Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

  • Subject Areas
    • Animal husbandry
      • Feed/Nutrition
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Animal fodder, animal origin - Demeter International 2005
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Feeding stuffs of animal origin other than milk and milk products cannot be given to herbivores. (DI production standards, 5.5.2. Feeding of dairy cows, sheep, goats and horses; DI production standards, 5.5.4. Feeding of replacement calves, calves for fattening, foal, lambs and kids)
The DI standards restricts feeding stuffs of animal origin for herbivores. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 fish and other animal products derived from the sea can be fed. Feeds must be appropriate to the class of animals and its physiological needs.
Animal fodder, animal origin - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 There is a limited list of feeds of animal origin permitted for feeding to livestock. Certain items on this list are permitted to be fed only to non-herbivores. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.13.23. Soil Association standards are more restrictive than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards specify that fish molluscan or crustacean autolysates, hydrolysates and proteolysates obtained by enzyme action, fish oil, and fishmeal may be fed only to non-herbivores. EU Regulation allows feeding of these products to both herbivores and non-herbivores. Feeding fish products to herbivores is incompatible with their innate behaviour and therefore contradicts the principles of care and fairness.
Animal fodder, animal origin, - SE KRAV 2006
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Conventional feed of animal origin is not allowed to be fed to ruminants, but may be fed to pigs and chickens. For ruminants, organic by-products from milk processing such as whey and skim milk may be used (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.12).
There are no restrictions on the use of conventional feed of animal origin to ruminants in EU Regulation 2092/91. There are restrictions on the type of conventional feedstuff of animal origin but there is no requirement that any should be organic. Ruminants do not naturally eat fish and should therefore not be feed with fish products.
Animal fodder, animal origin, fish products - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 There is a limited list of feeds of animal origin permitted for feeding to animals. Among these, any fish products must be either a by-product of fish for human consumption or from fisheries certified as being sustainably managed. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.13.23. Soil Association standards contain an additional restriction not included in EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards state that fish products for animal feed must be either by-products of human consumption or products of fisheries certified by a recognised body as sustainably managed. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the use of any fish product for this purpose. The Soil Association standards aim to ensure that the use of fish products for organic animal feed does not increase the amount of unsustainable fishing.
Animal fodder, cattle - DE Bioland 2005
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During the summer cattle must be fed fresh green fodder. Calves should preferably be fed with BIOLAND certified milk during the first 3 months. The feeding of dried grass cobs should be avoided. (Bioland production standards, 4.5.2 Cattle feeding)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The feeding of fresh green fodder is not required by the EU Regulation 2092/91 and it does not refer to grass cobs. To provide the animals with feed which is appropriate to the species, to ensure BIOLAND quality throughout the whole production chain and to reduce the consumption of energy.
Animal fodder, cattle - DE Naturland 2005
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Cattle must be fed with fresh green fodder during the growing season. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.2.Feeding, 2.2 Cattle)
The NATURLAND requires cattle to be fed with fresh green fodder whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 requires roughage for herbivores and recommends pasture. To ensure animal feeding to be appropriate to the species and as natural as possible.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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Bio Austria has the following restrictions of the products of annex II C and D.: Annex II C 1 Feed materials from plant origin: Following species as grains or kernels and/or by-products are not allowed 1.1. rice, millet, sorghum; 1.2. cotton, sesame, palm, olives, vegetable oils; 1.3. chickpeas, ervil, broad beans vetches; 1.4. potato, sweet potato, manioc. 1.5. All products of annex II C 1.5. are not allowed. 1.6. As forages and roughages only the following conventional feeds are permitted: o alfalfa grass meal, clover grass meal, grass meal o only after procurement of additional fields, as the harvest of newly acquired acreage: alfalfa, clover, green forage, hay, silage, grain straw as green forage and roughage. 1.7. Molasses is allowed as binding agent only; all other products are not allowed. 2 Only the following feed material from animal origin are permitted: 2.1. Curd and sour milk are allowed only from organic origin. 2.2. All products of annex II C 2.2. (products of aquaculture) are not allowed. 2.3. Eggs and egg products for use as poultry feed are allowed only from organic origin. In Annex II D the following products are not allowed: 1.3. Enzymes 3.1. Cereal flour and molasses
The list of admitted fodder from conventionl sources is more restricted by Bio Austria General Standard when compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91 annex II C. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence . There is a historical point too. The list of conventional feed in the Austrian Codex Alimentarius was very short in the past before 1999. Therefore it should also be continued in the future. Some products are not relevant in Austria (f. e. seed of cotton or palm kernels).
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Animals must be fed with bio-dynamic or organic fodder: no conventional fodder is allowed (with the exception of minerals and emergency cases).
DEMETER does not accept any conventional fodder on their farms with the only exception for cases of emergency. EU Regulation 2092/91 does allow certain limited ratios of non-organic fodder. No justification was provided from the standards owner.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) shall be fed 100 % organic feed whith a maximum of 30 % in-conversion feed or 60 % in-conversion feed if it comes from own farm according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, 2006, table 4.4. According to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Table 4.4: Requirements of the daily feed ration in DM/animal/day, it is not allowed to feed conventional feed products to ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats), while the EU Regulation 2092/91 as amendended by EU Regulation 1294/2005, allows 5% conventional feed to ruminants during the period from 25 August 2005 to 31 December 2007. A study carried out in Denmark showed that it is possible to feed ruminants with 100 % organic and in-conversion feedstuffs, so the allowance of 5 % conventional feed in the feed ration for herbivores until 31. December 2007 only applies to horses in Denmark. Consumers expect that animals used for organic food production are fed 100 % with organic feed products.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - FR Regulation 2000
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In France, a limited proportion of conventional feedstuff is authorised where the farmer is unable to obtain feed exclusively from organic production. The maximum percentage of conventional feedstuff authorised per year is 10 % of the annual ration for all animals (25% of the daily ration).
