Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

  • Subject Areas
    • Environmental care/environmental impact
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Animal fodder, animal origin, fish products - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 There is a limited list of feeds of animal origin permitted for feeding to animals. Among these, any fish products must be either a by-product of fish for human consumption or from fisheries certified as being sustainably managed. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.13.23. Soil Association standards contain an additional restriction not included in EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards state that fish products for animal feed must be either by-products of human consumption or products of fisheries certified by a recognised body as sustainably managed. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the use of any fish product for this purpose. The Soil Association standards aim to ensure that the use of fish products for organic animal feed does not increase the amount of unsustainable fishing.
Animal fodder, origin - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Minimum proportions of fibrous, home-produced, in-conversion, and organic feedstuffs are specified for livestock feed rations. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.13.13 and 10.13.15. The Soil Association standards contain further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation requires at least 50% of feed for herbivores to be produced on the farm unit or on linked farms. The Soil Association standards require this proportion to be 60%, and they set a minimum proportion of 50% of feed for non-herbivores to be produced on the farm unit or on linked farms to be effective from 1st January 2011. Soil Association standards are intended to conserve energy resources by reducing feed transport and to encourage producers to design their organic holdings or groups of holdings as whole farm systems with relatively closed production cycles, minimising inputs and so conserving resources for sustainable best practice.
Biodiversity, landscape - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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7% of the arable land in a farm must be dedicated to landscape diversification.
The requirement of 'compensatory ecological habitats' is a very specific Swiss standard. No similar paragraph is quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. To support refuge areas for beneficials matches the holistic approach of organic farming, which is keen to take advantage of a sound and well balanced micro-ecosystem. The «compensatory ecological habitats» should enhance a natural balance between noxious and benefical organisms. Furthermore ecologically diversified areas contribute to maintain genetic and biotic diversity and contributes to the landscape attractiveness.
Biodiversity, landscape - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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There are a number of recommendations and requirements concerning environment management and conservation of landscape features, semi-natural habitats and wild species on the farm. Soil Association standards recommend that organic management should aim to achieve a productive, balanced and varied agro-ecosystem with high standards of conservation management and co-operation with conservation bodies. Producers must comply with all relevant legislation and must not plough, reseed or drain any area identified as a 'regionally or locally important wildlife site' by a county Wildlife Trust or County Environment Records Centre. Producers must not in any way damage statutory 'recognised sites', of which the types are listed. Producers must not clear vegetation or crop wastes or stubbles by burning. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.5.1-4.5.5.)
Soil Association standards contain detailed recommendations and requirements to support the agro-ecosystem whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include any specific recommendations or requirements relating to environmental management or conservation. The Soil Association Standards use best practice recommendations from other UK conservation bodies, added to some UK agricultural regulations, to explain conservation principles and outline best environment management practice to ensure that organic producers will produce optimum outcomes for landscape features, semi-natural habitats and wild species on the farm.
Biodiversity, landscape - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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There are specific recommendations and requirements for managing semi-natural habitats, trees, woodland, farm buildings and water resources. Soil Association Standards include detailed management recommendations and requirements, in separate sections, for semi-natural habitats, trees and woodland, farm buildings, and water resources. For each of these categories, the standards explain the main issues, including the wildlife and other conservation benefits, the recommendations for best practice management, and the basic requirements that producers must adhere to. The exception to this is for water resources, for which there are basic requirements but no recommendations. Soil Association Certification Limited is currently proposing a more detailed set of new recommendations and requirements for management of watercourses, water resources, soil and ground water, surface water, storage and abstraction, and irrigation. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.5.18-4.5.31.)
Soil Association standards contain detailed recommendations and requirements not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation includes no specifically relevant requirements or recommendations. Semi-natural habitats, trees and woodland, farm buildings, and water resources are all important for wildlife and conservation management.
Cleaning agents - SE KRAV 2006
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Cleaning agents used for cleaning of all kind of facilities and equipment (areas for production, processing, handling and storages) shall be eco-labeled if available. If there is no environmental labeled product avaiable the Precautionary Principle shall be used. (KRAV Standards paragraph 2.12.10.)
In EU Regulation 2092/91 there is a list of products allowed for cleaning and disinfection of buildings for animal husbandry but not for areas for storing, handling or processing. The standards requires the use of the most environmental friendly product whenever possible in all kind of production. In Sweden there are two systems for eco labelling of cleaning agents, mainly for use in private homes but some are also for professional use.
