Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

  • Subject Areas
    • Animal husbandry
      • Animal housing
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Flock size, poultry - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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There are recommended maximum flock sizes for poultry, and Soil Association permission is required to keep larger houses. The Soil Association standards' recommended maximum poultry flock sizes are for a maximum of 500 chickens, ducks, or guinea fowl, or 250 turkeys or geese. Permission is required for larger units, and will depend on good health and welfare levels, good environmental conditions, and sufficient available range with vegetation within suitable distances of the housing. Beyond this, Soil Standards standards restrict the maximum poultry flock size, in any case, to 2,000 birds for laying chickens, and to 1000 birds for other classes of poultry. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 20.7.10-20.7.13.)
EU Regulation 2092/91 has higher maximum flock sizes of between 2,500 for turkeys and geese, and 5,200 for guinea fowl, and it has no smaller recommended flock sizes. The two sets of organic standards differ only in the maximum individual poultry flock (house) size, not the size of the production unit. The Soil Association standards' smaller, recommended and maximum flock sizes for poultry are to help ensure adequate health and welfare. Restricting flock sizes will limit the size of any disease or pest infestation, and will enable closer monitoring of birds' condition, Smaller flock sizes are closer to the maximum group sizes found among wild poultry, and therefore contribute to reducing stress that may be caused by social alienation among the birds.
Free range conditions, access - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005
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Codex Alimentarius in general requires free range conditions for all animals, but also accepts that animals are confined for temporarily restricted times and certain reasons.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires specific minimal sizes of free range areas as well as indoor housing areas for different animal species. Codex Alimentarius does not set figures for this area. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines is a guidance for governments. Therefore making detailed rules for indoor and outdoor areas on a world-wide level was not seen as appropriate.
Free range conditions, access - US NOP 2002 There no provisions for maximum number of animals per ha. EU Regulation 2092/91 specifies the minimum surface areas indoors and outdoors and other characteristics of housing in the different species and types of production. Both US and EU require outdoor access for any animals. US requires in addition pasture for ruminants and does not allow derogations. EU requires pasture for herbivores 'wherever conditions allow'. EU waves outdoor access for herbivores in winter under certain conditions. There was no justification available.
Free range conditions, area - US NOP 2002
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There are no specific provisions for minimum livestock surface area, but natural behaviour must be accommodated.
EU Regulation 2092/91 specifies the minimum surface areas indoors and outdoors and other characteristics of housing in the different species and types of production. Both US and EU require outdoor access for any animals. US require in addition pasture for ruminants, allowing temporary confinement for inclement weather, an animal's stage of production, to protect the health, safety or well being of the animals or when there is a risk to soil or water quality. EU require pasture for herbivores 'wherever conditions allow'. EU waves outdoor access for herbivores in winter under certain conditions. No justification was available.
Free range conditions, area, cattle/sheep - NL Skal Standards 2005
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SKAL has set norms for the number of days dairy cows and sheep must be on pasture. SKAL rule Text: 2.3 article 5: Cows must spend at least 120 days on pasture, starting when they are 15 weeks or older. Dairy sheep must spend 180 days in pasture.
SKAL has set norms for the amount of days on pasture, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 has not defined the amount of days. All animals need time on pasture.
Housing requierements / stocking rates - cattle / sheep for meat production
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Skal has defined the norms for cattle and sheep held for meat production (Rule Text: 2.7 cattle and sheep held for meat production article 5 and 7): Until the age of 15 weeks, 4 till 6 animals must be housed as a group. After 15 weeks a minimum of 5 animals per each group is required. The space in the stable has to be 1,8 m² per animal till the age of 15 weeks, 2 m² till the age of 9 months and 6 m² starting from the age of 9 months. Calves till 15 weeks must have 125 m² outdoor access per animal. Sheep must have 2 m² per animal and 2.5 m² with lambs and be at least 300 days a year on the pasture.
In the EC-regulation Annex VIII of the EU Regulaton there it is only mentioned that 2.5 m² and 2.5 with 0.5 m² with lamb/kid per is requiered per head. It is not further specified. All animals need enough space and outdoor areas for natural behaviour. COMMENT: This could be included in the EEC regulation.
Livestock housing and free range conditions - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In case of mammals the area of space available for reclining must be equal to at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have explicit requirements for reclining areas of mammals. To contribute to animal welfare.
Livestock housing and free range conditions, area, pigs - NL Skal Standards 2005
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Skal has set specific norms for sows and pigs (Rule Text: 2.6 article 7 and 8): A sufficient amount of maternity stables, a minimum of 4.4 m² per sow space to lie down in, a total minimum space of 7.2 m² per sow and 40 m² of unpaved outdoor area per sow is required. Indoors the surface area per pig must be 0.6 m². Per 20 kg pig 0.1 m² extra outdoor area is required.