French regulation limits the use of non organic feed materials to 10% of the annual ration for herbivores and non herbivores, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 20% for non herbivores until August 2005 and from then on gradually lower amounts. 100 % organic feed is an important goal for organic animal husbandry: It is a question of consistency, independence, traceability, security against GMOs, and confidence of the consumers. In France, organic cereals are widely available and 10% is sufficient for the protein feed materials..
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005
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All livestock systems should provide the optimum level of 100% of the diet from feedstuffs (including 'in conversion' feedstuffs) produced to the requirements of these guidelines. (Codex Alimenarius Article 13) For an implementation period to be set by the competent authority, livestock products will maintain their organic status providing feed, consisting of at least 85% for ruminants and 80% for non-ruminants and calculated on a dry matter basis, is from organic sources produced in compliance with these Guidelines(Article 14).
The Codex Alimentarius Guidelines do allow a higher percentage of conventional feed compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91, which has been changed in the year 2005 and is reducing in a step-wise procedure the amount on non-conventional feed: until 31 December 2007 for herbivores 5 % and for non-herbivores 15 %. After this period these amounts will be further reduced. Whereas Codex Alimentarius does not set any limits for the purchase of organic off farm fodder, the EU Regulation requires 50% of the feed of herbivores to come from the farm unit itself or in case this is not feasible, be produced on other organic farms. As the Codex Alimentarius Guidelines is a world-wide guideline for national regulations, the requirements for organic feed allow some more flexibility for national competent authorities regarding the use of non-organic feed due to the fact that not in all countries the production of organic feed is already sufficient developed. The principle of availabilty is relevant.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed - Nature et Progres Standards 2002
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For all animal species, the ration must be 100 % organic feed. For herbivores, conventional feedstuff is allowed up to 10%, under exceptional climate conditions (dryness, fire, etc.), but concentrates must be 100 % organic.
Nature et Progres standards require a 100% organic ration for all species (except under exceptionnal climate conditions), and 100 % organic concentrates for all species, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows conventionnal feedingstuff in the annual ration of organic livestock (10% for herbivores, 20% for non herbivores). 100 % organic feed is an important goal for organic breeding: It is a question of consistency, independence, traceability, precaution with regard to GMOs, and maintenance of consumer confidence. In France organic cereals are widely available.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed, hens - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006
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Organic farms which deliver products to a “Bio Austria Marketing Project” have to fulfill further hen feeding restrictions in addition to the general standard of Bio Austria. Conventional feed components are forbidden except the following for which insufficient quantities are available from organic Austrian origin; sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, maize gluten, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent).
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 restrict the amount of some feed as they allow only sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EU Regulation 2092/91. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence. Another reason is to minimise the risks of GMO contamination.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed, pigs - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006 Organic farms which deliver products to a Bio Austria Market Project have to fulfill further pig feeding restrictions in addition to the general rules. Conventional feed components are forbidden except for the following for which products of organic Austrian origin have limited availability: sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewers yeast and molasses (only as binding agent). The BA Special Market Rules 2006 contain further restrictions with regard to the permitted amount of some feed as they allow only sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewers yeast and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EU Regulation 2092/91. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence. Another reason is the minimise the risks of GMO contamination.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed, poultry - Demeter International 2005
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Poultry can be fed with up to 50% organic feed, if Demeter certified feed is not available. No bought in conventional feeding stuffs may be fed. Conventional feed can be used up to 10% in the ration for poultry, if the feed was produced on an area of the Demeter farm itself, which was newly acquired and has not yet completed the first year of the conversion period. (DI production standards, 5.5.9. Feeding of poultry)
The DI standard contains further restrictions. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 poultry can be fed with up to 15% of conventional feed if listed in the corresponding annex and organic quality feed is not available. This applies until 31.12.2007, after that the percentage will decline by 5% in two years until reaching 5% in 2012. The quality of the feed influences the quality of the animal product. Additionally, to enhance independence of the farm from outside inputs and to avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Animal fodder, conventional/organic feed, roughage and concentrate - FR Regulation 2000
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In France, the percentage of non organic feed in the annual ration of herbivores is calculated separately for roughage and for concentrates.
French regulation specifies that the percentage of non organic feed materials must be calculated separately for roughage and concentrates, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require this. The aim is to avoid all the concentrates in the herbivore ration being non organic.
Animal fodder, feed additives - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Feed additives are allowed if listed in the corresponding appendix (10.4.6.). The amount of copper and zinc is limited. The use of certain substances requires approval of BIOLAND and some can only be used for specific purposes. (Bioland production standards, 4.4.4 Feed additives; Bioland production standards, 10.4.6 Permitted single fodder and additives as feed additives in feeding animals)
The provisions are very similar but in some cases more detailed, i.e. the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the amount of copper and zinc and preservatives do not require specific approval. Avoiding contamination with copper and zinc in outdoor runs and manure.
Animal fodder, general requirements - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006
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Organic farms which deliver products to a “Bio Austria Marketing Project” have to fulfil further feeding restrictions in addition to the general rules. Conventional feed is not permitted, with two exceptions; sugar beet pulp and molasses as a binding agent up to 10 % of additionally purchased organic feed. (Because in this case the self-made basic feed and the added ready-made feed are not calculated the part of this feed is really small.)
The Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006 contain further restrictions with regard to the permitted amount of some feed. The BA Special Market Rules 2006 allow only sugar beet pulp and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EU Regulation 2092/91. The permitted amount of this feed is limited too. It is related to additional purchased single feed material from organic farming and may only be used in connection to those. Because the roughage and the ready-made organic feed (organic mixed fodder) can not be a basis for calculation, the use of these two feeds is reduced to less than 5 % (which is the current maximum for conventional feed). The main reason for the reduction is to create high consumer confidence. Another reason is to minimise the risks of GMO contamination.
