Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

  • Subject Areas
    • Environmental care/environmental impact
      • Soil
Go back to overview Go to complete documents for this section
Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Conservation, soil and water - PL Ekoland Standards 2005 Farmers should undertake activities to protect soils from degradation, e.g. compaction and erosion (including 'green fields' approach). They should minimise water use in production processes. (1.3.1. ? 1.3.3.) The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover the areas of water conservation and compaction of soils, while PL Ekoland has a paragraph on this topic. Soil and water are limited resources of vital importance to farming and the whole society and thus must be carefully used and protected.
Conservation, soil, water and air - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Water resources are not to be used excessively. It is not permissible to burn used plastic (e.g. foils and fleeces) in the fields. (Bioland production standards, 3.9 Air, Soil and Water Protection)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not regulate the use of water resources and the burning of plastic while BIOLAND standards contain restrictions in these areas. In order to protect the natural resources and avoid negative impacts on the environment.
Conservation, water, manure application - PL Ekoland 2005 The use of water should be minimised. Water should be protected from contamination. Careful storage of manures and application are one of the main priorities. The following minimum manure storage facilities are required: - minimum capacity for farm yard manure storage is 3m2 per Livestock Unit (not valid for farm with deep litter stables) - minimum capacity for liquid manure storage is 2m3 per Livestock Unit (not valid for farm with deep litter stables) - the maximum dose of manure must not exceed: 35 t of FYM per ha, 40 t of compost per ha, 30m3 of liquid manures per ha. The total dose of N applied on a farm must not exceed 170 kg per ha per year. - a derogation for the first two principles is available for farms in a difficult financial situation. This derogation expires on 25 October 2008 (1.3.4. ? 1.3.6.) The EU Regulation 2092/91 sets a limit for maximum N input only for farmyard manure (170 kg N/ha/year) and does not specify detailed storage rules and fertiliser doses for other commercial fertilisers. Water is a limited resource of vital importance to farming and the whole society and thus must be protected from contamination.
Contamination, heavy metals- SE KRAV Standards 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
There are maximum limits for the amounts of heavy metals brought into farmland by the use of inputs (fertilizers, soil conditioners, chemical pesticides, herbicides) or indirectly by the use in animal husbandry (feed, feed minerals and medicines). Fertilisers and soil conditioners shall be analysed when there is a reason to expect high concentrations of contaminants (KRAV Standards paragraph 4.2.5 and 4.3.7). There are limits for lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel and zinc (Annex 3).
In the EU regulation 2092/91 there are limitations for the heavy metal content of composted or fermented household waste, fur and aluminium calcium phosphate, but not for the amounts of heavy metals brought into a farm, whereas the KRAV standards have a more general approach to the issue of heavy metal contamination of soil. There are increasing amounts of heavy metals in the agricultural nutrient circulation system. Organic agriculture is dependent on the soil and the nutrients in the soil to produce food and feed. There is also an increased risk for the use of not so well known fertilisers which will fulfil organic standards but where the heavy metal content might be too high. An organic farmer should have full knowledge about what is brought into the farm and in to the soil.
Contamination, testing, spraying equipment - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Organic farms must have their spraying equipment tested every 4 years.
Whereas the Swiss Ordinance requires spraytests, EU Regulation 2092/91 does not rule this point of concern. As good agricultural practise also in organic farming all spraying equipment must work perfectly in order to avoid non adequate application of agricultural substances.
Fertilization, intensity - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
KRAV can request that a farmer has a plant nutrient equation done for the whole farm and all inputs used (KRAV standards paragraph 4.1.6).
Plant nutrient equation or balances are not covered in EU 2092/91. To use manure and other inputs in an effective and responsible way is important in organic production. For farms where there is a risk for overuse of inputs and risks to the environment, a nutrient balance can be requested. This is also a educational tool for the farmer.
Land management, mulches and plastic - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Floating mulches, plastic for covering soil and plants and silage plastic should not be made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Used materials should be taken away from the land or place it has been used (KRAV standards paragraph 4.7.5).