Skal has set more detailed norms for sows and pigs, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 has not regulated these norms in detail. Annex VIII in the regulation only mentions 7.5 m2 per sow and 2.5 m2 unpaved outdoor area. All animals need enough space and outdoor areas for natural behaviour.
Livestock housing and free range conditions, area, poultry, NL Skal Standards
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Skal has defined the norms for turkeys (Rule text: 2.11 article 3, 4, 5 and 6): Turkey pullets must have access to 10 m² outdoor areas with shrubs and trees, during the daylight, when they are 8 weeks old, except from winter days in case of sickness. A maximum of 25 kg of animal per m² is allowed at any age. In the stable 50% of the surface must be available for scratching. Animals must have access to perches or elevations with a minimum length of 20 cm per animal. The stable must have openings to the pasture with a total length of 4 meter per 100 m² stable surface evenly distributed over the sides of the stable.
Stable and detailed outdoor requierements for turkeys are not defined in EU Regulation 2092/91 with the exception of the minimum outdoor area of Annex VIII (10 m² per head). All animals need enough space and outdoor areas for natural behaviour.
Livestock housing and free range conditions, general requirements, poultry - NL Skal Standards 2005
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SKAL has set norms for poultry, concerning extension, space per animal, equipment, stocking rates. SKAL Rule Text: 2.4 article 1,2,3,4, 6 and 16: 8 week old hens must go outside, unless winter temperatures, with enough room to range freely and take a sandbath (2.5 m² per chicken). Only 7 young hens per m² stable are allowed. Shrubs and trees have to be present in the outdoor area. Per m² stable only 5 nests are allowed. 50% must be free-range area with dry bedding. Each hen must have 20 cm of perch. 1 nest per 6 hens must be available.
SKAL standards are more detailled compared to EU Regulation 2092/91. SKAL requires shrubs and trees to be present in the outdoor area and has further restrictions on animals per m² stable, on nests and perch space. EU is more general on open air runs (not specified for poultry) and is defining only the animlas per m² indoors and outdoors. All animals need enough space and outdoor areas for natural behaviour.
Livestock housing and free range conditions, general requirements, poultry - NL Skal Standards 2005
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SKAL has set specific norms for meat pullets. see SKAL Rule Text: 2.5 article 2 and 3: Pullets must have 1,5 m² per pullet outdoor area. 50% of the outdoor area must be covered with shrubs and trees. The total number of animals allowed per m² is 28 till the age of 2 weeks, 14 till the age of 6 weeks, and 7 starting from the age of 6 weeks.
SKAL standards are more detailled compared to EU Regulation 2092/91. SKAL requires shrubs and trees to be present in the outdoor area and is grading the maximum number of animals per m² depending on the age of the animals. All animals need enough space and outdoor areas for natural behaviour.
Livestock housing and free range conditions, stocking rate, ruminants - NL Skal Standards 2005
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he amount of space in a stable and minimum days on pasture for dairy sheep, goat and cows is defined. SKAL Rule Text: 2.3 article 4: dairy sheep need 1.5 m² per animal in a stable (indoor) and 2 m² when they have lambs. Goats need 1.8 m² per animal and 1 m² outdoor area
SKAL has set norms for the housing of dairy cattle, which require more space per animal than given by the EU Regulation 2092/91 annex VIII. (1.85 m² per sheep/goat with 1 lamb indoor). The amount of space needed per animal should be large enough.
Livestock housing, area - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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For mammals the area of space available for reclining must be equal to at least one third of the minimum barn area requirement. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.10.1.4, 3.11.1.4, 3.12.1.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have explicit requirements for reclining areas of mammals. To contribute to animal welfare.
Livestock housing, area, cattle - DE Bioland 2005
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Cattle should be kept in housing systems that allow permanent free movement. There should be enough space so that all animals can eat or rest at the same time. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.2. Keeping cattle, 4.2.2.1.1 Non-penned cowsheds)
The BIOLAND standard is similar but more detailed. In the EU Regulation 2092/91 there is a general requirement that livestock housing must meet the livestock's biological and ethological needs and that livestock must have easy access to feeding and watering. Furthermore the stocking density in buildings shall provide for the comfort and well being of the animals. To enable natural behaviour appropriate to the species in livestock housing.
Livestock housing, area, pigs - FR Regulation 2000
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he size of pig production units is limited in all cases to 1500 slaughter pigs per year or 200 sows or their equivalent in the case of farrowing-fattening units. These maximum figures for each production unit may be exceeded where 100 % of the feed is produced on the holding.
