Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

  • Subject Areas
    • Specific animal standards
      • Beekeeping
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Beekeeping, colonies - Demeter International 2005
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Colonies must not be united routinerary and queens must not be systematically replaced with the purpose of increasing the honey production. (DI production standards, 4.2 Methods for increasing Honey Production)
The DI standard is more detailed. The above mentioned methods to increase honey production are not prohibited by the EU Regulation 2092/91. It is a principle of Demeter beekeeping, that bees are kept in close accordance with their nature. "Bee keepers working in the context of biodynamics orientate themselves primarily towards meeting the natural requirements of the colony. Management is so structured that the bee is able freely to unfold its true nature."
Beekeeping, feed - DE Bioland 2005
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Any surpluses from the winter feed must be removed from the hives before the start of the collecting period. During the season only BIOLAND honey can be used as feed for the colonies. BIOLAND certified feed components must be used. If these are not available, feeding stuffs of organic origin can be used. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.5 Feeding Bees)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more detailed by requiring surplus feed to be removed. This is not required by the corresponding EU Regulation 2092/91, however there is a requirement for feeding to be stopped at least 15 days before the beginning of the next flow of nectar or honey dew. The preference of feeding stuffs of BIOLAND quality is not regulated by the EU Regulation. In order to avoid adulteration of the honey to be harvested with remaining feed made from sugar.
Beekeeping, feed - Demeter International 2004
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Winter feed must contain at least 10% of honey; herb tea (camomile) and salt should be added. All feed components should be of biodynamic origin. The same feed can be used if feeding the colonies is necessary before the first nectar flow of the season, as well as to strengthen swarms and the colonies where the swarms come from. During the season only honey of Demeter quality is admitted for emergency feeding. Stimulative feeding is not permitted. (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 4.5 Feeding)
The DI standards are more precise. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 honey from the same unit is to be used for feeding the bees if necessary; however feeding with organic sugar can be (and is) admitted by the authorities of the member states. This is also possible during the season, if the feeding is realized between the harvest of honey and 15 days before the next period of nectar or honeydew flow. Honey and pollen must be left in the hives at the end of the season. A certain percentage is not indicated. Biodynamic quality is not regulated by the EU Regulation. It is a principle of Demeter beekeeping, that bees are kept closely in accordance with their nature. Honey is the natural feed for bees. "Bee keepers working in the context of biodynamics orientate themselves primarily towards meeting the natural requirements of the colony. Management is so structured that the bee is able freely to unfold its true nature". (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 1.Validity and basis)
Beekeeping, feed - Naturland 2005
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If necessary, the colonies can be fed. The winter feed should consist of at least 10% of honey from own production. In addition organic sugar can be fed. Adulteration of honey with remains of winter feed must be excluded. During the season only organic honey (with preference NATURLAND certified or equivalent) can be fed. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.4. Feeding)
The NATURLAND standard is similar to the EU Regulation 2092/91, but more precise by determining a certain percentage (at least 10%) of honey in the winter feed and by admitting only honey as feed in between the periods of nectar flow in one season. To provide healthy and natural feed to the bees while at the same time considering the economic needs of the beekeeper. To avoid adulteration of the honey to be harvested.
Beekeeping, general requirements - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The Bio AUSTRIA General Standard for bee-keeping is basically the requirement of the EU Regulation 2092/91 including some more detailed points: hive protection, management of colonies, building and storing of honey combs, wax processing, processing of extracted honey, honey storing and analysing, bees health. Additionally to the followings of the standard there must be made a wax analysis (mixed sample of hives medium walls and wax stocks) of residues of inadmissible Varroa- and wax moth-pesticides. • Honey must not be kept in containers made of synthetic substances (instead of stainless steel), because even food proved synthetic substances seem to emit softening agents which are supposed to be absorbed by honey changing the scent of it. • The residues must not be more than 0.5 mg/kg wax per active substance which corresponds to the provable limit. • In general there are big residue problems (the average values of wax are between 1.7 mg and 6 mg Apistan/kg, other chemicals can have much higher values). • Thymol (against Varroa) is not permitted because the residues in honey change the scent of it. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 3.18)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it provides analysis of wax for Varroa and wax moth control substances which are forbidden in organic agriculture. Residues may not exceed 0.5 mg/kg wax per substance. Further rules are specifications to the EU Regulation 2092/91 for bee keeping. Principle of care/precaution. No justification was provided by the standard-setting organisation.
