BIO Standards.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - Demeter International 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Dehorning of animals and dehorned animals are not permitted on the farm. In well-justified cases, an exemption may be approved by the respective organisation but must be reviewed annually . (DI production standards, 5.4.1. Cattle management; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 9)
The DI standard is more demanding but less detailed. The EU Regulation is more precisely indicating the circumstances of dehorning: According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 systematic dehorning of animals is not allowed but can be done for a couple of reasons (security, health, animal welfare or hygiene) and under certain conditions (done by qualified personnel and at an appropriate age of the animal). Furthermore EU Regulation does not prohibit the presence of dehorned animals on the farm. In practice (in Germany) very few cases for the dehorning of single animals have been approved on Demeter farms, while regular dehorning of cattle is common on organic farms. The horns of ruminants have significance for the development of life forces. They provide an opposing balance of forces to the intensive digestion and absorption processes. They are a part of the total being of the cow. In comparison to other animal types, cattle manure has a particularly stimulating effect on soil fertility. The horns also have a large significance as a sheath in the production of the Biodynamic preparations.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - UK Compendium 2005 Although practices involving mutilations such as tail docking and dehorning should not be systematically practised on organic farms, inspection bodies may authorise such practices to benefit the health, hygiene or welfare of livestock, or for safety reasons. All such operations should be recorded in the Livestock Health Plan, and they should be carried out by qualified staff with the minimum possible suffering for the animals. UK Compendium, Annex IB, Paragraph 6.1.2. The UK Compendium standards on operations involving animal mutilations, such as tail docking or dehorning, are identical to the EU Regulation 2092/91 except for their additional requirement to record the operations in the Livestock Health Plan, which is itself a separate requirement set out in UK Compendium, Paragraph 2.1.2. (see the relevant difference item). EU Regulation contains no separate requirement for a Livestock Health Plan, so it cannot include a requirement to include any specific operations in this health plan. The UK Compendium requires all operations affecting livestock health and welfare to be recorded in the Livestock Health Plan, not only those involving mutilations. The requirement is mentioned again specifically in Paragraph 6.1.2. to ensure clarity and enforceability.
Livestock management, physical operations/mutilations - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Soil Association standards include a number of detailed requirements and restrictions relating to operations involving physical mutilation of different classes of livestock. Soil Association standards allow the disbudding or castration of calves, and the tail docking or castration of sheep and goats, on condition that these practices are justified for welfare reasons. Soil Association standards require such operations to be detailed in the animal health plan, and in this latter requirement, they comply with UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Paragraph 6.1.2. Disbudding of calves is permitted only up to 3 months old and castration of calves only to 2 months. Use of a rubber ring for the castration of calves, and for the castration or tail docking of sheep and goats, is permitted without anaesthetic only within the first week of life, after which, anaesthetic is required. For tail docking or castration of sheep and goats, the burdizzo method is permitted up to 6 weeks old, and use of a hot iron is permitted between 3 and 6 weeks old. Castration of pigs is permitted only with Soil Association permission in exceptional circumstances, and castrated pigs may not be sold as organic. Deer antlers may be removed only with Soil Association permission, which will only be given on grounds of safety or welfare, and in any case, not when the antlers are in velvet. No other mutilating operations are permitted in Soil Association standards. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 11.5.12 - 11.5.15, 12.2.1, 12.2.2, 13.2.2, 14.3.2 and 20.5.4.)
Soil Association standards contain detailed rules that EU Regulation 2092/91 explicitly permits inspection bodies to set. The Soil Association rules on livestock mutilating operations are designed to minimise animal welfare problems in the context of the culture and conditions in which livestock are kept in the UK. The aim is to allow only those types of mutilation that are widely practised in UK agriculture and only if they can be carried out without excessive pain and can be justified on the grounds of animal welfare. The rules are detailed for each class of livestock by the Soil Association standards, which is enabled by the discretion permitted for inspection bodies within the EU Regulation.
Livestock management, tethering, age restrictions - CZ PRO-BIO 2004 Livestock must be older than one year before tethering is permitted. (PB Standards Sec. II, Chapter 3, Part 3.2) Keeping livestock tethered in organic farming is generally forbidden by EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I/B: 6.1.4, 6.1.5., 6.1.6 quoted exceptions are not limited by livestock´s age. PRO-BIO does not allow exceptions for livestock younger than one year. Ethical non-aceptable methods may not be used in organic farming according to PRO-BIO Standards.
Milk for offspings - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Calves, lambs and kids should be allowed to suckle for at least the full colostrum period and then get their own kind of animals unprocessed KRAV-certified milk. Organic milk from other species can be used for motherless animals. If that is not possible unprocessed conventional milk can be used. In emergencies milk powder can be used, but if this is more then 30% of the daily feed intake a 12 month conversion time is required. The producer has to document all use of milk from other species, conventional milk and milk substitutes. Calves which do not suckle should be given the opportunity to suck in a natural position through an artificial teat (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.16 – 5.3.18).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 4.5 states that the feeding of young mammals must be based on natural milk, preferably maternal milk, though there are no requirements that animals should suckle. The KRAV standards require organic milk, in the normal case from the own species. The first days of suckling are important as the offspring gets the mothers micro flora together with the milk. That gives a protection against diseases. The requirement that calves shall suckle in a natural position even if hand reared is based on research showing that the milk ends up in the right stomach when suckling from above instead of drinking from a bucket below.
