Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

  • Subject Areas
    • Processing
      • Specific processing rules for product groups
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Contamination, processing, herbs - AT Austria General Standards 2006
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The Bio Austria General Standard has, in addition to the requirements of distance to roads and conventional fields, requirements for a fast preparation of fresh material, a fast and careful drying (normally not higher than 40 °C). The drying room should be a separate unit. The room may not contain any materials contaminated with harmful substances (e.g. treated particle board). It is forbidden to use direct heating with fuel oil, gas, coal, or wood, or dehydration through chemical additives. A batch record of drying temperatures is to be kept, which is to be made available during the annual inspection. The storage space must be protected from light, dry and as cool as possible. A humidity level of 60% and a temperature of 19 °C are recommended. Drugs must be inspected regularly and the storage areas kept clean. Storage areas are to be kept separate from processing areas. (BA-Rules chapter 4.2.2, 4.2.4, 4.2.5, 4.2.7, 4.2.8)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have such specific requirements for preparation, drying and processing of herbs, while the Bio Austria General Standard is quite detailed. The main reason is to reach high quality products and to create high consumer confidence through a very fresh preparation/processing and a drying with care and to avoid environmental pollutants.
Cosmetics and cleaning materials - FR Nature et Progres 2001
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There are standards for organic cosmetics and cleaning materials. Nature et Progrès standards include mainly use of organic ingredients, forbid use of petrochemical molecules and synthetic constituents, ensure a high biodegradability of products, etc.
Nature et Progrès standards include standards for cosmetics and cleaning materials whiel the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. There is now a huge "organic" or "natural" cosmetics industry in Europe, but there are no EU rules or standards for these. If we want organic cosmetics to be really organic and avoid consumers being misled there is a need to define standards.
Honey, prohibited pasteurisation - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 It is prohibited to pasteurise honey. Honey liquification temperatures must be below 60°C, and held for less than 6 hours. Soil Association Organic Standards, Paragraph 41.2.10. Soil Association standards prohibit the pasteurisation of honey and restrict the liquification temperature and time. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include this prohibition or restriction. The heat involved in pasteurisation has adverse effects on honey quality, including loss of volatile compounds, accumulation of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and reduction of enzyme activity.
Livestock and animal products, traceability - SP CRAE MAPA/CAAE Standards 2001
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The Spanish organisations CRAE MAPA/CAAE 2001 have special traceability standards for animal and meat products. CRAE-MAPA and also CAAE Andalucia have specific organic standards, outlined in a 5 page document. They contain requirements in 7 areas: a) identification of the animals on the farm (6 articles); b) transport of slaughtered animals; c) identification of slaughtered animal pieces in the slaughter house (7 articles); d) the identification of slaughtered animal pieces in the slaughter house room for cutting animal in small parts. A specific register should contain the following data: (8.1) date of entrance of the animal to the slaughter house; 8.2) number or authentification code for the living animal; (8.3) origin of the animal, identified by the record number of cattle operation (nº operator); (8.4) number of transport identification accompanying animals; 8.5) date of slaughtering; (8.6) number of seal or seals of each animal parts obtained; (8.7) destination of each part of the animal (nº of registered operator, in/or another region or place and (if it is the case) names of the slaughter houses.
CRAE-MAPA and CAAE organic regulation is more detailed on traceability measures compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. To reduce the risk of mistakes or fraud. Organic production and processing should be at the forefront of traceability issues.
Meat, tenderising methods - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 The use of tenderising substances on live animals is prohibited. Electrical tenderisation of meat may be used with Soil Association permission. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 42.8.7 and 42.10.6. Soil Association standards are more detailed than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards prohibit the use of tenderising substances on live animals, but they allow the use of electrical tenderisation of meat, with their permission. EU Regulation does not refer to procedures for the tenderisation of meat. Introduction of tenderising enzymes into the vascular systems of animals before slaughter is an invasive technique with potential welfare problems.
Plant processing inputs, hops - DE Bioland 2005
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The use of sulphur for conservation is prohibited in drying and processing. (Bioland production standards, 5.7 Hop Cultivation, 5.7.5 Preparation)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specifically regulate the drying and processing of hops. Sulphur for drying hops is explicitely excluded. The standard setting body did not give a justification.
