Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

  • Subject Areas
    • Environmental care/environmental impact
      • Habitats
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Aquaculture, general requirements - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
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Conversion period, maintenance of aquatic ecosystems, the production of aquatic plants and breeds are ruled by IFOAM standards. Also detailed requirements on the nutrition of aquatic animals, health and welfare aspects as well as transport and slaughter are addressed by the standard. (9)
IFOAM has detailled rules for aquaculture. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover aquaculture. Aquatic systems are very vulnerable ecosystems. Specific rules on how to use natural or establish artifical aquatic systems are necessary in order to grant sustainability and credibility in the consumers perception.
Biodiveristy, landscape - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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Structuring elements of the landscape (i.e. hedges, borders, humid areas, oligotrophic grassland) must be preserved or recreated, if required. This applies especially to large cropping units. (NL standards on production, Part B.; I.5. Landscape management)
The NATURLAND standard is broader. This aspect is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. This aspect refers to the ecological principle of organic farming. Structuring elements in the landscape, providing habitats for animals (birds, insects, small mammals among others)and plants will increase biodiversity and contribute to a balanced ecosystem. Naturally preserved buffer zones in the neighbourhood of ecologically sensitive areas (such as rivers, lakes, etc.) will help to avoid disturbing impacts on these ecosystems.
Biodiversity, landscape - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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DEMETER requires a vast diversification within the farm and requires at least 7% of farm land being dedicated to ecological diversified areas.
The requirement of 'compensatory ecological habitats' is a very specific DEMETER standard in Switzerland, as this requirement is also required by the government from all Swiss farms which get direct payments. No similar pargraph is quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. A diversified landscape underlines the individuality of the farm and supports the prosperous development of beneficials within the farm considered as an organism.
Biodiversity, landscape - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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7% of the arable land in a farm must be dedicated to landscape diversification.
The requirement of 'compensatory ecological habitats' is a very specific Swiss standard. No similar paragraph is quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. To support refuge areas for beneficials matches the holistic approach of organic farming, which is keen to take advantage of a sound and well balanced micro-ecosystem. The «compensatory ecological habitats» should enhance a natural balance between noxious and benefical organisms. Furthermore ecologically diversified areas contribute to maintain genetic and biotic diversity and contributes to the landscape attractiveness.
Biodiversity, landscape - CZ KEZ Standards 2005
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KEZ requires a diversification within the agricultural area to preserve biodiversity and prohibits removing of natural ecosystems.
The requirements of minimal area in the natural state, suitable area for habitat and shelter for wild animals, conservation of biodiversity and natural ecosystems and biocorridors are a very specific requirements of KEZ Standards. No similar paragraphs are quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Ecologically diverse areas contribute to maintain genetic and biotic diversity and contributes to landscape attractiveness.
Biodiversity, landscape - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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There are a number of recommendations and requirements concerning environment management and conservation of landscape features, semi-natural habitats and wild species on the farm. Soil Association standards recommend that organic management should aim to achieve a productive, balanced and varied agro-ecosystem with high standards of conservation management and co-operation with conservation bodies. Producers must comply with all relevant legislation and must not plough, reseed or drain any area identified as a 'regionally or locally important wildlife site' by a county Wildlife Trust or County Environment Records Centre. Producers must not in any way damage statutory 'recognised sites', of which the types are listed. Producers must not clear vegetation or crop wastes or stubbles by burning. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.5.1-4.5.5.)
Soil Association standards contain detailed recommendations and requirements to support the agro-ecosystem whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include any specific recommendations or requirements relating to environmental management or conservation. The Soil Association Standards use best practice recommendations from other UK conservation bodies, added to some UK agricultural regulations, to explain conservation principles and outline best environment management practice to ensure that organic producers will produce optimum outcomes for landscape features, semi-natural habitats and wild species on the farm.
Biodiversity, landscape - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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There are specific recommendations and requirements for managing semi-natural habitats, trees, woodland, farm buildings and water resources. Soil Association Standards include detailed management recommendations and requirements, in separate sections, for semi-natural habitats, trees and woodland, farm buildings, and water resources. For each of these categories, the standards explain the main issues, including the wildlife and other conservation benefits, the recommendations for best practice management, and the basic requirements that producers must adhere to. The exception to this is for water resources, for which there are basic requirements but no recommendations. Soil Association Certification Limited is currently proposing a more detailed set of new recommendations and requirements for management of watercourses, water resources, soil and ground water, surface water, storage and abstraction, and irrigation. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.5.18-4.5.31.)