Milk for offsprings - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Calves shall be able to suckle for at least 3 days after birth. During shorter suckling periods than 1 month, calves shall drink from a teat until they are 1 month old.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 is not as precise on this specific area. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not set minimum periods for calves allowing suckling mother milk. Stimulating the suck reflex for calves will ensure the milk is taken up the best way and is important for development.
Origin of livestock, general requirements - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
KRAV standards state that animal husbandry should if possible be integrated animal production i.e. mother and off spring should be at the same unit. If animals are brought in they should preferably come from one other farm, the maximum is three farms per year. Pigs from different stocks or ages should not be mixed. Brought in pigs should be separated from other pigs at the farm for three weeks (KRAV standards paragraph 5.1.11 and 5.1.12)
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have restrictions on from where or the number of farms from which animals are brought in. Importing animals on to a farm brings associated risk for introducing disease, therefore buying in animals and the number of farms is restricted in the KRAV standards. Transporting animals and changing conditions always stresses animals.
Slaughter, veterinary inspections - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
The results from the veterinary inspections of the animal before and after slaughter should be communicated by the farmer to KRAV (KRAV standards paragraph 5.5.8).
The results of veterinarian inspections are not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. The results of veterinarian inspection gives good evidence as to whether the animals have been treated well, been dirty etc. It is a good tool for the certification body.
Veterinary prophylactic treatment, teat dipping - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Prophylactic teat dipping with chemical or synthetic substances is forbidden. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.5.9)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed, as EU Regulation 2092/91 does not mention dipping. However EU does not allow prophylactical treatment with chemically synthesised allopathic vetenary medicinal products. Prophylactic teat dipping with chemical or synthetic substances places selection pressure on the symbiotic flora of the teat, possibly leading to the development of resistant micro-organisms. Residues of these substances can also remain on the teats.
Veterinary treatment, alllopathic products - UK Compendium 2005 Veterinary treatments should conform to national and EU laws. Recommended types of treatment should be preferred to chemically synthesised allopathic products for treating disease. Chemically synthesised allopathic products, including antibiotics, should be used if essential for animal welfare. Preventative treatments may not include chemically synthesised allopathic products, except when agreed by the inspection body for identifiable disease risks. Vaccines may be more used early on in a Livestock Health Plan for identifiable disease risks. The aim must be to progressively reduce reliance on such treatments by reducing disease risks. All health treatments must be summarised in the Livestock Health Plan. UK Compendium makes clear that all organic veterinary treatments should be within the normal legal limitations, but this is not specified in the EU Regulation 2092/91. For preventative treatments, the EU Regulation prohibits any use of chemically synthesised allopathic products, and it makes no mention of animal health plans. UK Compendium permits the use of such treatments, when animal welfare is cannot be otherwise assured due to an identifiable disease risk, but only in the context of the Livestock Health Plan required by UK Compendium, Paragraph 5.1.2. Particularly during organic conversion, the use of these treatments may be permitted by the Inspection body. Vaccines are also permitted for identifiable risks. The livestock health plan should provide the means to progressively reduce the disease risks and their associated veterinary treatments, and it must include a summary of all veterinary and health treatments. UK Compendium clarifies that there are no legal exceptions for organic livestock producers. UK Compendium aims to avoid problems that may result from removal of conventional veterinary treatments before organic husbandry methods have had enough time to improve livestock health status and to reduce disease risks. The livestock manager is given time to learn, and this also helps avoid health and welfare problems during organic conversion. UK Compendium?s requirement for a Livestock Health Plan enables this gradual approach during the conversion period, aiming to maintain optimum levels of animal welfare at every stage.
Veterinary treatment, alllopathic products - US NOP 2002
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
§ 205.238 Livestock health care practice standard. (b) When preventive practices and veterinary biologics are inadequate to prevent sickness, a producer may administer synthetic medications: Provided, that, such medications are allowed under § 205.603. (c) The producer of an organic livestock operation must not: - label as organic any animal or edible product derived from any animal treated with antibiotics, any substance not allowed under § 205.603 or any nonsynthetic substance prohibited in § 205.604. - Administer any animal drug other than vaccinations, in the absence of illness; - Withhold medical treatment from a sick animal in an effort to preserve its organic status.
According to US only those animal drugs listed in under § 205.603 may be applied whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 allows administering chemically-synthesised allopathic veterinary medicinal products or antibiotics provided that other measures are not effective and the withdrawal period is duplicated. US require animals treated with antibiotics or any substances not listed in the positive list to be sold as conventional. US prohibit parasiticides for slaughter stock and sets specific restrictions for their use on dairy and breeder stock. EU does neither prohibit parasiticides for slaughter stock nor set other restrictions on their use. No justification was available.
Veterinary treatment, parasite control - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Avermectines are only allowed to be used when other substances are not expected to have the desired effects. Slowly degradable substances as avermectines shall not be used when animals are on natural pastures (KRAV standards paragraph 5.4.7).
The use of avermectines is not regulated separately to any other parasite treatments within EU Regulation 2092/91. Avermectines are used against internal and external parasites but most of the substance is excreted in the animal manure. There it is still toxic to the insects which live in and breakdown the manure. Several species of dung beetles are declining rapidly. When using these kinds of substances, which are the only ones effective to some parasites, best possible practises should be used.