Plant processing, viticulture - Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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When wine is produced from organically grown grapes, resource and energy intensive procedures are to be avoided. Organic waste resulting from wine production must be recycled and returned to the soil. Waste water must not cause environmental pollution. The Bio Austria General Standard allows 3 oenological practices and describes positive lists for treating agents for must, wine and also for cleaning and disinfection. In addition there are rules for packaging and labelling.
The Bio Austria General Standard is detailed concerning wine processing, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover wine processing. n case of wine of organic grapes there is a lack of legal rules within the EU Regulation. The declaration of wine needs to describe the oenological practices. This creates transparency and ensures consumer confidence.
Plant processing, viticulture - DE Naturland 2005
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The NATURLAND standards regulate the production of wine: Processing procedures and additives, cleaning agents and disinfectants, packaging. The standard is applicable to the production of grape juice, wine, sparkling wine or spirits. It applies in addition to national regulations. (NL standards on production, Part VII. Viniculture and vine production, 5. Processing)
The production of wine is not yet regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. To provide detailed rules for organic production of all important areas of food production.
Plant processing, viticulture - SP CCCPAE Cataluña standards and CPAEN Navarra standards 2001
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The CCPAE standards contains one article (17.12) for wine processing, permitting the use of ammonium sulphate (100 mg/l), tartaric acid (E 334) cristalizad from natural origin, maximal 1 g/litre for white wines and 0,5 g/litro for red wines. In those standards its also allowed to use anhidric sulphur (dióxide of Sulphur (E 220), Na metabisulphite (E 223) & Potasium metabisulphite (E 224) by 3 differents methods. The total quantity of SO2 in mg/litre allowed is 100, depending on the type of wine. Arabic gom (E 414) is allowed for the stabilization of the wine The organic standards for wine proceesing from the Council for Organic Production from Navarra (CPAEN), covering similar points as the CCPAE organic grape production and organic wine proceesing standards. The organic standards (28 pages) for wine production and organic wine processing from the Council for Organic Production from Navarra (CPAEN) is covering similar points as the CCPAE organic wine processing standards adding also some standards for viticulture production.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 has not regulated the processing of wine products yet. There are minor differences within CCPAE (see Cuaderno de Normas) and CPAEN organic wine processing Standards. Standards for processing of products that are not yet within the scope of the current EU Regulation, must correspond as much as possible with the processing standards in the EU Regulation. Rules for wine contribute to transparency and consumer trust.
Processing inputs, cheese - FI Governmental Regulation on additives and production aids in processed organic animal products 2000 E500 Calcium chloride is allowed but its use is limited to cheese making. So far the EU Regulation Number 2092/91 does not contain special provisions on additives and production aids allowed in processed organic animal products. The product is regarded as necessary in making of (partly traditional) cheese products.
Processing inputs, cheese - FI Governmental regulation on additives and production aids in processed organic animal products 2000 E160a (ii)Beta carothene is allowed but only for colouring the wax in cheese making. So far the EU Regulation No. 2092/91 does not contain special provisions on additives and production aids allowed in processed organic animal products. The product is regarded as necessary in the making of traditional varieties of cheese such as Edam cheese.
Processing inputs, meat products - FI Governmental Regulation on additives and production aids in processed organic animal products 2000 Additives E249 (potassium nitrate) and E250 (sodium nitrate) are permitted in meat products to a maximal level of 80 mg/kg of potassium nitrate. So far the EU Regulation Number 2092/91 does not contain special provisions on additives and production aids allowed in processed organic animal products The product is regarded as necessary in making of (partly traditional) Finnish animal products. There is no sufficient experience nor tradition of making nitrate free organic meat products (such as sausages).
Processing, animal feedstuffs - SP CAAE Standards 2001
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Organic standards for processing animal feedstuffs of the Andalusian Committee for Organic Farming (CAAE), from 06/06/2001 (MO-RP-09), have specific requirements regarding ingredients and labelling. It should be indicated if the feedstuffs are made with 100 % organic feed ingredients or only 100 % organic in conversion ingredients. Standards regulate what must be written on the labels.
CAAE Standards for processing animal feedstuffs are specific, whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 is in this area more general. To ensure a better processing of organic animal feedstuffs.
Processing, general requirements - Nature et Progrès 2005
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There is a list of possible processes for each kind of food (milk, meat, vegetables). In any case, only mechanical processes, physical processes, cooking and fermentation are allowed.