French regulation limits the size of pig production units, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Limiting the size limits environmental pollution, noise and odour. It is a way of encouraging small farms, of human scale, socially acceptable and easier to hand down to the next generation.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005 For fattening poultry not more than 2000 animals and for laying hens not more then 600 may be reared in one stable (towards end of fattening period max 500 poultry,for turkey max. 250 animals/stable, for geese and ducks max. 250 animals /stable). The number of animals per stable, the stocking density in-house, is lower in the Bio Suisse regulation compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU defines the max number of animals per stable as 4800 poultry, 3000 laying hens, 5200 guinea fowl, etc. From an ethological point of view a lower number of animals per square meter and a lower maximum number of animals per stable is considered as more animal-friendly.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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DEMTER has to comply with the Swiss Ordinance on animal husbandry and rules the area of stable size in the same way as the latter. In the stable not more than 6 hens per m2 can be kept, additionally a wintergarden must be provided with 43m2 per 1000 animals and in addition to this there must be an outdoor area (pasture) of 5m2 per animal.
EU Regulation 2092/91 also requires no more than 6 animals/m2, but the size of wintergarden is not defined, and the size of pasture required is 4m2/animal which is less than the size required by Swiss Ordinance and therefore also by DEMETER. From an ethological point of view a lower number of animals per surface area and a lower maximum number of animals per stable is seen as more animal-friendly.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - DE Bioland 2005
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With the exception of stock sizes of less than 100 animals and mobile housing systems, an outdoor climate area of at least one third of the total minimum housing area is mandatory for fattening chicken and turkey. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.5. Poultry, 4.2.5.3 Poultry for fattening, 4.2.5.3.2. Exterior climate area)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require an outdoor climate area. According to the EU Regulation poultry must have access to an open air run whenever this is allowed by the climatic conditions, and at least during 3/4 of their lifetime. The animals must have the opportunity to execute their natural behaviour.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - FI Governmenal Regulation on organic animal production 2000 The minimum inside area for laying hens is one square meter for five hens. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows six laying hens per one square meter. More area was required before the EU Regulation entered in to force in 2000. More area inside is preferable due to the long and cold winter period when it is necessary to keep the animals indoors.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - FR Regulation 2000
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The area of poultry houses for table birds on each production site must not exceed 400 m2.
French regulation limits the area of poultry house for table poultry whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Limiting the size limits environmental pollution, noise and odour. It lowers the risks of sanitary problems. It is more acceptable for nearby residents.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - FR Regulation 2000
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The total usable area of poultry houses for laying hens and table poultry of any production unit must not exceed 1,600 m2.
French regulation limits the size of the total area of poultry house for laying hens and table poultry, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only limits it for table birds. We see no reason not to apply the same rules to laying hens as to table poultry. Limiting the size limits environnemental pollution, noise and odour. It is a way of encouraging small farms, of human scale that are socially acceptable and easier to hand down to the next generation.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - Nature et Progres Standards 2002
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The total usable area of poultry houses for laying hens and table poultry of any production unit must not exceed 800 m2.
Nature et Progrès standards limit the size of the total area of poultry house for laying hens and table poultry to 800 m², whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only limits it for table birds to 1600 m². Limiting the size limits environnemental pollution, noise and odour. It is a way of encouraging small farms, of human scale, with diversified productions, that are socially acceptable and easier to hand down to the next generation.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - Naturland 2005
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The maximum stocking density in aviaries is dependent on the individual housing system and must be agreed with the NATURLAND adviser. In no case should more than 12 hens/m² ground area be kept. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.5.1. laying hens)
The NATURLAND standard is more differentiated. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the stocking density is calculated on the base of the area, which is accessible to the animals, and there is no specific restriction for aviary systems. However, in the EU Regulation there is the general requirement to ensure the well-being of the animals and adapt the indoors stocking density to the situation (Annex I.B.8.8.2.) To ensure the well-being of the animals and provide detailed rules adapted to the specific production system.
Livestock housing, area, poultry - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association standards have a set of maximum poultry housing densities, minimum space for perching per bird, and maximum number of birds per nest for laying chickens. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 20.7.3. Soil Association standards contain further restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards specify a maximum of 6 laying hens for each nesting box, while the EU Regulation figure is 8. Soil Association standards specify separate maximum housing stocking rates for turkeys and geese of 2 birds per sq. metre in fixed housing and 3 birds per sq. metre in mobile housing, but EU Regulations apply the same figure for all classes of poultry, i.e. 10 birds per sq. metre (fixed) and 16 birds per sq. metre (mobile), which are also the maximum densities for all other classes of poultry in the Soil Association standards. The Soil Association standards' lower maximum number of laying hens per nesting box is intended to ensure an adequate level of welfare for each bird by improving access to nesting boxes. The specific housing density requirements for turkeys and geese in Soil Association standards take account of the larger size of these birds. Although both sets of standards include the same maximum weight of birds per sq. metre of housing area, the specific maximum housing densities for turkeys and geese in Soil Association standards help to ensure adequate health and welfare conditions for these larger birds.