Collection of wild plants, harvesting methods - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Harvesting of wild plants for sale as organic must be conducted at the best time of year. It must include only the appropriate parts of the plants, and a number of details are included regarding different types of plants. Sufficient mature plants must be left for the survival of dependent wildlife, damage to other species and to the habitat must be avoided, and samples must be kept of every batch harvested. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 9.3.)
Soil Association standards are more precise than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association wild plant harvesting standards include specifications regarding appropriate timing, the parts of plants that may be harvested, and appropriate replanting. It is specified that enough mature plants must be left for wildlife that depend on them, that damage must be avoided to other species, that beneficial relationships among plant species must be respected, erosion must be avoided, and samples of harvested batches must be kept. EU Regulations do not contain these requirements, only maintaining that the areas concerned must not have been treated with prohibited inputs for the previous 3 years, and that the harvesting does not affect the habitat stability or the maintenance of the species harvested. Soil Association standards on wild plant harvesting are intended to maximise the quality of the product and to minimise the risk of damage to the species harvested or to other species in the same habitat. The intention is to provide a comprehensive set of rules for organic wild plant harvesting, rather than merely a brief statement of intent.
Collection of wild plants, management plan - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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A wild harvesting management plan, agreed with Soil Association, is required and must be adhered to. It must include the harvest areas, personnel, times, quantities, species, environmental management, etc. There are a substantial number of further details set out in Soil Association standards regarding various aspects of the wild harvesting management plan and its implementation. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 9.2.)
Soil Association standards include a set of rules not contained in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards for wild plant harvesting require the agreement, implementation and monitoring of a wild harvesting management plan. This must include harvest areas, personnel, times, quantities, species, quality, making good procedures, environmental management, etc. EU Regulation does not require any similar type of wild harvesting management plan. Soil Association standards' requirement for a comprehensive and detailed wild harvest management plan is intended to maximise the quality of the product and to minimise the risks of unsustainable damage either to the species harvested or to other species in its surrounding habitat.
Conservation, farm plan - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Producers should keep a farm conservation plan, designed with professional help, and they must map all the main landscape features, wildlife habitats and historical features on the holding. The standards require the producer to map all the recognised wildlife habitats and landscape sites, and the archeological and historical features on the holding, and to formally revise the map every 5 years. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.5.6-4.5.8.)
Soil Association standards contain recommendations and requirements not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards recommend that producers should keep a constantly updated whole farm conservation plan, drawn up with the help of a professional advisor. EU Regulation does not contain recommendations or requirements for a farm conservation plan. The Soil Association recommendations are meant to encourage best practice and optimal outcomes from the conservation management. The requirement to map the main habitats and features is also a requirement of the main funding scheme for organic farmers in England to ensure a basic level of conservation management on organic farms.
Conservation, field boundary management - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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There are detailed recommendations and requirements regarding field boundary management. Soil Association Standards contain detailed recommendations for the management of field boundaries, starting with an explanation of their main functions and conservation benefits and continuing with more practical advice on their management. The standards require that producers must manage river banks to minimise soil erosion and nutrient run-off, must obtain Soil Association permission to remove hedges, banks, ditches or walls, or to trim hedges annually (e.g. for road traffic safety or wildlife benefits). Producers must not trim hedges during the bird nesting season. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.5.9-4.5.17.)
Soil Association standards contain recommendations and requirements whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include any recommendations or requirements for field boundary management. Soil Association Standards give detailed recommendations for hedge management encourage best practice among organic farmers to optimise the outcomes of their field boundary management for wildlife and for landscape visual impact. The requirements and prohibitions ensure a basic level of positive boundary management and prohibit the worst types of management. In England, these requirements are mostly required by the main organic farming funding scheme.
Conservation, primary ecosystems/forests - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Land with primary ecosystems, such as virgin rainforest, must not be cleared for organic production. Soil Association Standards prohibit the clearing of primary ecosystems for conversion to organic production. They define 'primary ecosystems' as ecosystems that have not been 'disturbed by man's activities', and they give the example of virgin rainforest. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Glossary and Paragraph 4.1.4.) Soil Association standards contain a rule not included in EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation does not contain this prohibition. Soil Association standards are intended to ensure that no primary ecosystems will be damaged or destroyed in order to clear land for organic production.