Soil Association standards contain detailed recommendations and requirements not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. EU Regulation includes no specifically relevant requirements or recommendations. Semi-natural habitats, trees and woodland, farm buildings, and water resources are all important for wildlife and conservation management.
Biodiversity, landscape, cultural heritage plan - SE KRAV Standards 2006
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The standards are requiring that all famers shall have a plan for the management of nature and cultural heritage. This is a plan which identifies areas with rich biodiversity and important cultural heritages on the farm. It also gives advice for how these should be handled to be conserved and enhanced.(KRAV Standards paragraph 3.1.8).
This is an additional requirement which is not covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Biodiversity is an important area in organic agriculture. There has been an difficulty to cover the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity and also of cultural heritages. This standard has been agreed upon after a wide stakeholder consultation.
Biodiversity, viticulture - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Every vintner (wine producer) is obliged to plant and tend reasonably a part of its vineyard area an ecological niche. Efforts should be made for the niche to become at least one percent of the vineyard area. The ecological niches must, in order to interrupt the mono-culture, be distributed throughout the area. The situation of the surroundings and communal measures for nature conservation have to be considered. (Bioland production standards, 5.6.4 Ecological Niches)
The BIOLAND standard is broader. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require ecological niches to be created. In order to increase biodiversity in a monocultural cropping system.
Collection of wild plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Wild grown plants collected for human consumption can be labelled with the BIOLAND trademark and the indicated as from wild collection, when; the area of collection has not been contaminated, is clearly defined, registered and (in general) situated in a region that is attended by BIOLAND, and the extraction of the plants does not negatively affect the local ecosystem. BIOLAND certified products from wild collection must be clearly labelled as such. (Bioland production standards, 3.10 Wild Collection)
The BIOLAND provisions are more specific and require the collection area to be free from the direct influence of any sources of pollution. BIOLAND labelling requirements are also more detailed than under EU Regulation 2092/91 where there is no specific provision for the labelling of organic products collected from wild collection. To ensure the innocuousness and high quality of BIOLAND products. To increase transparency for the consumer.
Collection of wild plants - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Harvesting of wild plants for sale as organic must meet organic standards, comply with the law, not endanger species nor disturb habitat stability, not be on land recently contaminated with prohibited inputs, and must be sufficiently distant from sources of prohibited inputs or pollution. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 9.1.4 - 9.1.11. Soil Association standards are more detailed than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards require that wild harvesting of crops for sale as organic must comply with the organic standards and with the law, must not be of species defined as "critically endangered" in the World Conservation Union red list, and must be on land at least 10 metres from non organic agriculture and 50 metres from non agricultural pollution sources. The land should be accessible to inspection, and should be identified on maps with the organic certification application. EU Regulation does not have these requirements. The Soil Association standards on wild plant collection are intended to minimise the risk that the wild harvesting of plants may result either in contamination of organic products or damage to semi-natural habitats and endangered species. They seek to ensure that organic standards are fully effective for organic wild harvested products.
Collection of wild plants, harvesting methods - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Harvesting of wild plants for sale as organic must be conducted at the best time of year. It must include only the appropriate parts of the plants, and a number of details are included regarding different types of plants. Sufficient mature plants must be left for the survival of dependent wildlife, damage to other species and to the habitat must be avoided, and samples must be kept of every batch harvested. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 9.3.)
Soil Association standards are more precise than EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association wild plant harvesting standards include specifications regarding appropriate timing, the parts of plants that may be harvested, and appropriate replanting. It is specified that enough mature plants must be left for wildlife that depend on them, that damage must be avoided to other species, that beneficial relationships among plant species must be respected, erosion must be avoided, and samples of harvested batches must be kept. EU Regulations do not contain these requirements, only maintaining that the areas concerned must not have been treated with prohibited inputs for the previous 3 years, and that the harvesting does not affect the habitat stability or the maintenance of the species harvested. Soil Association standards on wild plant harvesting are intended to maximise the quality of the product and to minimise the risk of damage to the species harvested or to other species in the same habitat. The intention is to provide a comprehensive set of rules for organic wild plant harvesting, rather than merely a brief statement of intent.
Collection of wild plants, management plan - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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A wild harvesting management plan, agreed with Soil Association, is required and must be adhered to. It must include the harvest areas, personnel, times, quantities, species, environmental management, etc. There are a substantial number of further details set out in Soil Association standards regarding various aspects of the wild harvesting management plan and its implementation. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Subsection 9.2.)