Animal fodder, general requirements - US NOP 2002
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§ 205.237 Livestock feed. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must provide livestock with a total feed ration composed of agricultural products, including pasture and forage that are organically produced and if applicable organically handled: In exception those nonsynthetic substances and synthetic substances allowed under § 205.603 may be used as feed additives and supplements.
US require 100 % organic feed (except for approved feed additives and approved synthetic inert ingredients and milk replacer in case of an emergency). EU Regulation 2092/91 allows feed from conventional sources 5 % for herbivores and up to 15 % for other species until 2007 with a decreasing share until 2011. From 2012 onwards EU also require 100 % organic feed. EU specifies feed formula per species, US does not. EU requires that for herbivores at least 50 % of the feed must come from the farm unit itself or a cooperating farm, whereas US does not. No justification was available.
Animal fodder, general requirements, poultry - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Hens must be able to take in part of the feed ration (grains) from the litter, the ration must contain roughage and calcareous feed components. Feed for fattening poultry must consist of at least 65% grains. Waterfowl should be given part of the feed ration in a moist form. (Bioland production standards, 4.5.5 Poultry feeding)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly require grains to be taken up from the litter or a certain percentage of grains to be fed, calcareous feed components or moist feed for waterfowl. However there is the general requirement that the feed shall meet the nutritional and physiological needs of the animals. To provide feed appropriate to the species.
Animal fodder, in-conversion animals, calves - Demeter International 2005
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Brought in organic calves must be fed and managed according to Demeter standards and can be marketed using the Demeter trademark at the earliest 6 months after weaning. (DI production standards, 5.5.4. Feeding of replacement calves, calves for fattening, foal, lambs and kids)
DI has specific provisions for brought in organic calves whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover this aspect. The quality of the feed influences the quality of the animal product.
Animal fodder, in-conversion feedstuff - FR Nature et Progres Standards 2002
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On average, up to 20 % of the feed formula of rations may comprise in-conversion feedstuff.
Nature et Progres standards allow 20 % of in-conversion feedingstuff in the annual ration of organic livestock whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 30 % of in-conversion feedstuff (up to 60 % if coming from a unit of the own holding). The use of a too large amount of in-conversion feedstuff in rations could prevent organic feedstuff, widely available in France, to be used.
Animal fodder, nutritive definitions - NL SKAL Standard 2005
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Within the definition for roughage, a distinction is made between feed concentrate and other roughage. SKAL has defined feed concentrate - when the roughage consists of: 900 VEM/kg dry matter, a structure of 3% or less, dry matter of 80% or a mixture of corn-cob, corn scrap, potato fibres, grass -and luzerne waste. All other feed is called roughage.
SKAL standard is more detailed by defining concentrates and type of roughage whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 is much more general ( Annex I, part B, 4.7): Rearing systems for herbivores are to be based on maximum use of pasture according to the availability of pastures in the different periods of the year. At least 60 % of the dry matter in daily rations is to consist of roughage, fresh or dried fodder, or silage. For the definition of roughage, the former private SKAL Norms for animal husbandry have been used. This difference should avoid the use of too much feed concentrate.
Animal fodder, origin - Int IFOAM Standards 2005
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The prevailing part (at least more than 50%) of the feed should come from the farm unit itself or be produced in co-operation with other organic farms in the region.(5.6.2)
Whereas the IFOAM limits the purchase of organic fodder by defined limits the EU Regulation 2092/91 states 50% of fodder that should be grown on farm (not mandatory). Fodder production and nutrients on farm should be in balance.
Animal fodder, origin - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Only in pig and chicken production, purchase of bio-dynamic off-farm fodder (cereals) is unlimited. For all other animals the quantity of purchased fodder must not exceed 20% of dry matter equivalent of the annual need for each category.
DEMETER standards contain further restrictions since the standard limits the purchase of fodder at 20% (related to the yearly dry matter equivalent needed for each animal category). Only for pig and chicken rearing are no limits set. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires 50% of the fodder to be grown on the farm if feasible, and if not it should be purchased from other organic farms. The self supply with fodder for ruminants is a principle aim within a bio-dynamic farm. The production of enough roughage adds to a closed and balanced production cycle within the operation and therefore purchase of fodder is restricted for ruminants.
Animal fodder, origin - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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Fodder must be procured from organic farms. Purchase is limited by the limits for fertilization intensity on the farm. Also by strictly limiting the export of farmyard manure (which implements a limit on the number of animals) the purchase of fodder is automatically restricted.
The Swiss Ordinance requires a balanced equation of fodder, farm yard manure and commercial fertilizers used in order to ensure a closed production cicle with no excessive farm yard manure produced within the organic farm. The EU Regulation 2092/91 has less requirements, since it only recommends that at least 50 % of the feed should come from the farm unit itself or if this is not feasible produced in cooperation with other organic farms. Fodder production and fertilization on farm must be in balance. In order to avoid soil independent animal husbandry, the Swiss Ordinance limits the purchase of fodder by strictly limiting the export of farm yard manure and by limiting the fertilization with farm yard manure and commercial fertilisers on the operations own land.
Animal fodder, origin - CZ PRO BIO Standards 2004 Livestock farming with the following numbers of animals must be supplied annually with at least 50 % feed from the own organic farm unit: poultry more than 1000, breeding sows more than 30, pigs for fattening more than 60 and horses with more than 10. Farms with numbers of animals less than those mentioned above are not limited. (PB Standards Part II, Chapter 3.1) PRO-BIO restricts the purchase of feed from other organic farms. EU Regulation 2092/92 Annex I/B 4 does allow the use of feed from other organic farms and its quantity is not limited by livestock numbers. The reason for this rule is to restrict animal husbandry without plant production in organic farming.