This is not regulated in EU Regulation 2092/91. PVC has huge environmental effects and all use should be reduced to a minimum. Plastic and mulches should be handled so that they do not cause environmental problems and are not polluting the farm or soil.
Land management, nutrients, leaching - SE KRAV 2006
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
To prevent leaking of nutrients into water a permanent, unfertilized, overgrown buffer zone of 3 metres should be left beside watercourses, wetlands and lakes that are water-bearing the year round. In winter a cover of vegetation is encouraged. Catch crops should be grown when possible. Animal manure should be handled so that nutrient losses are minimised (KRAV-standards paragraph 3.1.9 and 4.1.4).
Prevention of leakage of nutrients is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91 except that the use of input should not result in contamination of the environment (article 7). The leakage of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus is one of the biggest environmental problems in agriculture in Sweden.
Manure fertilizers, application - FI Luomuliitto Standards for "Leppäkerttu" quality label 2004 It is required that all animal manure used for growing products intended directly for human consumption must be composted. There is no such requirement in the EU Regulation No. 2092/91. Composting of the manure is regarded as important in the eyes of the consumers.
Manure fertilizers, export - CH Regulation 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Export of manure can only occur to farms, which also comply with the maximum level of not more than 2.5 LSU/ha (Livestock units/ha). Purchase contracts for farmyard manure are only possible between holdings which provide the ecological services laid down in the Swiss Ordinance on Direct Payments of 7 December 1998 (ODP).
While the Swiss Ordinance excludes intensive stocking rates by strictly limiting manure exports from the farm, EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the manure used on the own farm to 170kgN/ha: Excessive manure can be exported to organic farms which also comply with the limit of not more than 170kgN/ha. By these means, the goal of closed circles in organic farming of self-sufficiency with fodder and nutrients can be reached.
Manure fertilizers, export - CH Swiss Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Export of manure can only occur to farms which also comply with the maximum level of not more than 2.5 LSU/ha (Livestock units/ha). Purchase contracts for farmyard manure are only possible between holdings which provide the ecological services laid down in the Swiss Ordinance on Direct Payments of 7 December 1998 (ODP).
While the Swiss Ordinance excludes intensive stocking rates by strictly limiting manure exports from the farm, EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the manure used on the own farm to 170kgN/ha. If manure is exported, the farm receiving the manure must also not exceed the limit of 170kgN/ha. The Swiss Ordinance intends to keep the stocking rate on each organic operation to an less-intensive level (not more than 2.5 LSU/ha). By these means, the goal of closed circles in organic farming, with self-sufficiency of fodder and nutrients can be reached.
Manure fertilizers, export - SI Rules 2003
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
SI Rules 2003 foresee a possibility of co-operation of an organic holding with other holdings in order to spread surplus manure. Further there are no specific demands related to the storage facilities for livestock manure in SI Rules.
SI Rules state that organic-production holdings may establish co-operation with other agricultural holdings with the intention of providing areas for the use of organic fertilizers, are more specific whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 only speaks about establishing such co-operation with the intention of spreading surplus manure from organic production (EU Regulation Annex I. B 7.). SI Rules do not describe the demands related to storage facilities for livestock manure as EU regulation does in Annex I. B 7.6.-7.7. Re storage facilities: The requirements for manure storage being identical to those in EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex I. B 7.6.-7.7. are in Slovenia a part of other national regulations.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The amount of nitrogen and phosphorous input per hectare is strictly limited, in general to max 2.5 LSU/ha or less depending on the crops.
Limits for the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus provided by different means of fertilisation are restricted by Bio Suisse; for different crops specific limits apply - whereas the sum of phosphorus applied by fertilisation is taken into consideration as well as nitorgen levels. The EU Regulation 2092/91 sets general limits for ferilisation intensity only for nitrogen: maximum application per yeare is 170kg nitrogen/ha. In order to avoid excessive use of fertilizers and successive contamination of the environment by leached nutrients, BIO SUISSE limits use of both nitrogen and phosphorous to effective levels required by crops.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - CZ PRO-BIO The basis of good fertilization is using on farm manure and its proper application. Standards allow the purchase 50 kg N/ha/year. The whole total amount of organic fertilizers is 110 kg N/ha/year, and for perennial crops 90 kg N/ha/year. Pro-Bio Standards are more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91, Annex I /B 7, where the use of farmyard manure may not be higher than 170 kg N/ha/year. Closed nutrient cycling, environment protection. An effort to limit only plant production without animal husbandry at farms.