Beekeeping, harvesting honey - DE Bioland 2005
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Only mature honey can be extracted from the hive. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.3 Honey, 4.10.3.1 Harvest)
The BIOLAND standard is more precise. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly require only mature honey to be extracted. However there is a general requirement of an adequate harvest of bee products. In order to ensure the high quality of the honey and to avoid problems arising as a consequence of i.e. a high water content of the honey.
Beekeeping, harvesting pollen - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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This chapter regulates in detail the collection of BIOLAND pollen. There are detailed provisions concerning the character, placement and cleaning of facilities for pollen, the extraction and the handling of the harvested pollen. Among others: It is important, that enough pollen for the bee's own supply is left in the hive and that bees are not injured while stripping off the pollen. The pollen has to be protected from negative impacts caused by climatic influences or inappropriate handling and processing (i.e. temperature of drying air). It must be stored in a cool, dark and dry place. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.4 Pollen, 4.10.4.1 Pollen trap; Bioland production standards, 4.10.4.2 Processing; Bioland production standards, 4.10.4.3 Packing and storage)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the harvesting of pollen in detail. There is only the general requirement of adequate handling of bee products during harvest, processing and storage and to leave an extensive quantity of pollen in the hives at the end of the season. To avoid major disturbances of the colonies and to respect their integrity. To guarantee BIOLAND pollen to be a high quality product.
Beekeeping, harvesting pollen - Naturland 2005
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Care must be taken not to injure the bees when gathering pollen. The holes in the pollen comb should preferably be round. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.5.Beekeeping practice, breeding, increasing stocks)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate this aspect. To care for the well-being of the animal.
Beekeeping, hive construction - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The hives must be constructed using mainly natural materials and substances. Harmful types of glue, painting or varnish is prohibited. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.2 Hives)
The BIOLAND standard is similar but more precise in explicitly excluding the use of chemical synthetic substances for the construction of bee hives. To avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Beekeeping, hive treatment - DE Bioland 2005
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The interior of the bee hives can only be treated with beeswax, propolis, plant oils or heat. For hygienic treatment heat, acetic acid, BT preparations (Bacillus thuringiensis) can be used. In case of acute infection caustic soda and organic acids can be used with subsequent neutralisaion with organic acids. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.2 Hives)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. Less products can be used for cleaning and disinfection of bee hives. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the products listed in Annex II B can be used to protect the hives from pest. Substances allowed for cleaning and desinfection are listed in Annex II E: Potassum and sodium soap, Water and steam, Milk of lime, Lime, Quicklime, Sodium hypochlorite (e.g. as liquid bleach), Caustic soda, Caustic potash, Hydrogen peroxide, Natural essences of plants, Citric, peracetic acid, formic, lactic, oxalic and acetic acid, Alcohol, Formaldehyde, Sodium carbonate. To avoid contamination of bee products with objectionable substances.
Beekeeping, hive treatment - Demeter International 2005
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The interior of the hives can only be treated with beeswax and propolis of Demeter quality. On the exterior only non-synthetic and ecologically safe wood preservatives can be applied. For cleaning and disinfection only heat is allowed. (DI production standards, 3.1 Interior Treatment; DI production standards, 3.2 Exterior Treatment; DI production standards, 3.3 Cleaning and Disinfection)
The DI standard is more detailed. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 more substances are allowed for internal and external treatment and for cleaning and disinfection of the hives. Products of Demeter quality are not regulated. Natural substances are preferred. To avoid contamination with objectionable substances is another criterion.
Beekeeping, hive treatment - Naturland 2005
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For the external treatment of hives only natural substances are permitted. In case of acute infection, caustic soda can be used for disinfection. Combs can only be treated with acetic acids and BT preparations. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II: 2.1. Treatment of the hives 2.2. Cleaning and disinfection 3. Wax and honeycombs)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailled by allowing only natural substances for the external treatment of hives. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 all the substances listed in the annex II B can be used to protect hives, frames and combs. For disinfection all the products listed in annex II E can be used. To avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Beekeeping, natural colonies - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Colonies must have the opportunity to construct natural combs. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.3 Wax and Honeycombs)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require the natural construction of combs. To enable the bees to carry out their natural behaviour.