Livestock housing, bedding material - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Straw which is used as bedding material in animal housing should preferably be grown on the farm itself or come from another organic farm. If conventional straw is used, it should not come from an intensive farming system. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.1 General, 4.2.1.3 Movement and Rest Area)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require animal bedding matieral to be of organic origin. To avoid contamination of the animal manure with residues from agrochemicals. Animals usually will eat part of the litter.
Livestock housing, bedding material - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Livestock bedding areas without bedding material or the use of peat as bedding are not permitted. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.12.11. Soil Association standards forbid the use of peat as bedding. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the use of "suitable bedding materials". The extraction of peat causes damage to environmentally valuable semi-natural habitats.
Livestock housing, cleaning - FR Regulation 2000
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In the case of mammals reared in uniform age groups, the housing and facilities must be entirely emptied, cleaned and disinfected after each group has been removed.
French regulation requires a period when the buildings are empty, cleaned and disinfected for all mammals reared in uniform age groups, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only requires it for poultry. Mammals reared in uniform age groups are exposed to the same sanitary risks as poultry.
Livestock housing, darkness, poultry - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards require that both hens and chickens should have at least 8 hours a day without artificial light (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.19).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 8.4.4 also requires that laying hens shall have at least 8 hours without artificial light. However, these KRAV standards also apply to chikens. The KRAV standards cover both hens and chickens, the EU Regulation 2092/91 only covers laying hens. There are conventional systems for chicken rearing which use 24 hours of light to get the animals to eat more and as such grow faster.
Livestock housing, daylight - SE KRAV 2006
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Animals should have adequate access to daylight. The area for letting in daylight should be at least 5% of the floor area (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.18).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 8.1.1 states that the building must permit plentiful natural ventilation and light to enter, but the KRAV standards are more specific. The KRAV standards are more specific and easier to verify.
Livestock housing, ecological aspects - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Ecological aspects have to be considered in the construction and maintenance of livestock housing. Materials and substances harmful to health or the environment should not be used and native materials must be preferred. The use of non-renewable energy should be reduced. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.1 General, 4.2.1.6 Construction and Maintenance of Livestock Buildings)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailled. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the ecological aspects of the construction of livestock housing To cope with the ecological principle of organic farming and avoid contamination.
Livestock housing, flooring - DE Bioland 2005
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The main part of the area for moving and resting in animal housing for mammals must be a solid floor. Slatted floors must be in an excellent condition and the perforation must be appropriate to the size of the animals. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.1 General, 4.2.1.3 Movement and Rest Area)
The BIOLAND standard is similar but more precise. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires more than 50% of the floor to have a solid and unslatted surface, but it does not explicitly refer to any further characterisitics of the perforated elements. However, there is a general requirement that animal housing must meet the livestock's biological and ethological needs. To avoid injury to the animals and to consider the needs of every single type of animal (species, size, age?) in the construction of animal housing.
Livestock housing, flooring - FR Nature et Progres Standards 2002
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Slatted floors and grid constructions are prohibited.
Nature et Progres standards prohibit the use of slatted floors and grid constructions, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 allows a proportion of slatted floors for every species to a maximum of 50% for herbivores and to 66 % for poultry. Slatted and grid constructions are not good for animal welfare and generate highly concentrated manures, which are potentially polluting for soils and waters.
Livestock housing, flooring - FR Regulation 2000
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Slatted floors are prohibited for mammals except for cattle & pigs in upland areas. In these cases, at least three quarters of the total covered floor area must be made of solid material and cannot therefore be made up of gratings or grids.
Concerning mammals, French regulation only allows slatted and grid construction for pigs in upland areas and for cattle, and to a maximum of 25% of the floor area, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 allows it for every species to a maximum of 50%. Slatted and grid construction are not good for animal welfare. They should be strictly limited.
Livestock housing, flooring - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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The requirement that at least half of the indoor area for mammals should have solid floor, is not applicable to sheep. Lambs should have access to solid beds with a sufficient thermal qualities as defined by general Norwegian legislation.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I B paragraph 8.3.5 requires at least half of the indoor area to be solid for all mammals. The impact of the requirement in 8.3.5 would be detrimental to organic sheep production in Norway. Meanwhile animal welfare of sheep is well provided on floors that are not solid.