Conservation, soil and water - CZ KEZ Standards
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KEZ Standards define principles of environmental friendly farming in relation to the soil and water resources.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not deal with irrigation, salination of soils, rainwater recycling, monitoring of water consumption or stubble burning of vegetation. These paragraphs are completely in accordance with principles of environmental friendly management.
Conservation, soil, water and air - DE Bioland 2005
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Water resources are not to be used excessively. It is not permissible to burn used plastic (e.g. foils and fleeces) in the fields. (Bioland production standards, 3.9 Air, Soil and Water Protection)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate the use of water resources and the burning of plastic while BIOLAND standards contain restrictions in these areas. In order to protect the natural resources and avoid negative impacts on the environment.
Crop rotation - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Soil Association standards require that, where a crop rotation is possible, it must use a sequence where the fertility building and fertility depleting crops maintain a balance, it must include crops with various root systems, it must include a legume crop, and it must leave enough time between crops with similar pest and disease risks. Where the rotation is not to this standard and relies on inputs, the farmer must show that the rotation is improving, is reducing the inputs, and is making maximum use of legumes and green manures. At least 3 seasons must be allowed between outdoor crops of alliums, brassicas or potatoes, but successional crops in the same year are allowed. With permission, two crops of the same family may be grown in successional years followed by a 6-year break. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 5.1.10-5.1.13.)
Soil Association require: where a crop rotation is possible, it must follow a number of specified rules regarding the types of crop and their sequence in the rotation. EU Regulations 2092/91 requires that the soil fertility and biological activity must be maintained by a multi-annual rotation including legumes, green manures or deep-rooting plants, but the requirements for the rotation are no more detailed than that. The Soil Association standards on crop rotations are intended to ensure that the rotation will be an effective means of maintaining soil fertility and of controlling pests and diseases without the need for recourse to excessive or restricted inputs. The crop rotation specifications are intended to achieve maximum environmental benefits and minimum risks of environmental pollution or harm to biodiversity. The standards anticipate some of the most likely ways that rotations may be compromised by poor practice, and they include requirements and restrictions that aim to prevent these problems.
Environmental policy - SE KRAV 2006
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All KRAV certified operators must have an environmental policy and manage a systematical environmental effort (KRAV Standards paragraph 2.11.3 ). For farmers the Swedish Federation of Farmers Environmental Audits can be used. Is is a self auditing of the environmental aspects of the farm (KRAV Standards paragraph 3.1.7).
A request for a general environmental policy or managment system is not covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91. For organic farming in Sweden it is important to not only fullfil basic organic requirement but also to be in the forefront for environmental issues in general.
Environmental recommendations, general requirements - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Soil Association standards include a general set of recommendations regarding organic farming and the environment. Soil Association standards explain how organic farming is designed to cause minimum disruption to the natural environment, emphasise the importance of ecological diversity, and recommend management to achieve social and environmental sustainability, respect for traditional pastoral practice, and compatibility with local climate and topographical circumstances. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 3.1)
Soil Association standards are more comprehensive than EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation makes an assumption that organic management yields environmental benefits, and includes certain requirements concerning environmental benefits and minimising impacts, but it does not include any dedicated set of general environmental recommendations. The general environmental recommendations are intended to encourage producers to manage organic farms for optimum social and environmental outcomes.
Fertilizers, substrates, maerl - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association permission is required to use seaweed sources for soil nutrient supplementation, but maerl from Lithothamnium corallioides, Lithothamnium glaciale or Phymatolithon calcareum are prohibited. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.8.5. Soil Association standards prohibit the use of maerl from Lithothamnium corallioides, Lithothamnium glaciale or Phymatolithon calcareum. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include this prohibition, but it allows seaweed products, where the need is recognised by the inspection body, and maerl with no restriction. The seaweed species named as prohibited inputs in the Soil Association standards are endangered species, and the maerl extraction contributes to the threat of their extinction.
Free range conditions, stocking rate - US NOP 2002 US has no provisions for stocking densities. EU Regulation 2092/91 defines the maximum stocking density per class or species and ha. No justification was available.
Green house production, heating - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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Low energy consumption should be aimed for when heating greenhouses. (NL standards on production: Part B.III.Market gardening 5. Heating green- and foil houses PArt B.V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees 7. Heating, energy consumption)
The NATURLAND standards is broader. This aspect is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. This aspect refers to the holistic and ecological principle of organic farming.