Beekeeping, natural combs - Demeter International 2005
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Bees must be able to freely and naturally construct the combs in the brood area. Waxen foundations can only be used for the combs in the supers. The brood area must not be divided. Separation barriers as part of the management system are not allowed. (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 4.4 The Comb; DI standards for beekeeping and hive products,4.4.1 Combs in the Brood Chamber; DI standards for beekeeping and hive products,4.4.2 Combs in the Supers)
The DI standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require the natural construction of combs. Furthermore it does not prohibit the brood area to be divided or the use of barriers in the system. The comb is integral to the beehive. The colony is an entity and must not be divided. It is a principle of biodynamic beekeeping, that bees are kept closely in accordance with their nature. Beekeepers working in the context of biodynamics orientate themselves primarily towards meeting the natural requirements of the colony. Management is so structured that the bee is able freely to unfold its true nature. DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 1. Validity and basis)
Beekeeping, natural combs - Naturland 2005
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The wax should be continuously renewed. The colonies should have opportunities to natural construction of honeycombs. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.3. Wax and honeycombs)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require nor recommend the construction of natural honeycombs or continuous wax renewal. Accumulation of residues in the wax should be avoided. The construction of honeycombs is a vital element of the natural behaviour of bees.
Beekeeping, origin of bees - DE Bioland 2005
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In general only bees of BIOLAND certified origin can be brought in. In case of unavailability, bees from other certified organic operations can be purchased. Conventional queens and swarms can be brought in annually in a quantity of up to 10% of the existing stock. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.9 Purchase of Additional Bees)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more precise by requiring the preference of BIOLAND origin for bees to be brought in, which is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. The provisions concerning bees from conventional origin to be brought in are identical with the EU Regulation. To ensure BIOLAND quality throughout the whole production chain.
Beekeeping, origin of bees - Demeter International 2005
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Colonies and queens to be brought in must come from Demeter certified beekeeping. In case of unavailability, certified organic colonies and queens can be brought in. Other colonies can only be brought in without combs. (DI production standards, 4.1.1 Buying-in of Colonies and Queens)
The DI standard is slightly more detailed. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 approval can be given to bring in complete conventional colonies in extraordinary cases (high mortality, health reasons, catastrophy). These colonies have to be converted. Colonies and queens of Demeter quality are not regulated. In order to support independence from the continuous introduction of bees from elsewhere. To ensure Demeter quality throughout the whole production chain and avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Beekeeping, origin of bees - Naturland 2005
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Only colonies and queens from certified organic origin (NATURLAND or equivalent, if available) and free from contamination with substances, prohibited by the NATURLAND standards, can be brought in. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.7. Brought-in bees)
The NATURLAND standard is similar but slightly more precise by requiring NATURLAND certified colonies (or equivalent) if available. To ensure NATURLAND quality throughout the whole production chain.
Beekeeping, origin of wax - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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New foundations must be made from BIOLAND certified wax, generated from naturally built honeycombs or caps. It must be free from residues of prohibited insecticides. Wax must not have had contact with other chemicals. If no BIOLAND certified wax is available to exchange the wax during the conversion period, residue-free wax of conventional origin (from natural combs and caps) can be used. The use of plastic foundations is prohibited. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.3 Wax and Honeycombs; Bioland production standards, 4.10.5 Conversion)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the handling of wax after harvest. Plastic foundations are not mentioned. The EU Regulation does not regulate the use of wax of BIOLAND certification. To ensure the wax to be free from contamination with harmful substances. A continuous renewal of wax is required in order to avoid the accumulation of residues in the hive.