Animal fodder, origin - DE Bioland 2005
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50% of the feed for one animal species has to be produced on the same farm. The rest can be bought in, preferably from other BIOLAND certified farms. In case of small stock sizes of poultry, pigs and horses (less than 1000 laying hens or the respective figure of other poultry categories, less than 30 sows, less than 60 fattening pigs places or less than 10 horses) 100 % of the fodder can be purchased. If unavailable other organic feeding stuffs and certain conventional feeding stuffs can be used after approval. Ready mixed feed components and mineral feed components can only be purchased from BIOLAND certified, respectively BIOLAND approved companies. Conventional feeding stuffs can only make up 5% of the diet of pigs (not all kind of pig production), 10% for laying hens, 15% for pullets, 15% for fattening poultry and only until an age of 10 weeks, 5% for sheep and 10% for deer. The daily intake of conventional feeding stuffs is limited to 25%. Only a few conventional feeding stuffs are admitted (hay, grass silage, leguminous plants, cereals and mill residue products, oil-bearing seeds, oil cakes, oil expellers, fodder beets, potato protein (only for pigs and poultry), gluten of maize (only poultry), winter grazing on extensively managed areas(only for sheep). Some more conventional feeding stuffs can be used during the conversion period, as long as the animal products are marketed without reference to organic agriculture. Conventional grassland harvest from the own farm can be fed to all kind of animals within the percentages allowed according to the EU Regulation and without specific approval. Animal feed must be of a good quality, feeding stuffs from third world countries, feeding stuffs of animal origin (except for milk) and extraction groats are excluded. (Bioland production standards, 4.4 Animal Density and Purchase of Additional Feedstuffs, 4.4.1 General; Bioland production standards, 10.4 Temporary regulations for purchased feed from non-organic origin; Bioland production standards, 10.4.1 - 10.4.5; Bioland production standards, 4.4.3 Quality of purchased feed; Bioland production standards, 4.4.2 Feed from land in conversion)
The BIOLAND standard contains further restrictions. Less conventional feeding stuffs are admitted and the respective percentages are lower. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 ruminants can be fed with up to 5% conventional feeding stuffs listed in the Annex II C and pigs and poultry can be given up to 15% until the end of 2007. After that the percentage will decline (10% until the end of 2009, 5% until the end of 2011). If animal products are not to be marketed with reference to organic farming within 5 years of the beginning of the conversion period, more types of conventional feeding stuffs (but still less than in the EU Regulation) and the same percentages as indicated in the EU Regulation are admissible. The stipulation to have 50% feed produced on the same farm is restricted in the EU Regulation to herbivores and it can be produced by another organic farm as a cooperation partner.Bioland excludes feeding stuff originating from developping countries, EU doesn't specifiy the origin. The animal density is mainly oriented on the basis of the provision of feed by the business/farm itself. The purchase of fodder is subject to most stringent quality standards in order to minimise the load placed on the operational cycle of the business by pollutants. Bioland production standards, 4.4 Animal Density and Purchase of Additional Feedstuffs, 4.4.1 General; Bioland production standards, 4.4 Animal Density and Purchase of Additional Feedstuffs, 4.4.3 Quality of purchased feed; The provisions refer to the ecological principle of recyling of nutrients and mutual benefit among the different production units of a farm. Furthermore contamination with objectionable substances (i.e. solubles used for extraction processes)must be avoided.
Animal fodder, origin - DE Naturland 2005
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At least 50% of the feed must be produced on the farm itself or by a NATURLAND authorised cooperation partner. Exceptions are admissible for farms with a small number of animals (up to 10 DU). (NL standards on production, Part B.II.2.Feeding)
The NATURLAND standard is similar but slightly more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that 50% of the diet must be home-grown feed for herbivores only. If this is not possible, the feed can be provided by another organic farm as a cooperation partner. All kind of animals shall be fed with home-grown organic feed, if possible. To ensure animal production to be directly linked to the land area and plant production.
Animal fodder, origin - Demeter International 2005
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At least 50% of the feed must originate on the farm itself or in cooperation with another Demeter farm. (DI production standards, 5.5. Feeding; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 12)
Demeter requires 50% home-grown feed for any kind of animal. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires this only for herbivores. To strive for a circular flow economic system and independence from outside inputs, to enhance the farm individuality
Animal fodder, origin - Demeter International 2005
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Brought in feed should originate from Demeter production if possible, certain quantities of feed may come from not fully certified but biodynamic areas and from organically farmed areas. (DI production standards, 5.5.1. Brought in feeds and in conversion feeds; DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 11 and 12)
The DI standard is more detailed in this aspect. The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires organic feed and admits feeding of up to 10% brought in feed of conventional origin if this is listed in the corresponding annex and not available in organic quality. Nothing is stated about the percentage of in conversion feed in the daily ration. In order to produce high quality products; the quality of the feed influences the quality of the animal product.
Animal fodder, origin - FR Regulation 2000
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In France, a minimum part of the ration of the organic livestock must be grown on the farm: 50 % of the annual ration of herbivores, 40 % of the annual ration of non-herbivores. For non-herbivores, the percentage can be lower (but not under 10%) if unsufficient land or if the soils of the farm are not good enough to grow cereals (but all the land dedicated to growing feed must be organic). In this case the difference between the feed produced and the 40 % of ration must be contracted with another organic farmer, a feed producer or a cooperative. It is always possible to sell the feed materials to a feed producer and to buy feed in exchange but it has to be contracted.