Greenhouse production, heating - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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Heating of green houses is prohibited during the winter. The greenhouse can be kept frost free: however, heating should not exceed 5°C between the months of Decemer and 1st of March.
BIO SUISSE restricts the heating of green houses, due to the environmental aspects of energy saving. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover green house production as a specific area, and therefore has no such restrictions. Prohibiting heating of greenhouses during the winter saves non-renewable resources.
Greenhouse production, heating - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Heating of greenhouses should be limited to a reasonable degree. Greenhouses should be well insulated. Foils and fleeces used for covered production should be recycled. (Bioland production standards, 5.1.4 Crop production under Glass and Foil; Bioland production standards, 5.4.5 Use of Energy (for mushroom production)
The BIOLAND standard restrict the heating of greenhouses. Neither the heating of greenhouses nor the handling of covering material is regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. In order to reduce energy consumption and waste products.
Horses and other equines - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Equine animals cannot be certified organic under UK Soil Association Standards. Soil Association standards explain that, although equines cannot be certified as organic within these standards, there are a set of recommendations and requirements for their management when they are kept on organic land. It is recommended that equines are included with other livestock in a clean grazing rotation and to feed them organic or approved feed. There are also further requirements if more than five equines are kept, relating to manure management, avermectin treatment, GMO feeds, health planning and pasture management planning. Equine manure management must be the same as for other non-organic manure. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 3.8.)
Soil Association standards do not allow certification of equines, unlike EU Regulation. EU Regulation allows equine animals to be certified organic, and include stocking rate figures for manure management when keeping equines on organic land. Equines are very rarely used for any type of production activity on UK farms, so standards to certify them or their products as organic would be redundant. They would probably also be considered offensive to most UK consumers. In this context, some rules are useful to ensure that their presence on organic farms does not compromise the ecological or organic integrity of the land, crops or other livestock.
Land management, nutrients, leaching - SE KRAV 2006
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To prevent leaking of nutrients into water a permanent, unfertilized, overgrown buffer zone of 3 metres should be left beside watercourses, wetlands and lakes that are water-bearing the year round. In winter a cover of vegetation is encouraged. Catch crops should be grown when possible. Animal manure should be handled so that nutrient losses are minimised (KRAV-standards paragraph 3.1.9 and 4.1.4).
Prevention of leakage of nutrients is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91 except that the use of input should not result in contamination of the environment (article 7). The leakage of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus is one of the biggest environmental problems in agriculture in Sweden.
Livestock housing, bedding material - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Livestock bedding areas without bedding material or the use of peat as bedding are not permitted. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 10.12.11. Soil Association standards forbid the use of peat as bedding. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows the use of "suitable bedding materials". The extraction of peat causes damage to environmentally valuable semi-natural habitats.
Naturland 2005: Natural ressources and ecosystems
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The management of the farm may not cause damages to the soil, the water and primary ecosystems. (NL standards on production: Part B.I.4. Tillage Part B.I.6. Soil and water conservation)
The NATURLAND standard is much broader. This aspect is not regulated in the EC reg. This aspect refers to the ecological principle of organic farming. A diverse and balanced ecosystem and the care of natural resources is an important element of organic farming.
Packaging material - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards states that environmentally packaging material shall be preferred, minimal use of packaging materials should be strived for. KRAVs goal is to hase out PVC and other clorine based plastics. (Standard 2.12.13)
The environmental aspect of packaging material is not covered by EU Regulation 2092/91. To fulfill consumers demand for environmentally adapted production not only in the field or processing but also in other areas.
Packaging material, recycled - SE KRAV 2006
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KRAV certified products can only be stored in recycled packages and wrappings which have been used for conventional products if it is well cleaned. There should be no risk of any contamination. (KRAV standards paragraph 2.12.7 and 2.12.8).
In EU Regulation 2092/91 there are general statements about contamination of organic products but nothing specific on packaging material. In practise there are a lot of containers and packaging material which have been used for conventional products which are then used in organic production. The recycling of packaging materials fits well with the principles of organic agriculture relating to resource use, but there is also a risk for contamination which has to be handled.