Beekeeping, origin of wax - Demeter International 2005
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Wax brought in must be generated from natural combs or caps and preferably come from Demeter certified beekeepers. (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 4.4.3 Origin of wax)
The DI standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate wax of Demeter quality, but allows the use of conventional wax from caps, if organic wax is not available. To ensure Demeter quality throughout the whole production chain and to avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Beekeeping, origin of wax and conversion - Naturland 2005
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Any wax to be introduced into the colonies must preferentially come from NATURLAND certified beekeepers. In case of proven unavailability certified organic wax or residue free conventional wax generated from caps can be used. Plastic foundations are not allowed. During the conversion period, the wax has to be replaced by organic wax respectively wax free from residues. For the extraction of wax, the use of solvents, bleaches or other additives is not allowed. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.3. Wax and honeycombs)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed by requiring NATURLAND certified wax if available and by explicitly requiring an analysis to prove the innocuousness of conventional wax. Moreover the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not prohibit the use of plastic foundations. Harvesting and processing of wax are not regulated in detail. There is however the general requirement of careful and adequate extraction, processing and storage of beekeeping products (Annex IC.7.7). To avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Beekeeping, preparation of honey - DE Bioland 2005
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Honey may not be heated to more than 40°C. If possible, the honey should be filled into containers before its first consolidation. Honey must be stored in a cool, dark and dry place and it must not be filtered with pressure. Containers used for selling honey must be returnable. Any containers used must be made of material legally permitted for foodstuffs. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.3.2 Processing)
The BIOLAND standard is more precise. In the EU Regulation 2092/91 there is only the general requirement of an adequate handling of bee products during extraction, storage and processing. There is no regulation on the containers for honey. In order to ensure the high quality of BIOLAND certified honey, to avoid contamination caused by the containers and to enhance direct recycling of containers.
Beekeeping, processing of wax - Demeter International 2005
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Wax must not come into contact with solvents, thinners, bleaching agents or other similar materials. Equipment and containers used must be made of non-oxidising materials or with nonoxidising coating. (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 4.4.4 Wax Processing)
The DI standard is more precise. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly refer to wax processing, but contains a general requirement for the careful and adequate processing of bee products. To avoid contamination with harmful substances and to ensure the high quality of Demeter wax.
Beekeeping, production and handling products - US NOP 2002 Apiculture products may be certified to the existing NOP regulations which will be amended in future rulemaking to cover any unique production and handling requirements. NOP does not have specific provisions on apiculture. The EU Regulation 2092/91 has specific provisions. The NOP intends to provide standards for categories where the Act provides the authority to promulgate standards. These standards will be build upon the existing final rule and will address only the unique requirements necessary to certify these specialized operations.
Beekeeping, repellent/calming synthetic chemicals - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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No chemical synthetic materials may be used to calm or drive away the bees. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.4 Calming and Driving away Bees)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more precise. The prohibition of chemical synthetic repellents in the EU Regulation 2092/91 is limited to the purpose honey extraction. In order to minimise disturbance to the bees.
Beekeeping, repellent/calming synthetic chemicals - Naturland 2005
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The use of smoke should be reduced to a minimum. Smoke should be produced with preference from natural materials and chemical / synthetical repellents are not admitted. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.5.Beekeeping practice, breeding, increasing stocks)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate the materials used to produce smoke, and the prohibition of synthetic repellents is restricted to the act of harvesting honey. To avoid contamination with harmful substances and to minimize the disturbance of the bees.
Beekeeping, reproduction - DE Bioland 2005
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Natural reproduction methods are to be preferred and the swarming instinct has to be considered. Artificial insemination is only allowed in specific cases and after approval has been given by BIOLAND. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.8 Bee breeding)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The corresponding EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to breeding methods for bees. The preference of natural reproduction methods is a principle of the BIOLAND Association. The objective of the breeding is the keeping of varroa-tolerant bees in a manner suited to the ecological conditions. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.8 Bee breeding)
Beekeeping, reproduction - Demeter International 2005
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Propagation of the colonies and selective breeding must be based on the swarming instinct of the bees. Artificial queen breeding, instrumental insemination and genetic engineering is prohibited. (DI production standards, 4.1 Colony Increase and Selective Breeding)
The DI standard is more detailed. Apart from the exclusion of genetic engineering, no specific requirements are indicated regarding the breeding techniques and propagation methods for bees in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Bee keepers working in the context of biodynamics and orientate themselves primarily towards meeting the natural requirements of the colony. Management is so structured that the bee is able freely to unfold its true nature. Swarming is a vital element of the natural behaviour of the bees. It contributes to the fortification of the bee hive, which is an important aim of Demeter beekeeping.
Beekeeping, reproduction - Naturland 2005
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Natural methods for breeding and reproduction are to be preferred. For the propagation of colonies, the swarming instinct should be taken into account. Artificial insemination of queen bees for breeding purposes needs approval by NATURLAND. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.5.Beekeeping practice, breeding, increasing stocks)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate the propagation of colonies. Swarming instinct and artificial insemination are not mentioned. In order to use the natural disposition to reproduction for the propagation of colonies and make it more natural.