Nature et Progrès standards specify a list of permitted process, detailed for each kind of food, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Processing has an effect on the nutritional quality and taste of the final product. Organic products should aim to be both of high nutritional quality and taste. Therefore only non-agressive processes, that respect the integrity of the product, should be allowed.
Processing, general requirements - SP CCPAE Cataluña Rules 2003
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CCPAE (Cataluña) has a list of possible processes for each kind of food (milk, meat, vegetables). The CCAPE Cataluña has general organic standards revised on 17th January 2003, with 3 chapters devoted to organic food processing. It can be download in the webpage www.ccpae.org
CCPAE organic regulation specifies a list of possible processes for each kind of food, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Processing has an effect on the nutritional quality and taste of the final product. Organic products should be unique in both of these aspects. Therefore only certain processes and methods should be allowed.
Processing, milk - SP CCPAE Cataluña Rules 2003
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The CCPAE general standards document contains 3 chapters (10, 16, 17) related to organic milk production and the processing of milk products. Chapter 10 is related to milking processes and conservation of milk on the farm. Chapter 16 covers standards for milk processing industries and chapter 17 is related to organic processing of milk based products. It can be downloaded from the CCPAE webpage in spanish and catalanish (www.ccpae.org)
CCPAE has specific standards for organic milk processing while the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specify this area. To ensure a higher confidence in organic food and the quality of farming systems for milk products.
Processing, preservatives, milk - SE KRAV 2006
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When preserving milk only bacteria cultures and acidification substances of plant origin may be used. Chemical feed preservatives including formic, propionic and acetic acid are not allowed (KRAV standards paragraph 5.3.28).
EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I paragraph 4.17 and annex II D1.5 allows the following preservatives for animal feed: E 200 Sorbic acid, E 236 Formic acid, E 260 Acetic acid, E 270 Lactic acid, E 280 Propionic acid, E 330 Citric acid. On organic production as little chemical preservatives as possible should be used.
Sea salt production - FR Nature et Progres 2005
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There are standards for the collection and preparation of sea salt.
Nature et Progrès standards include standards for sea salt production. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Salt is a major ingredient in food. Therefore, it was necessary to define organic standards for sea salt production, including manual harvest, environmental management of saltworks, use of non-polluting materials for harvesting, transport and storage, monitoring of polluants, etc..
Textiles, fibre - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
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Minimal requirements for fibre processing are stated in the IFOAM standards such as: Operators should avoid the use of non-biodegradable, bio-accumulating input products and heavy metals. (6.7.)
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover the area of fiber processing.
Textiles, hides leather and skins, processing, - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards cover standards for textiles, hides leather and skins. The standards covers all kind of products like yarn, fabrics, clothes, cloths, mats, decoration textiles, non-woven products, skins and hides. The whole process from raw material, processing, accessories and labelling are covered. Special focus is put on environmental aspects of wet processing, dying and several other environmental issues. (KRAV standards chapter 13 and 14).
Standards for textiles, hides leather and skins are not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. There is an interest for organic textiles both from producers and consumers. In reality there have few products on the market.
Viticulture, general requirements - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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In the NATURLAND standards for the production of wine the following aspects are regulated: Processing procedures and additives, cleaning agents and disinfectants and packaging. The standard is applicable to the production of grape juice, wine, sparkling wine or spirits. It applies in addition to national regulations. (NL standards on production, Part VII. Viniculture and vine production, 5. Processing)
The production of wine is not yet regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. All procedures and measures when processing grapes and producing juice, wine and sparkling wine have to be directed at the following aims: - manufacture of produce of superior quality - avoidance of procedures which intensively use raw materials and energy - sulphurous acid should be kept to a minimum - avoidance of all substances which are harmful to the environment and dangerous to the health in their production, use and disposal - processing and treatment of all organic residues resulting from production in such a way that they do not damage the environment. Marc, yeast and clarification dregs are to be recycled in the course of production as organic fertilizer. (NL standards on production, Part VII. Viniculture and vine production, 5. Processing)
Viticulture, general requirements - SP Sohicert 2002
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Standards for organic wine grapes harvesting and transport, wine processing, raising wines, vinager of wine, labelling, controls system and bottling of organic wine (8 capitels, 17 pages).
Standards for processing of products, that are not within the scope of the EU Regulation 2092/91, must correspond as much as possible with the processing standards in the EU Regulation. The EU Regulation has not regulated the processing of wine products yet, while Sohicert has. Rules for organic wine contribute to transparency and consumer trust.