Peat, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The content of peat in substrates may not exceed 80% for seedlings and 50% for trees, herbaceous and ornamental plants. Exceptions are possible for crops, that require a low pH. Purchased composts, peat substitutes and additives must be examined with regard to their environmental compatibility and, in particular, to their pollutant content. (BIOLAND standards 5.8.6., 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.6 Soils and Substrates)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91, where the the use of peat in horticulture is not restricted. Purchased composts must not exceed the contents in heavy metals, laid down in the Annex II A. There is no requirement to examine the environmental compatibility of the components of substrate. To avoid the escessive exploitation of moor lands and to avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Plant and livestock production, inputs certification - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards cover certification of inputs in organic production. The areas covered are – animal management agents – plant protection agents – plant growth stimulants – soil conditioning agents – fertilizers – sowing and potting soil – pesticide and disinfection agents in storage areas The standards are based on the relevant standards for plant production and animal husbandry with additions and clarifications. Only products which contain 100% organic ingredients can be called organic all other certified inputs can be labelled with a special logo which stating “approved for organic production”. (KRAV standards chapter 12).
Certification of inputs is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. The certification of inputs is a help to organic farmers to easily find which inputs that are allowed or not. The producer of inputs can also more easily communicate that a product fulfils the KRAV standards. Interestingly many consumer products are also certified to this system showing that consumer does not only want organic food but also potting soil and nutrients for flowers.
Plant production, containers, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Containers for potted plants must preferably be made of decomposable materials. Otherwise, they must be reusable and recyclable. The use of PVC containers is prohibited. (BIOLAND standards 5.8.6., 5.8.7 Containers for Cultures)
The BIOLAND standards has a broader scope, this aspect is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. In order to cope with the ecological principle of organic agriculture (protection of the environment, avoiding rubbish production, preference of renewable resources).
Plant production, containers, ornamental plants - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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Decomposable materials for planting pots are preferable. The use of PVC is not allowed. (NL standards on production, Part B.V.Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees, 5. Plant pots)
The NATURLAND standard has a broader broader. This aspect is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. This refers to the ecological principle of organic agriculture, where organic materials should be recycled.
Plant production, environment, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Areas where potted plants are stored must not be sealed except for the purpose of rain water collection. (Bioland production standards, 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.2 Surface Sealing)
The BIOLAND standard has additional requierements for potting plants. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not refer to the sealing of soil. In order to cope with the ecological principle of organic agriculture.
Plant production, environment, ornamental plants - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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Areas where potted plants are arrayed for storage and sale should not be sealed. (NL standards on production, Part B.V.Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees, 6. Sealing of the soil)
The NATURLAND standard has a broader scope. This aspect is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. This aspect refers to the ecological principle of organic agriculture. Wherever soil is sealed the natural water cycle is interrupted and disturbed.
Plant production, support stakes, hops - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Wooden constructions to support hop cultivation may only be made from wood of native species and can only be treated with environmentally friendly substances. (Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.2 Support Material)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91does not refer to the characteristics of supporting material for perennial crops. In order not to contribute to the destruction of tropical forests and comply with the holistic approach of organic agriculture as well as to avoid contamination with objectionable substances.
Plant production, support stakes, orchards - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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The use of tropical and subtropical timber for support stakes in orchards is prohibited. (NL standards on production, Part B.VI. Fruit cultivation 3.)
The NATURLAND standard has additional requirements with regards to the use of tropical timber, which is not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91. This refers to the holistic approach and the ecological principle of organic farming.
Plant protection, crop rotation - UK Soil Association standards 2005 It is permitted to grow crops without the use of a multi-annual rotation in such cropping systems as protected cropping, permanent pasture, perennial crops and wild harvesting, but the cropping system must not rely on external inputs nor involve continuous arable crops. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 5.1.14 and 5.1.15. Soil Association standards contain further detail to the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards set out the circumstances in which it is permitted to practice cropping without a multi-annual rotation. EU Regulation requires a multi-annual rotation for crop production to maintain soil fertility and to control weeds, pests and diseases, but it does not explain clearly those cropping systems that would not require such a rotation. The Soil Association standards are intended to place clear and unambiguous requirements on the producer regarding when it is appropriate to make use of crop rotations and when it is not. For example, it could be harmful to biodiversity and could cause pollution to initiate a cropping rotation on land that had been in permanent pasture.