Beekeeping, reproduction - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 It is prohibited to clip the wings of the queen bee or to use artificial insemination in beekeeping. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 15.2.8. Soil Association standards prohibit the use of artificial (instrumental) insemination in bee keeping. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include this prohibition. The precautionary principle argues against pervasive use of instrumental insemination because the long-term consequences are unpredictable. Instrumental insemination of queen bees may reduce the diversity of the gene pool among honeybees as it involves the male spermatozoa of only one male rather than of 10 to 20 males in natural queen bee fertilisation. Traits may be selected for, such as productivity or resistance to specific diseases, but other useful traits could be lost.
Beekeeping, siting of apiaries - DE Bioland 2005
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The siting of the apiaries must ensure that considerable contamination with objectionable substances is not to be expected. In case of suspicion, the bee products must be analysed and consequences must be taken. The colonies may not be placed on a conventionally farmed field. Specific approval by BIOLAND is required if colonies shall be placed outside the area, controlled by BIOLAND (Germany, South Tyrol). For harvesting honey from agricultural crops, organically cultivated crops are to be preferred. Nectar and pollen must not be intentionally collected from intensively managed conventional orchards. Pollen cannot be harvested from crops that have been treated with agrochemicals while flowering. Bee products harvested from areas, that have been declared as unsuitable for organic apiculture cannot be marketed with reference to the organic production method. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2 Keeping of the Bees, 4.10.2.1 Location of the Bee Colonies)
The BIOLAND standard is similar to the corresponding EU Regulation 2092/91. It is more precise in excluding the use of certain conventionally farmed crops for the collection of pollen and nectar (intensively farmed orchards and crops, that have been sprayed while flowering). To avoid contamination of bee products with objectionable substances, but at the same time enabling organic apiculture in Germany.
Beekeeping, siting of apiaries - Demeter International 2005
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Apiaries shall be sited with preference on biodynamically or organically managed or uncultivated land. The biodynamic preparations should be applied regularly in the surroundings of the hives. (DI production standards, 2. The Siting of Apiaries)
The DI standard is similar. The EU Regulation 2092/91, however, does not regulate the application of the biodynamic preparations. The application of the biodynamic preparations is a vital element of Demeter certified agricultural production.
Beekeeping, siting of apiaries - FI Governmenal Regulation on organic animal production 2000 Bee keeping may not take place within six kilometres of a sugar factory, dumping site, refuse burning facility or road trafficed more than 6000 vehicles per day. The standard is more precise in excluding possible sources of contamination. Above mentioned facilities are considered to bear contamination risks to organic beekeeping. The Member States may designate regions or areas where beekeeping complying with the EU Regulation 2091/91 is not practicable.
Beekeeping, siting of apiaries - NO Governmental Regulation 2005.
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In addition to the requirements in EU Regulation 2092/91 the conventional cultivation of rape or turnip rape in the flight/collection area should not represent more than 5% of the arable land within a radius of 3 km of the bee hive.
EU 2092/91 does not specify maximum percentage limits of special cultivars/crops in relation to the total arable land area. Rape or turnip rape can be contaminated with GMO. The standard setting body wishes to minimalize the risk of contamination.
Beekeeping, siting of apiaries - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Apiaries must be sited on organic land. During flowering and when bees are not dormant, the apiaries must be sited where there is access to bees normal feed resources, where nectar and pollen resources consist essentially of organic crops or uncultivated land within a 4-mile radius around the site (or less with evidence of organic integrity of the honey), and where there is sufficient distance from sources of non agricultural pollution. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 15.4.3, 15.4.4 and 15.4.6. Soil Association standards contain further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. In Soil Association standards for organic honey production and bee keeping, a radius of 4 miles is required around the apiary site, within which nectar and pollen sources must consist essentially of organic crops or uncultivated land during periods of flowering and bee activity. Soil Association permission may be given for a smaller radius if evidence can be provided of the organic integrity of the honey, such as pesticide residue analysis of the honey and land management information about the surrounding land. In EU Regulation, this radius is 3 kilometres and there is no mention of provision of extra information. The larger area of organic crops or uncultivated land required around an apiary by the Soil Association standards is intended to ensure that the honey will contain the minimum possible amounts of residues of any prohibited agricultural inputs. For this purpose, some flexibility regarding the required area is provided on condition that evidence is given to prove the lack of such residues and of sources of prohibited inputs near the apiary.