Livestock housing, general requirements - Demeter International 2005
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Changes to the building construction which are necessary from an animal husbandry viewpoint (e.g. access to pasture, bays for rearing groups of calves, rebuilding of fully slatted floors etc.) are to be completed within a maximum five year conversion period. (DI production standards, 5.4. Management; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 6)
The DI standard is more precise by forcing adaptions for an appropriate animal housing within a five year timeframe. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 inappropriate housing (in certain cases) can be tolerated with a derogation up to 31.12.2010. As there are only 5 years left until the end of 2010 the implementation of the rule will probably now be the same. Converting farmers must have time to adapt the given conditions of the farm to the requirements of the Demeter standards. However, in order to increase credibility of organic and biodynamic farming the necessary changes should be encouraged.
Livestock housing, general requirements - US NOP 2002
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§ 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain livestock living conditions which accommodate the health and natural behavior of animals, including: (1) Access to the outdoors (2) Access to pasture for ruminants (3) Appropriate clean, dry bedding. If the bedding is typically consumed by the animal species, it must comply with the feed requirements of § 205.237; (4) Shelter meeting the needs of animals (b) The producer of an organic livestock operation may provide temporary confinement for an animal under certain conditions
The detail of living condition standards differes between the US and the EU Regulation 2092/91. Both US and EU require outdoor access for any animals. US in addition requires pasture for ruminants, not allowing derogations, EU require pasture for herbivores 'wherever conditions allow'. EU waves outdoor access for herbivores in winter under certain conditions. EU allows tethering under specified conditions, US does not address tethering. US require bedding to meet feed requirements if is typically consumed by the animal species. EU does not address this. EU has detailed requirements for housing of poultry, US do not. EU defines minimum indoor and outdoor surface area and other characteristics of housing in the different species and types of production. No justification was available.
Livestock housing, general requirements, pigs - SE KRAV 2006
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The natural behaviour patterns of pigs should be provided for. They shall have the possibility for rooting and food searching behaviour on fallow land, forest or woodland. In the winter this should be in deep litter. Pigs should have access to a mud bath or a water bath in the summer. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1)
Annex 1, paragraph 8.3.8 states that there shall be exercise areas which must permit rooting. Different substrates can be used for that. Mud baths or water baths are not covered by EU Regulation 2092/91. The KRAV standards require that during the non frozen period pigs are out on land, in winter they can be kept in an exercise area. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows pigs to be kept in an exercise area the year around. There is a qualitative difference to root in substrate or in real soil. The pigs can also be used for uprooting leys etc. Pigs cannot sweat and need water or mud baths to regulate temperature. This is an animal welfare issue.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Housing systems for laying hens can be floor systems or aviaries with access to open air run (exceptions are possible). Detailed instructions are given about the characteristics of the area (indoors and outdoors), that can be taken into account for calculating the total area, accessible to the hens (including exterior climate area, the scratching area, open air run, covered with vegetation). In aviaries the stocking density is restricted to 12 hens/m² floor space. Details are given concerning the size of the windows, the design of the feeding and watering equipment, the handling of excrements, the perch rods, the nests, the openings. Possibility of dust bathing is mandatory. Housing systems with more than 200 hens must have an exterior climate area of a determined minimum size, which is permanently accessible to the hens. (Bioland production standards, 4.2.5.1. Laying hens, 4.2.5.1.1.-4.2.5.1.3; Bioland production standards, 9.4. Commencement of Validity and Transitional Arrangements)
The provisions of the BIOLAND standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Bioland requires a permanently accessible outdoor climate area and the limitation of the maximum stocking density in aviaries in relation to the ground area of the building. The EU Regulation does not indicate as many details concerning the housing system, but in addition to the specific indications for poultry (Annex I B, 8.4.) there is the general requirement, that housing systems must be appropriate to the species and account for the biological and ethological needs of the animals (Annex I B, 8.1., 8.2.) In order to ensure that BIOLAND certified laying hens are kept in accordance with the specific needs and natural behaviour of the species.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - SE KRAV 2006
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Hens shall have dust baths. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.1).
This is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Dust bathing is one of the basic needs for hens. It is a way to get rid of parasites. All hens should have the possibility to dust bath, this is an animal welfare issue.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - UK Compendium 2005
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Conditions for poultry housing are specified, regarding their integrity, flooring, bedding, perches, pop-holes and maximum stock numbers. UK Compendium, Annex IB, Paragraph 8.4.3.