French regulation requires organic breeders to grow a part of their annual livestock ration, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only requires them to grow a part of their herbivores annual ration or to contract it out to another organic unit. This rule has several justifications. Firstly, it seemed necessary to ensure production of enough organic feed in France. It is partly thanks to this rule that France is ready to reduce the part of conventional feed in organic livestock rations. Secondly, it is a way to ensure that each organic farm has enough land, because off-land breeding is not consistent with the principles of organic agriculture, and because organic manure should be used in priority on the farm where it has been produced..
Animal fodder, origin - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005 All livestock systems should provide the optimum level of 100% of the diet from feedstuffs (including 'in conversion' feedstuffs) produced to the requirements of these guidelines. For an implementation period to be set by the competent authority, livestock products will maintain their organic status providing feed, consisting of at least 85% for ruminants and 80% for non-ruminants and calculated on a dry matter basis, is from organic sources produced in compliance with these Guidelines.(Annex I B 13./14.) Whereas CODEX does not set any limits for the purchase of organic off farm fodder, the EU Regulation 2092/91 suggests 50% of the fodder should be grown on farm (not mandatory). No justification was available.
Animal fodder, origin - Naturland 2005
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Purchased animal feed must come with preference from NATURLAND certified or equivalent sources. In case of non-availability the admissible percentages of feeding stuffs from conventional origin are 10% for ruminants and 15% for pigs and poultry, if the products are to be marketed with reference to organic production. Otherwise the corresponding percentages of the EU Regulation apply. Only those feeding stuffs listed in the corresponding annexes can be used. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.2.Feeding: 2.1 General requirements, 2.4. Pigs, 2.5. Poultry Appendix 3), 2.Feeding)
The NATURLAND standard contains further restrictions with a lower percentage of conventional feed components for pigs and poultry. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 pigs and poultry can be fed with up to 20% conventional feeding stuff (until 31.12.2005), if the requested organic feed components are not available. This appies to any livestock producer, regardless of the labelling of the product. The NATURLAND list of admissible feeding stuffs of conventional origin is less extensive and includes an indication of which feeding stuff can be used for which type of animal, (i.e. cereals and legume crops are excluded, fish is limited to the feeding of young poultry)) Feeding stuffs that are in general not available in organic quality, or that are considered as problematical (such as soy bean) are excluded from the list to ensure the innocuousness and organic quality throughout the entire production chain.
Animal fodder, origin - SE KRAV 2006
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50% of the feed should be grown on the farm. There are exceptions for small farms (for example 3 cows with off spring or 10 beef cattle or 3 sows with off spring). Cooperation on growing of feed can be done between neighbour farms, there is a need for a cooperation contract. Exceptions can be made special cases (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.6).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 4.3 requires that 50% of the feed for herbivores should come from the farm itself or if that is not possible be produced in cooperation with other organic farms. The KRAV standards cover all animals while EU Regulation 2092/91 covers herbivores. In the KRAV standards pigs should have the possibility to graze and also be provided with roughage during the winter. The KRAV standards make exceptions for small farms were it might be difficult to have the machinery to produce feed of the required kind on the farm.
Animal fodder, origin - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Minimum proportions of fibrous, home-produced, in-conversion, and organic feedstuffs are specified for livestock feed rations. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.13.13 and 10.13.15. The Soil Association standards contain further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation requires at least 50% of feed for herbivores to be produced on the farm unit or on linked farms. The Soil Association standards require this proportion to be 60%, and they set a minimum proportion of 50% of feed for non-herbivores to be produced on the farm unit or on linked farms to be effective from 1st January 2011. Soil Association standards are intended to conserve energy resources by reducing feed transport and to encourage producers to design their organic holdings or groups of holdings as whole farm systems with relatively closed production cycles, minimising inputs and so conserving resources for sustainable best practice.
Animal fodder, origin, nomadic livestock - Demeter International 2005
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Nomadic livestock, to be marketed with reference to the Demeter trademark, must be fed with 2/3 fodder from own production. Additional fodder can come from extensively managed areas (not certified). (DI production standards, 5.5.5. Nomadic livestock and summer grazing on uncultivated areas)
The percentage of home grown fodder required by the DI standards is higher. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 50% of the feed for herbivores should be produced in the same farming unit or in another cooperating organic farm. This is not required during transhumancy periods. The quality of the feed influences the quality of the animal product.
Animal fodder, origin, pigs - Demeter International 2005
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The amount of bought in feed for pigs may not exceed 50%. This rule applies to farms where an equivalent of more than 5 livestock units in pigs are kept. Feeding stuffs of conventional origin cannot be brought in. Conventional feed can be used up to 10% in the ration, if the feed was produced on an area of the Demeter farm itself, which was newly acquired and has not yet completed the first year of conversion period. In case of proven unavailability of Demeter certified feed, the respective organisation can allow the feeding of maximum 50% organic feed. (DI production standards, 5.5.8. Feeding of pigs)
The DI standard contains further restrictions. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 pigs can be fed with up to 15% of conventional feed if listed in the corresponding annex and organic quality feed is not available. This applies until 31.12.2007, after that the percentage will decline in steps of 5% in two years until reaching 5% in 2012. In order to produce high quality products. The quality of the feed influences the quality of the animal product. Additionally to enhance independence of the farm from outside inputs and to avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Animal fodder, pigs - AT Bio Austria Special Market Rules 2006
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Organic farms which deliver products to a “Bio Austria Market Project” have to fulfil further pig feeding restrictions in addition to the general rules. Conventional feed components are forbidden except the following ones for which insufficient quantities of organic Austrian origin are available; sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent).
The BA Special Market Rules 2006 restrict the permitted amount of some feed as they allow only sugar beet pulp, expeller of rape seed, linseed, sunflower seed and pumpkin seed, potato protein, brewer’s yeast and molasses (only as binding agent) as conventional feed from the list of annex II C of the EU Regulation 2092/91. The main reason for reduction is to create high consumer confidence. Another reason is to minimise the risks of GMO contamination.