Beekeeping, siting of apiaries and labelling - Naturland 2005
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Contamination of bee products with objectionable substances to a degree, greater than what is to be expected from the general pollution of the environment has to be excluded by choosing an appropriate location for the apiaries. Contaminated products and honey varieties consisting of one single intensively farmed conventional crop cannot be marketed with reference to NATURLAND. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.1. Location of the colonies)
The NATURLAND standard is similar to the provisions of the EU Regulation 2092/91, however it is more precise in the aspect to exclude honey from intensively farmed conventional crops from being sold with reference to Naturland. This is to guarantee the innocuousness of the Naturland product. In Germany, rapeseed, which is a very attractive plant for bees and beekeepers is usually cultivated the intensive conventional way.
Beekeeping, veterinary treatment - DE Bioland 2005
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Chemical synthetic medication is prohibited. To control the varroa mite organic acids (lactic acid, formic acid, oxalic acid) can be used in the time span between the last harvest and January the 15th of the following year (applicable to productive colonies). Oxidation of metals that can provoke contamination with residues is to be avoided. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.2.6 Bee Health)
The BIOLAND standard is more precise. Less products can be used for veterinary treatments of bees and the treatment of productive colonies against varroa is restricted to the winter period. Furthermore the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to residues of metal oxidation. In order to avoid contamination of bee products caused by veterinary treatment, and to enhance an adequate handling of bee colonies, that will contribute to strong and healthy colonies, avoid health problems and assist the development of varroa tolerance.
Beekeeping, veterinary treatment - Naturland 2005
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Colonies can only be treated with the substances listed below and the treatment is only permitted during the period after the last honey harvest until up to 6 weeks before nectar flow begins. For treatment against varroa mite and in accordance with EU Regulation: lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, herbal teas, essential oils (e.g. thymol preparations: only during the period after the last honey harvest until up to 12 weeks before nectar flow begins. The duration of the application must not be longer than 8 weeks.), biological technical and physical methods (e.g. use of heat). (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.6. Health of the bees)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed, restricting the treatment to a certain period. To avoid contamination of bee products with objectionable substances like residues from veterinary treatment.
Conversion and labelling, beekeeping - Demeter International 2004
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At the beginning of the conversion period the requirements of these standards must be met with some exemptions regarding the management system of the hives. To the earliest one year after the last application of non allowed substances the beekeeper can be certified 'in conversion to Demeter'. During the conversion period, which may not last longer than three years, the wax must be replaced completely if it cannot be demonstrated, that the wax is free from residues of prohibited substances. (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 8. Conversion)
The DI standard is more complex regarding the certification status of 'in conversion to Demeter' for organic honey after the first year of conversion to Demeter. It limits the duration of the conversion period to three years. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 there is no upper limit for the extension of the conversion period. However, as parallel production is not allowed, no organic honey can be sold before the conversion of all the hives is completed. Regarding the replacement of wax, the EU Regulation does not mention zero residues as pre-requisite to use conventional wax. The maximum duration of the conversion period is limited in order to safeguard credibility of biodynamic farming. The replacement of wax is required in order to avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Conversion, beekeeping - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The minimum conversion period for beekeeping is 12 months. Conversion must be completed at the latest after five years (exceptions are possible). Bee products can only be labelled with the BIOLAND trademark after the conversion has been completed. (Bioland production standards, 4.10.5 Conversion)
The BIOLAND standard contains further requirements. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require the conversion period to be completed after a maximum of time. However, as parallel management of organic and conventional beekeeping is not allowed, honey cannot be labelled as organic before the conversion of all the hives is completed. To safeguard the credibility of BIOLAND certified organic beekeeping.
Honey, processing and storage - Demeter International 2004
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The temperature of honey should never exceed 35°C. Pressurised filtration is not permitted. The honey should be filled into containers of glass or metal before any solidification occurs. In some cases subsequent refilling is admitted, but certain requirements concerning the heating method and temperature, the documentation and the containers have to be complied with. Honey must be stored in a dark, cool and dry place. (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 5. Honey Extraction; DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, Appendix 3 Transportation, Decanting, Heating)
The DI standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly refer to the extraction, further processing and storage of the honey. There is however the general requirement of careful and adequate handling of the bee products. To avoid damaging the quality of the product.