The paragraph in UK Compendium contains text not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91, as follows: "poultry houses must be structured with their own dedicated grazing, air space, ventilation, feed and water." This rule is otherwise identical to the EU Regulation. The additional UK Compendium text is designed to facilitate the inclusion of more than one poultry house in a single building. It makes it clear that each house must be completely separate from any others nearby.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - UK Soil Associaition Organic Standards 2005 In poultry houses of more than 100 birds, social grouping must be encouraged by the arrangement of feeders and drinkers, and by the use of partitions. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 20.7.2. Soil Association standards contain a requirement not included in EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards require the use of partitions and the arrangement of feeders and drinkers to encourage small social groups to be formed among birds in a large poultry house. EU Regulation does not include this requirement. Natural populations of poultry tend to form smaller social groups than exist in large poultry houses, so the provision of partitions, etc. reduces the incidence welfare problems relating to social alienation among birds in a large house.
Livestock housing, general requirements, poultry - UK Soil Associaition Organic Standards 2005
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Soil Association poultry housing standards include minimum requirements for solid, unslatted and bedded floor areas, along with minimum areas of pop holes, drinking and feeding space, and numbers of drinkers per flock size. There are also certain stipulations regarding the types and maintenance of poultry bedding. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 20.7.4-20.7.7.)
Soil Association standards are more comprehensive than EU Regulation 2092/91. The Soil Association standards minimum requirements for solid, unslatted and bedded floor areas are set at 50%, but EU Regulation requires a minimum one third of floor area of these descriptions. Soil Association standards require minimum space per bird for various types of drinker and feeder, but the EU Regulation does not include such requirements. The Soil Association standards require the bedding to be topped up regularly, and kept dry and friable, whereas EU Regulation requires enough of the floor space to be available for removal of bird droppings. Soil Association standards are intended to ensure an adequate level of health and welfare for the birds by requiring a larger proportion of the housing floor area to be unslatted and bedded, with minimum feeding and drinking spaces per bird. The requirement for topping up bedding rather than for removing droppings reveals a difference of emphasis between the two sets of standards, in which the Soil Association focuses more on providing sufficient resources for the birds to enable their normal behaviours.
Livestock housing, nesting material, poultry - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The nests of laying hens must be provided with formable natural materials. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.13, 1.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is very detailed, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not say anything about the material of nests. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal integrity. Behavioural priorities of laying hens, littered nests are preferred by laying hens. Litter satisfies behavioural requirements of laying hens by allowing moulding and other behaviours performed during egg laying.
Livestock housing, perches, poultry - NL Skal Standard 2005
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SKAL has made norms for the size, material and position of the perches for poultry. SKAL's interpretation of perches is as follows: the material has to be wood, metal, or plastic. It has to be at least 30 mm² thick and 50% has to be above ground level.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 only defines the number of hens per perch/ m² and is more general (referring in Annex I part B 8.1.1, 8.2.2, 8.4.3): "they must have perches of a size and number commensurate with the size of the group and of the birds as laid down in Annex VIII" All animals need enough space and outdoor areas for natural behaviour.
Livestock housing, rearing, calves - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Calves should stay with their mothers at least for the first day of their life. After 7 days or for the latest after 5 weeks they must be kept in groups. Cattle of less than one year must not be tethered. (Bioland production standard, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.2 Keeping cattle, 4.2.2.3 Calves)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require calves to stay with their mothers, but the keeping of calves older than 10 days in single boxes is not allowed. Tethering of calves is not explicitly prohibited under the EU Regulation. To enable natural behaviour appropriate to the species in livestock housing.
Livestock housing, rearing, calves - DE Naturland 2005
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Calves should be allowed to suckle from the mother cow and must not be kept tied up or in single boxes. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.2.3 Calves)
The NATURLAND standard contais further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not recommend the suckling of the calf and the keeping of calves in single boxes is prohibited only for calves older than 10 days. To enable the performance of natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock housing, rearing, pigs - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association standards include a number of specific requirements and conditions regarding the servicing, farrowing and weaning of pigs. Pig service pens have to be of at least 10.5 sq. metres per head. It is recommended to settle sows into farrowing accommodation well in advance of farrowing, to use farrowing arcs of area approx. 2.5m x 2m, and to use straw bedding. It is prohibited to use farrowing crates and to deny food or water to drying off sows. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 13.6.2 and 13.6.4. Soil Association standards are more specific than the EU Regulation 2092/91 to ensure adequate welfare for organic pigs. EU Regulation requires compliance with directive 91/630/EEC, which permits the use of farrowing crates, which is prohibited by SA standards. Farrowing crates are prohibited because they impose confinement that restricts movement and prevents natural behaviour tendencies.