Animal fodder, poultry - CZ PRO BIO Standards 2004 A minimum of 10% of the daily corn-feed for laying hens must be given scattered on the ground. (PB Standards, Part II, Chapter 3.5) No similar paragraph is quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. he ethology of scratchers/gallinaceans is a justification for this rule.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement - Demeter International 2005
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At least 60% of the diet of herbivores must consist of roughage. In summer most of the diet must be fresh green feed, preferably pasture. In winter herbivores (except beef cattle) must be given hay (exemptions can be approved). A feed ration based on silage over the whole year is not allowed. The ration for beef cattle can be based on silage but green material must be given additionally in summer. (DI production standards, 5.5.2. Feeding of dairy cows, sheep, goats and horses; DI production standards, 5.5.3. Feeding of beef cattle)
The DI standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 solely requires the feeding of roughage (60% respectively 50%) and pasture (young herbivores). Feeds must be appropriate to the class of animals and its physiological needs. There are also aspects of product quality, e.g. for milk.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement - Nature et Progres Standards 2002
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A minimum proportion of the dry matter in daily rations of herbivores has to consist of roughage, fresh or dried fodder : 80% for cattle, 70% for sheeps and goats.
Nature et Progres standards require at least 70 % of roughage, fresh or dried fodder in the ration of sheeps and goats, and 80% in the ration of cattle, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 only requires 60 % for all herbivores, or 50 % under certain conditions. This requirement is to satisfy the physiological needs of ruminants which need a certain amount of fibres to have good digestion.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement - SE KRAV 2006
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All animals should have free access to roughage. In the diet for ruminants reared for meat there may be maximum 30% concentrate. For dairy animals there may be maximum 40% concentrate except for the first three months in lactation when it may be 50%. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.10 and 5.3.11).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 4.7 it is required that 60% of the feed for herbivores is roughage. This can be reduced to 50% for dairy animals during three months early in the lactation. Paragraph 4.11 requires that roughage shall be added to the daily diet for pigs and poultry. The KRAV standards require free access to roughage.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, grazing - SE KRAV 2006
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Grazing should constitute at least 50% of the dry matter for ruminants (during the grazing season). For dairy animals and bullocks a somewhat lower proportion can be allowed for shorter periods but as a minimum half or the roughage should be from grazing. Pigs and poultry should have the possibility to graze, providing both feed and opportunity for activity. Stud bulls may be kept in outdoor runs but during the grazing period they should have access to fresh grass (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.13 and 5.3.14).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require grazing for pigs or poultry. For herbivores it is required in paragraph 4.7 that rearing systems for herbivores are to be based on maximum use of pasturage. All animals, including pigs and poultry graze. For poultry though it might not be such an important part of the diet, activity it is very important. Sweden has a lot of land for grazing and it is important that these areas are used, also from a biodiversity perspective.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, ruminants - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 Daily ratio for all ruminants must comprise at least 60% of roughage (calculated on a dry matter basis). Calves must be offered roughage from the second week of their life.(4.4.4. - 4.4.5) The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows for animals in a dairy production reduction to 50% of roughage for 3 months in early lactation. The offer of roughage to calves is not required by the Regulation. All ruminants need roughage for a good digestion. The same goes for calves, for development of their stomach early access to roughage is necessary.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, ruminants - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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Roughage must comprise at least 60 % of the daily ration for ruminants. Calves are to be offered structured roughage from the second week of age.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows in special cases for at least 3 months a reduction to 50 % roughage and the offer of roughage to calves is not regulated. The Bio Austria General Standard requires a higher ratio of roughage in the daily supply and considers all ruminants including calves. Ruminants need structured roughage for a species-appropriated function of the digestion. To develop a good ruminant stomach it is important to give calves roughage very early. It is a measure against intensification too.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, ruminants - UK Compendium 2005 Herbivores, once weaned, are to be reared making the maximum possible use of pastures. Their daily ration must contain at least 60% in dry matter of fresh, dried, or ensiled forage, containing roughage. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows a reduction, from 60% to 50%, in the minimum proportion of forage for the daily ration of dairy animals up to a maximum of 3 months in early lactation. This reduction is not permitted in the UK Compendium. The EU Regulation allows a higher carbohydrate, lower fibre, cereal-based ration to be fed to dairy animals in early lactation. This ration may promote higher daily milk yields but may also increase the risks to the health, welfare, and longevity of the animals. The higher concentrate ration risks compromising the health and welfare of the livestock.
Animal fodder, roughage requirement, ruminants - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association standards (Paragraphs 11.3.2) set a minimum proportion of fibrous feed and a maximum proportion of concentrate feed in the rations of cattle, sheep and goats after weaning. The Soil Association specifies a minimum of 60% roughage, fresh or dried fodder, or silage for all cattle, sheep and goats (after weaning). In this case, the Soil Association complies with the UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 4.7. Soil Association Organic Standards. 11.3.5, and 12.3.7. Soil Association Standards use the most strict option provided within EU Regulation 2092/91 regarding herbivore feed rations, as follows. EU Regulation permits inspection bodies to authorise a reduction from 60% to 50% in the minimum proportion of fibrous forage in the daily ration of dairy animals during the first 3 months of lactation. The EU Regulation allows inspection bodies to authorise a higher carbohydrate, lower fibre, cereal-based ration to be fed to dairy animals in early lactation. This ration may promote higher daily milk yields but increase the risks to the health, welfare, and longevity of the animals. The higher concentrate ration risks compromising the health and welfare of the livestock.
Animal fodder, silage - FR Nature et Progres Standards 2002
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Silage is forbidden in the ration of herbivores.