Honey, processing and storage - Naturland 2005
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The heating of honey to more than 38°C and filtering under pressure is not allowed. Honey should be stored in a cool, dark and dry place. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.8: 2 Extraction of honey 3 Storage and conservation)
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate in detail the processing of animal products. However it contains a general requirement of careful and adequate extraction, processing and storage of beekeeping products (Annex IC.7.7.) To ensure NATURLAND honey to be a high quality product.
Honey, prohibited pasteurisation - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 It is prohibited to pasteurise honey. Honey liquification temperatures must be below 60°C, and held for less than 6 hours. Soil Association Organic Standards, Paragraph 41.2.10. Soil Association standards prohibit the pasteurisation of honey and restrict the liquification temperature and time. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include this prohibition or restriction. The heat involved in pasteurisation has adverse effects on honey quality, including loss of volatile compounds, accumulation of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and reduction of enzyme activity.
Honey, quality - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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BIOLAND honey for consumption must fulfil specific quality criteria concerning the content of water (max. 18%, resp. 21.5% for heathland honey), HMF (max. 10 mg/kg), and invertase (min. 10 units, resp. 7 for acacia and linden honey). Furthermore it must be free from residues from medical treatment. BIOLAND standards (Bioland production standards, 4.10.3.3. Measurable Quality Criteria of the Honey)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailled. There are no measurable quality criteria for organic honey indicated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. To ensure BIOLAND honey to be a high quality product. In Germany the quality is regulated by the german honey regulation which indicates a higher permissible water content, a lower content of HMF and a minimum of 65% of invert sugar.
Honey, quality - Demeter International 2004
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The honey must fulfil certain measurable quality criteria in terms of water content, HMF content and invertase level: Water content - measured according to DIN/AOAC - 18% maximum and for heather honey 21.4% . The HMF content - measured according to Winkler - 10 mg/kg maximum . The Invertase level - measured according to Hadorn - must be at least 10 (except honeys with a low content of enzymes like honey from acacia). (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 5.3 Quality Analysis; DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, Appendix 1 Measurable Honey Quality Requirements)
The DI standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate quality criteria of organic honey. To make sure that only high quality honey is sold as Demeter certified honey.
Honey, quality - Naturland 2005
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NATURLAND certified honey which is to be sold for consumption has to meet certain quality criteria for water content, HMF content and invertase index. ("In addition to the legal stipulations, the following criteria must be fulfilled: - water content, measured by the AOAC method, max. 18% (heather honey 21.5%) - HMF ( = Hydroxymethylfurfural)-content, measured according to Winkler, max. 10 mg/kg6 - invertase Index, min. 10 (Hadorn-/Gontarski unit). In the case of honey from acacia, lime trees and phacelia, min. 7 (analyses according to AOAC = Association of Official Agricultural Chemists"). Otherwise the honey can be sold for processing purposes. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.8.4 Measurable quality of the honey)
The NATURLAND standard rules quality criteria for honey in detail. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate quality criteria for honey. This aspect is regulated by the legal provisions of the member states, and there it is identical for both organic and conventional produce. To ensure NATURLAND honey to be a high quality product.
Labelling claims, honey - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Containers with honey to be sold to the consumer must show the following text: As a result of the large radius of flight of the bees it cannot be expected that in all cases they will fly over only or mainly organically farmed areas (or in a similar form). (Bioland production standards, 4.10.3.4 Declaration)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailled. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require an explanation of organic honey to be published on the label. To increase transparency for the consumer.
Labelling claims, honey - Demeter International 2004
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n the labelling of Demeter certified honey there must be an indication regarding the definition of Demeter quality of honey: 'The special quality of Demeter honey derives from a unique, species appropriate approach to bee keeping. Due to their extensive flying range, bees cannot be expected to fly solely over biodynamically managed areas.' (DI standards for beekeeping and hive products, 10. Demeter Hive Product Identification)
The DI standard is more detailled. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require an explanation of organic honey to be published on the label. To increase transparency for the consumer.
Labelling claims, honey - Naturland 2005
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On the label of NATURLAND certified honey it must be stated clearly, that the bees are not only visiting plants on organically farmed land, but that the definition of organic quality of honey is related to the beekeepers' method of working. (NL standards for organic beekeeping II.9. Labelling)
The NATURLAND standard requires detailed labelling of honey. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 no specific indication on honey labels is required. To increase transparency for the consumer.