Livestock housing, rearing, poultry - DE Bioland 2005
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The specific instructions for housing systems used for pullet rearing are concerning the maximum stocking density in relation to the stage of development of the animals (age / weight), the size of the scratching area, the characteristics of perching facilities and size of openings. Daylight is mandatory as well as a permanent accessible outdoor climate area for stocks of more than 200 animals or if the open air run covered with vegetation is less than 2.5m²/animal. If possible 1 cock shall be kept together with 100 hens. (Bioland production standards, 4.2 Requirements in the Keeping of Animals, 4.2.5 Poultry, 4.2.5.2. Young hens 4.2.5.2.1 - 4.2.5.2.3; Bioland production standards, 4.3 Dealing with animals, 4.3.2 Measures in the business)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not indicate specific instructions for rearing pullets at the moment. Consequently the general instructions concerning poultry housing apply. Specific rules are currently under development. In order to ensure the system to meet the specific needs of the animals, it must be adapted and appropriate to the animals stage of development. Consequently specific indications are needed. Chickens must have the opportunity to practice, at an early stage of development, the elements of natural behaviour in order to learn it. Disturbances in the behaviour of laying hens, which can lead to severe problems, should be avoided. Robustness and a natural immunisation against microorganisms present on the farm should be supported by providing outdoor access at an early stage of development.
Livestock housing, rearing, poultry - Naturland 2005
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Specific rules are described for pullet rearing, concerning the adaptation of the indoors stocking density in relation to the age / weight of the animals, the scratching area, illumination, perches and outdoor area. A dust bath is mandatory for pullets from the first week of life. A roofed outdoor area must be accessible from the tenth week of life. The contamination of the free range area with parasites or nutrients must be avoided. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.5.3.Pullets).
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not indicate specific instructions for rearing pullets at the moment. Consequently the general instructions concerning poultry housing apply. Specific rules are currently under development. To provide rules for any significant type of agricultural / food production.
Livestock housing, rest periods - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Between batches of poultry, houses must be cleaned and disinfected, and must be left empty for long enough to break the life cycle of pests. Soil Association Organic Standards, Paragraph 20.7.6. Soil Association standards are more precise than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards specify that the period that poultry houses are left empty between batches must be long enough to break the life cycle of pests. Although EU Regulation requires that poultry houses must be left empty, cleaned and disinfected between batches, it includes no time specification for the period that the houses must be left empty. Leaving the poultry houses empty for long enough to break the lifecycle of pests will mean that there are no established populations of pests to infest the following batch of poultry. This will reduce health and welfare problems for successive batches of poultry.
Livestock housing, ventilation - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 Efficient ventilation of livestock buildings must meet the following limits of maximum acceptable harmful gasses concentration: NH3 0.001% H2S 0.001% CO2 0.2% Air humidity should be kept at the level of 60-75% and air movement inside buildings to 0.3m/s (during summer hot months up to 1.0m/s). (4.8.7) The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify such limits. Animal welfare standards must be measurable, otherwise effective control is not possible.
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter3.10.3) BA-Rules 2006: The use of a cow trainer is not allowed in new or renovated barns. In existing barns with an installed system, it may be used until 31/12/2010 only under special restricted conditions: Only appliances with a delivery of max 0.3 joule per impulse may be used. Cow trainers may not be in operation for more than 2 days a week. The cow trainer must be installed along the length of and parallel to the trough. The distance between withers and cow trainer must not be less than 5 cm, meaning that only devices that are adjustable for each individual animal may be used. Cow trainers may only be used for cows (beginning of the first lactation period). The cow trainer must be raised to its maximal height before calving and until 5 days after calving. This is also indicated for several days before the animal comes in heat.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as in the EU Regulation 2092/91 cow trainers are not mentioned. Principle of animal welfare; principle of animal integrity and livelihood - equity principle; old systems of barn do not function without a cow trainer (fouling, dirtiness and hygiene).
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - DE Naturland 2005
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Electrical devices to condition cows are prohibited. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.2.1. Dairy farming)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailled. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not mention the prohibition of electrical devices. To enable natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock management, electrical conditioning devices - Demeter International 2005
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The use of electrical cow trainers is not allowed. (DI production standards, 5.4.1. Cattle management)
The DI standard is more detailed, the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly prohibit the use of electrical cow trainers. To enable the natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock management, general requirements, deer - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards have several standards for deer. The environment should be natural and contain plants and food that deer prefer. There should be protection in the enclosure by trees or forest. Handling of deer should be done so that stress is minimised. All deer should be able to feed at the feeding station at the same time. The feed should 100% KRAV –certified, 30% of the daily intake can be concentrate. Deer kids should suckle until natural weaning. Deer should only be slaughtered in the enclosure or adjacent to the enclosure (KRAV standards, several paragraphs in chapter 5).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have any specific standards for deer. Deer are in several ways quite different to other ruminants. It is important that they are treated in the best way.