Natures et Progres standards forbid the use of silage for herbivores whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 allows it. Silage makes an unbalanced ration, creating bad sanitary conditions for the livestock. It also has a bad influence on the quality of milk products such as cheese or yoghurt. Furthermore in organic farms it is desirable to avoid systems based on maize silage, which is bad for the environment as maize requires a lot of water and leads to long periods of bare soil, and these systems often have short rotations.
Animal fodder, silage - FR Regulation 2000 Silage may account for not more than 50% of dry matter in daily rations of herbivores. French regulation forbids the use of more than 50% of silage in the annual ration of herbivores whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the use of it. Silage makes for an unbalanced ration, creating bad sanitary conditions for the livestock. It also has a bad influence on the quality of milk products such as cheese or yoghurt. Furthermore in organic farms, we want to avoid systems based on maize silage, which is bad for the environment as maize requires a lot of water and leads to long periods of bare soil, and these systems often have short rotations.
Animal fodder, waterfowl - Demeter International 2005
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Waterfowl must be given moist feed. (DI production standards, 5.5.9. Feeding of poultry)
The DI standard is more precise: The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not particularly refer to the feeding of waterfowl but requires animal feed to 'meet the nutritional requirements of the livestock'. Feed must be appropriate to the class of animals and its physiological needs.
Animal rearing, weaning, pigs - SE KRAV 2006 Piglets should not be weaned until they are 7 weeks old (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.19). In EU Regulation 2091/91 pigs should not be weaned before 40 days. It might seem that the 9 extra days is a short time but on a fifth of its lifespan the piglet is quite much stronger and also more resistant against diseases.
Conversion of land, livestock production - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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A conversion period of at least 2 full calendar years is required. No retrospective approval is granted (no reduction of the conversion period is possible)
BIO SUISSE requires a conversion period of 2 years for pastures, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 permits a reduction of the conversion period for pastures down to 6 months for non-herbivore species if no disallowed substances have been applied to the respective plots This rule contributes to consumer confidence and makes inspection easier.
Conversion period, land for livestock production - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
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IFOAM requires a conversion period of at least 12 months prior to pastures, meadows and products harvested therefrom being considered organic. Landless animal husbandry systems are prohibited. (5.1.)
IFOAM requires 12 months of conversion for pastures, whereas according to EU Regulation 2092/91 a reduction down to 6 months conversion period is possible for pastures and meadows. In the context that a converson period enables the establishment of an organic management system IFOAM requires the longer conversion period than EU for pastures.
Free range conditions, access to soil, piglets - SE KRAV 2006
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Piglets should have access to soil the year around (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.24).
This is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. Piglets intake required amounts of iron from the soil. This is more natural then feed minerals.
Livestock housing, grazing period - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards have specific standards on when animals can be kept inside even if the general provision is that animals should be outside whenever it is possible to keep them outside. Animals can be kept indoors in case of mating, insemination, giving birth, illness, insect attacks, and extreme weather conditions or before slaughter. Calves may be kept inside during the period of milk feeding. Sows may be kept indoors for maximum a month for mating/insemination, if kept inside for more then a week they shall have access to an outdoor run. Bulls are not allowed to keep inside if they are not going to be sent for slaughter in the near future. The producer shall document all animals kept indoors. (KRAV standards paragraph 5.2.4).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify when and for how long animals can be kept inside during the grazing period. In Annex 1 paragraph 8.3.1 states that mammals shall be outside whenever the physiological condition of the animal, the weather conditions and the state of the ground permit. In paragraph 8.3.4 it is a derogation to keep cattle, pigs and sheep for meat production inside during the final fattening stage, which can be maximum one fifth of the lifetime and not over three months. KRAV have more specific standards on when and how animals can be kept inside during the grazing period, the EU Regulation is much more general. From experience it is known there is always a risk that some animals are kept inside for too long time. KRAV standards disallow keeping animals inside during the final fattening stage. It is so important that animals are outside in the summer that this is seen as more important, it should also be possible to manage the animals outside even if coming closer to slaughter.
Livestock housing, rearing, calves - DE Naturland 2005
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Calves should be allowed to suckle from the mother cow and must not be kept tied up or in single boxes. (NL standards on production, Part B.II.1.2.3 Calves)
The NATURLAND standard contais further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not recommend the suckling of the calf and the keeping of calves in single boxes is prohibited only for calves older than 10 days. To enable the performance of natural behaviour and increase the well-being of the animals.
Livestock housing, zero grazing - UK Soil Association 2005 Zero grazing systems are not permitted for cattle. (Zero grazing means feeding freshly cut forage to housed animals). Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 11.3.5. Soil Association standards are more precise than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association Standards prohibit zero grazing for cattle. Zero grazing is not specifically prohibited in the EU Regulation, but it states, "Herbivores must have access to pasturage whenever conditions allow." The Soil Association rule is a clear prohibition while the EU Regulation is not. The Soil Association rule aims to be clear and unambiguous in prohibiting zero grazing systems. Although the EU Regulation may imply such a prohibition, it could be open to other interpretations in certain situations. The prohibition of zero grazing systems encourages producers to maximise cattle's access to pasture.
Livestock management, rearing, calves - CZ PRO-BIO Standards 2004 Calves must stay with their mother for at least 24 hours after birth. (PB Standards Part II, Chapter 3. 5) No similar paragraph is quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Ethically non-aceptable methods may not be used in organic farming according PRO-BIO Standards.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and export - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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The aim is to create the operation as an organism, which is a closed circle of nutrients and crop and fodder production - neither fodder nor fertilisers should be imported or exported. The operation is expected to be balanced in this regard. If at all, manure can only be exported to other organic units complying with the maximum stocking rate. For transporting manure the maximum distance of the Bio Suisse regulation is applied, which requires not more than 20-80km transport distance depending on the kind of manure.