Soil Association standards include a set of rules not contained in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards for wild plant harvesting require the agreement, implementation and monitoring of a wild harvesting management plan. This must include harvest areas, personnel, times, quantities, species, quality, making good procedures, environmental management, etc. EU Regulation does not require any similar type of wild harvesting management plan. Soil Association standards' requirement for a comprehensive and detailed wild harvest management plan is intended to maximise the quality of the product and to minimise the risks of unsustainable damage either to the species harvested or to other species in its surrounding habitat.
Conservation, farm plan - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Producers should keep a farm conservation plan, designed with professional help, and they must map all the main landscape features, wildlife habitats and historical features on the holding. The standards require the producer to map all the recognised wildlife habitats and landscape sites, and the archeological and historical features on the holding, and to formally revise the map every 5 years. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.5.6-4.5.8.)
Soil Association standards contain recommendations and requirements not included in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards recommend that producers should keep a constantly updated whole farm conservation plan, drawn up with the help of a professional advisor. EU Regulation does not contain recommendations or requirements for a farm conservation plan. The Soil Association recommendations are meant to encourage best practice and optimal outcomes from the conservation management. The requirement to map the main habitats and features is also a requirement of the main funding scheme for organic farmers in England to ensure a basic level of conservation management on organic farms.
Conservation, field boundary management - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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There are detailed recommendations and requirements regarding field boundary management. Soil Association Standards contain detailed recommendations for the management of field boundaries, starting with an explanation of their main functions and conservation benefits and continuing with more practical advice on their management. The standards require that producers must manage river banks to minimise soil erosion and nutrient run-off, must obtain Soil Association permission to remove hedges, banks, ditches or walls, or to trim hedges annually (e.g. for road traffic safety or wildlife benefits). Producers must not trim hedges during the bird nesting season. (Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.5.9-4.5.17.)
Soil Association standards contain recommendations and requirements whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include any recommendations or requirements for field boundary management. Soil Association Standards give detailed recommendations for hedge management encourage best practice among organic farmers to optimise the outcomes of their field boundary management for wildlife and for landscape visual impact. The requirements and prohibitions ensure a basic level of positive boundary management and prohibit the worst types of management. In England, these requirements are mostly required by the main organic farming funding scheme.
Conservation, primary ecosystems/rainforests - SE KRAV Standards 2006
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Clearing of primary ecosystems as rainforests, wetlands and primary grassland is prohibited (KRAV Standards paragraph 3.1.6).
The previous vegetation cover on land used for agriculture is not covered in the EU Regulation 2092/91. From nature conservation perspective this is an important area where agriculture is a risk factor. The conservation of rain forests in particular is a concern of many consumers.
Conservation, primary ecosystems/rainforests - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
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Clearing of primary ecosystems is prohibited.(2.1.2)
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not address this matter. Clearing of primary or high value conservation areas is an increasing problem in agriculture. Organic farming loses its credibility if such systems are cleared in order to establish organic plots instead.
Fertilizers, substrates, maerl - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Soil Association permission is required to use seaweed sources for soil nutrient supplementation, but maerl from Lithothamnium corallioides, Lithothamnium glaciale or Phymatolithon calcareum are prohibited. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 4.8.5. Soil Association standards prohibit the use of maerl from Lithothamnium corallioides, Lithothamnium glaciale or Phymatolithon calcareum. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include this prohibition, but it allows seaweed products, where the need is recognised by the inspection body, and maerl with no restriction. The seaweed species named as prohibited inputs in the Soil Association standards are endangered species, and the maerl extraction contributes to the threat of their extinction.
Soil management, perennial crops - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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For perennial crops, the soil must be covered with vegetation all year round.
While BIO SUISSE requires a full vegetative cover of the soil on perennial crops, the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have any specific requirements. Multiple soil tillage and lack of cover crops lead to erosion and loss of organic matter in the soil. Constant vegetation will minimize such unfavourable effects in perennial crops.
Veterinary treatment, parasite control - SE KRAV 2006
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Avermectines are only allowed to be used when other substances are not expected to have the desired effects. Slowly degradable substances as avermectines shall not be used when animals are on natural pastures (KRAV standards paragraph 5.4.7).
The use of avermectines is not regulated separately to any other parasite treatments within EU Regulation 2092/91. Avermectines are used against internal and external parasites but most of the substance is excreted in the animal manure. There it is still toxic to the insects which live in and breakdown the manure. Several species of dung beetles are declining rapidly. When using these kinds of substances, which are the only ones effective to some parasites, best possible practises should be used.