Livestock management, tethering - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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When animals are tethered (exceptions can be approved by BIOLAND for a limited period of time), they must be able to stand up, lie down, eat and clean themselves in accordance with their natural behaviour appropriate to the species. Electrical cow trainers are prohibited.
The BIOLAND standard is similar but slightly more detailed. The EU Regulation does not explicitly refer to the characterics of tethering devices, nor prohibit the use of electrical cow trainers. However, it requires that tethering is executed in line with animal welfare requirements with comfortably littered areas, as well as individual management and regular exercise. Cow trainers are not mentioned. To enable natural behaviour appropriate to the species in livestock housing.
Livestock management, tethering - FR Regulation 2000
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Tethering of cattle is possible during winter time in buildings which already existed before 24 August 2000, until 31st December 2010 and in small farms, provided that regular exercise is provided and rearing takes place in line with animal welfare requirements with comfortably littered areas as well as individual management.
The French regulation limits the tethering of cattle to the winter season, whereas in the EU Regulation 2092/91 this is not specified. There is no reason to tether cattle indoors when weather conditions allow them to go out.
Livestock management, tethering - Nature et Progrès Standards 2002
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Certain kinds of indoor tethering are forbidden. It must not be too tight : the animal must still be able to make certain movements. For example, "dutch" tethering system is not allowed.
Nature et Progrès standards forbid certain kind of tethering, whereas the EU does not differentiate between different kinds of tethering. Certain kinds of tethering are not compatible with animal welfare.
Livestock management, tethering - UK Compendium 2005 Defra do not allocate the paragraph that would correspond with the EU Regulation derogation on cattle tethering in older buildings. EU Regulations allow a derogation for livestock enterprises with older buildings, which were designed for the housing of tethered cattle, to continue the practice of tethering until the end of 2010, providing that certain conditions be met regarding the animals welfare. The UK Compendium contains no such derogation. This derogation on cattle tethering would be a redundant feature of UK organic standards. In the EU Regulation, it is included to give time for changes in husbandry practice and for the depreciation of the value of livestock housing built before the tethering prohibition was introduced. No such buildings have existed in UK for a long time, and animal housing is mostly in cubicles or loose houses.
Livestock management, tethering - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Livestock must neither be housed permanently nor tethered for prolonged periods. Flooring in livestock houses must not have more than 50% slatted area. Permission is required for the tethering of animals for special circumstances such as for shows, welfare, safety or for short periods. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 10.12.4 and 10.12.5. Soil Association standards omit certain derogations permitted within EU Regulation. EU Regulation allows a derogation for livestock enterprises with older buildings, which were designed for the housing of tethered cattle, to continue the practice of tethering until the end of 2010, providing that certain conditions be met regarding the animals welfare. EU Regulation has a further derogation that allows cattle in small holdings, where they cannot be kept in groups appropriate to their behaviour requirements, to be tethered with access to open areas only twice per week. Soil Association standards do not allow any prolonged tethering, and require their permission to be sought even for tethering for short periods or for welfare or safety purposes. In omitting the derogation for tethering in older buildings, Soil Association standards comply with the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 6.1.5, but the UK Compendium, Annex 1B, Paragraph 6.1.6 includes the derogation for smallholdings, which Soil Association standards do not. Cattle are rarely kept tethered in UK smallholdings, and buildings have not been designed for tethering, so there is no need for the Soil Association to provide similar derogations to the EU Regulation. However, some flexibility is provided requiring permission for tethering in certain circumstances.
Livestock management, tethering, age restrictions - CZ PRO-BIO 2004 Livestock must be older than one year before tethering is permitted. (PB Standards Sec. II, Chapter 3, Part 3.2) Keeping livestock tethered in organic farming is generally forbidden by EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I/B: 6.1.4, 6.1.5., 6.1.6 quoted exceptions are not limited by livestock´s age. PRO-BIO does not allow exceptions for livestock younger than one year. Ethical non-aceptable methods may not be used in organic farming according to PRO-BIO Standards.
Livestock management, tethering, methods - CZ PRO-BIO 2004 PRO-BIO Standards lists methods which cannot be used (throat frames, stretch chains, belts) for animal tethering. (PB Standards Sec. II, Chap. 3, Part 3.3) EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I/B (6) does not specify methods, which can or cannot be used to tether the livestock. PRO-BIO is more detailed as it specifies the methods which are permitted. Ethically non-aceptable methods may not be used in organic farming according to PRO-BIO Standards.