Production equipment, ecological impact - DE Naturland 2005
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When purchasing means of production and equipment the ecological impact has to be considered. The use of rainforest timber is not allowed. Energy should be saved. (NL standards on production Part A.II.3. Purchase of means of production and equipment)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not explicitly refer to the ecological impact of means of production and equipment nor to the handling of energy whereas NATURLAND does. This requirement refers to the ecological principle of organic farming.
Soil management, artificial mulch - DE Bioland 2005
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A maximum of 5% of the free range area used for growing vegetables may be covered at any one time by mulch foil, mulch fleece or mulch paper. Operators with less than 4 ha of area for vegetables may cover up to 2,000 m2 using the above methods stated. (Bioland production standards, 5.1.5 Use of Technical Mulch Materials)
The BIOLAND standard has a broader scope. The soil cover with mulching material is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. In order to reduce waste.
Soil management, irrigation - CZ PRO-BIO Standards 2004 Irrigation should not endanger water resources or the soil. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not deal with irrigation. Strong consideration of environmental impacts is a principle of organic production.
Soil management, steam sterilisation and pasteurisation - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of soils are not permitted for weed control; along with Azadirachtin (from neem) and lime sulphur, they may be used with prior permission only in protected cropping structures and only as a single response to a particular pest problem. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.10.5 and 4.11.10. Soil Association standards have further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards restrict the use of steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of soils. These methods are not permitted for weed control; with prior permission, they may be used only in protected cropping structures and only as a single response to a particular pest problem. EU Regulation does not refer to these practices. Steam sterilisation and pasteurisation are energy intensive methods, which impair soil biodiversity and are generally incompatible with organic soil management principles. As the methods require only the use of water and energy, their absence from the EU Regulation could be interpreted as allowing unrestricted use of the methods for pest and disease control.
Sustainability, tropical plantations - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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Sustainability in plantations with tropical crops has to be ensured by the creation of agroforestry systems with extended biodiversity and specific measures to avoid soil erosion. Organic wastes have to be recycled in the agricultural production system and effluents from the wet-processing of coffee have to be purified. (NL standards on production, Part B.VIII. Permanent tropical plantations: 3. Sustainability of the cultivation system 4. Special processing methods
The NATURLAND standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. The requirements to avoid erosion and enhance biodiversity are not explicitly mentioned within the EU Regulation. Specific requirements of organic tropical cultivation systems are not regulated. This refers to the ecological principle of organic farming. Tropical farming systems are of increased ecological vulnerability.
US NOP 2002: Care of Environment The producer must manage plant and animal materials or crop nutrients to maintain or improve soil organic matter content in a manner that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances. (§205.203 (c) and (d)) The producer of an organic livestock operation must manage manure in a manner that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients, heavy metals, or pathogenic organisms and optimizes recycling of nutrients.( § 205.239 (c)) The EU does not refer to the care of environment.
Veterinary treatment, parasite control - SE KRAV 2006
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Avermectines are only allowed to be used when other substances are not expected to have the desired effects. Slowly degradable substances as avermectines shall not be used when animals are on natural pastures (KRAV standards paragraph 5.4.7).
The use of avermectines is not regulated separately to any other parasite treatments within EU Regulation 2092/91. Avermectines are used against internal and external parasites but most of the substance is excreted in the animal manure. There it is still toxic to the insects which live in and breakdown the manure. Several species of dung beetles are declining rapidly. When using these kinds of substances, which are the only ones effective to some parasites, best possible practises should be used.
Veterinary treatment, parasite control - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Veterinary treatments to control parasites, which involve the use of organo-phosphorus or organo-chlorine compounds, are not permitted unless required by law. If so required, any animals treated cannot be used for organic meat, and their milk cannot be sold as organic until the completion of a full conversion period. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 10.10.27 and 10.10.28. Soil Association Standards include a prohibition that is not part of the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation places no specific prohibition on organo-phosphorus or organo-chlorine compounds for veterinary treatment. Soil Association standards prohibit these compounds. Soil Association standards comply with UK Compendium of Organic Standards, Annex 1B, Paragraph 5.5 in prohibiting Organo-phosphorus compound, but UK Compendium does not include the prohibition on organo-chlorine compounds. Organophosphate chemicals have been suspected of involvement in a number of degenerative nervous diseases in livestock, producers and consumers. Organo-chlorine chemicals have been implicated in many environmental and public health problems. A specific prohibition is considered necessary on organic status for the products of animals exposed to these chemicals to ensure that organic products will not pose any public health or environmental risk.