DEMETER is striving for a balanced autonomous operation based on own fodder and fertilizer production (excessive manure does not occur in these operations). EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the farm yard manure used on the own farm to 170kg N/ha, if manure is exported this can be done to another organic unit, not exceeding the limit fo 170kg N/ha and year. The balance between farmyard manure produced on the own farm and the nutrients required by plant production is essential for a sound and sustainable organic production method. The need of manure export does not occur on DEMETER farms - the opposite is more often the case.
Milk for offspings - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005 Specific lievestock rations should take into account the need of young mammals for natural and preferably maternal milk (Annex I B 16) The EU Regulation 2092/91 requires a minimal time period of suckling before weaning, whereas CODEX rules the matter in a more general way. No justification was available.
Milk for offspings - SE KRAV 2006
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Calves, lambs and kids should be allowed to suckle for at least the full colostrum period and then get their own kind of animals unprocessed KRAV-certified milk. Organic milk from other species can be used for motherless animals. If that is not possible unprocessed conventional milk can be used. In emergencies milk powder can be used, but if this is more then 30% of the daily feed intake a 12 month conversion time is required. The producer has to document all use of milk from other species, conventional milk and milk substitutes. Calves which do not suckle should be given the opportunity to suck in a natural position through an artificial teat (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.16 – 5.3.18).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex 1 paragraph 4.5 states that the feeding of young mammals must be based on natural milk, preferably maternal milk, though there are no requirements that animals should suckle. The KRAV standards require organic milk, in the normal case from the own species. The first days of suckling are important as the offspring gets the mothers micro flora together with the milk. That gives a protection against diseases. The requirement that calves shall suckle in a natural position even if hand reared is based on research showing that the milk ends up in the right stomach when suckling from above instead of drinking from a bucket below.
Milk for offsprings - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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Young mammals must be fed with natural milk, preferably mother's milk. All mammals must be fed with natural milk during a minimum period of time.
BIO SUISSE and EU Regulation 2092/91 regulate the feeding of milk similarly. BIO SUISSE is less strict for the duration of feeding milk for the species sheep and goats (only 35 days compared to 45 days for sheep and goat in the EU Regulation). The immune system of the young mammals is strengthened by antibodies contained in the mothers milk. Via interaction of the young mammals with the udder the immune system of the mother may even respond to infections of the young animals and release adequate antibodies with the milk.
Milk for offsprings - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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Young mammals must be fed with maternal milk: bovines/bubalus and equines 3 months, sheep and goats 35 days, pigs 40 days.
Swiss Ordinance and EU Regulation 2092/91 regulate the feeding of milk similarly. The Swiss Ordinance is less strict for the duration of feeding milk for the species sheep and goats (only 35 days compared to 45 days for sheep and goat in the EU Regulation). No justification could be given by the standards owners.
Milk for offsprings - Int IFOAM Standards 2005
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Young stock from mammals should be provided with maternal milk or organic milk from their own species, and should be only weaned after a minimum time that takes into account the natural behaviour of the relevant animal species. Operators may provide non-organic milk when organic milk is not available. (5.6.8 )
EU Regulation 2092/91 requires strict limits before weaning, whereas IFOAM rules the matter in a more general way. The immune system of the calve is strengthened by antibodies contained in the mothers milk. Via interaction of the calves salvia with the udder the immune system of the mother may even respond to infections of the calve and release adequate antibodies with the milk.
Milk for offsprings - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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Calves shall be able to suckle for at least 3 days after birth. During shorter suckling periods than 1 month, calves shall drink from a teat until they are 1 month old.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 is not as precise on this specific area. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not set minimum periods for calves allowing suckling mother milk. Stimulating the suck reflex for calves will ensure the milk is taken up the best way and is important for development.
Milk for offsprings, held-back milk - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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When milk which has been held back as a result of treatment with antibiotics or chemically-synthesised veterinary medicine, cannot be used as feed for organic animals before the fifth day following the treatment. Feeding milk which has been kept back after this period is considered as organic feed portion. From 1 month before slaughter, no animals must be fed with milk that has been held back.
EU Regulation 2092/91 has no details on this specific area, what has to be done with milk when animals have been treated with antibiotics The EU regulation 2092/91 has no details on this specific area, and farmers were asking for clarification.
Milk for offsprings, lambs - CZ KEZ Standards 2005 Minimal weaning period (mother-milk-feeding) for lambs is 56 days. (KEZ Standards, Chapter rearing of livestock, 9.4) KEZ Standards require a longer weaning period than EU Regulation 2092/91. According to Annex I/B 4 the minimum period during when a lamb must be fed with natural (mother) milk is only 45 days. The standard-setting body could not give a justification.
Processing inputs, dog and cat feed - NL SKAL Standards 2005
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SKAL has included the following specific additives to Annex VI for dog and cat feed: ethylalcolhol, calcium, vitamins, minerals, spore elements, pure amino acids, organic acids, rosemary extract, fishmeal and chicken meal.
Norms for processing of products that are not within the scope of the EU Regulation 2092/91 must correspond as much as possible with the processing standards in the EU Regulation. Exceptions are made for additives for cheese, non-food, dog and cat feed, wine and meat products, which are not listed in the EU Regulation The EU Regulation has not regulated the processing of dog and cat feed products yet.
Veterinary prophylactic treatment, iron injection, pigs - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 As well as a number of operations prohibited on welfare grounds (and detailed in another difference item), prophylactic iron injections of pigs are prohibited. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 13.2.2. Soil Association standards prohibit the prophylactic injection of iron for pigs. This practice is not prohibited under EU Regulation 2092/91. Prophylactic iron injections may cause health problems, and iron sources from the maternal milk and/or feed ration should be sufficient. Any symptoms of iron deficiency should be looked for in animal health monitoring.