Naturland 2005: Natural ressources and ecosystems
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
The management of the farm may not cause damages to the soil, the water and primary ecosystems. (NL standards on production: Part B.I.4. Tillage Part B.I.6. Soil and water conservation)
The NATURLAND standard is much broader. This aspect is not regulated in the EC reg. This aspect refers to the ecological principle of organic farming. A diverse and balanced ecosystem and the care of natural resources is an important element of organic farming.
Peat - CH Demeter 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Peat can constitute only 70% of the substratum for the production of seedlings.
DEMETER restricts the use of peat to seedling production and within substrata to a maximum 70% whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 only lists peat as admitted 'fertilizer' limited to horticulture (market gardening, floriculture, arboriculture, nursery). Peat is a very limited resource which should be used as little as possible to ensure supplies for future generations. Furthermore peat production infringes on natural habitats, which is not in line with the aim for sound production methods of organic farming.
Plant production, green cover, orchards - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
In orchards, planting with a mixture appropriate to the location is required throughout the year (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.3.3). In areas with extreme summer dryness the land planting period must be at least 10 months. The plantings must not be ploughed under from the beginning of September until the end of March. Mulch cuttings have to be made in such a way that beneficial organisms are protected (for example no cutting at the edges or alternate cutting).
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have requirements for land planting in orchards. Green coverage reduces erosion problems.
Plant protection, copper - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
The annual amount of copper for plant protection is more restricted then in annex II B of EEC-regulation 2092/91. Per year are allowed 2 kg/ha, to fruits 2,5 kg/ha, to vineyard 3 kg/ha and to hope 4 kg/ha. (BA-Rules chapter 2.1.5, 2.3.3, 4.1.7, 4.3.8, 4.4.3, 4.4.7)
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006, but no restrictions are made in terms of different crops. Bio Austria General Standard restricts the amount of copper per ha in relation to different crops (2-4 kg/ha). The Bio Austria General Standard restricts copper application between 2-4 kg per ha in relation to different crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006. No restrictions are made in terms of different crops.
Plant protection, copper - CH DEMETER
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Copper preparates are admitted for fungal diseases and for fruit and vine production exclusively. The upper limit for the yearly application is 3kg/ha metallic copper.
Copper application is restricted to lower quantities and specific application rates apply for different crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 admits 8kg of copper till the end of 2005 and max 6 kg of copper from the year 2006 onwards: no restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore copper applications are restricted.
Plant protection, copper - CH Regulance/Ordinance 2005
/style/images/fileicons/other.png
Copper may be applied against fungi in plant production. The limit is at 4kg/ha per year metallic copper or not more than 20kg averaged over 5 consecutive years.
Copper application is restricted to lower quantities (4 kg in general, not more than 6 kg for wine growing). EU Regulation allows 8 kg of copper until the end of 2005 and max 6 kg of copper from January 2006 onwards: no restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore copper applications are restricted to max 4 kg/ha metallic copper
Plant protection, copper - CZ PRO-BIO 2004 Total dosage of copper is maximum 3 kg Cu (2+)/ha/year (metallic copper). If copper preparations are used, the copper soil content has to be analysed each 6th year. Copper application is restricted to lower quantities, and if applied the soil copper content has to be determined. EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex II/B IV admits 8 kg/ha of copper (till the end of 2005 and max 6 kg/ha of copper from 2006 onwards (with special rules for perennial crops). Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote soil fertility; any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore copper applications are restricted. Standards require the use of preventive measures (crop rotation, crop cultivation, choice of varieties) too.
Plant protection, copper - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guideline 2005
/style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png /style/images/fileicons/text_plain.png
Copper preparates are admitted and listed in the CODEX positive list Appendix 2.
Whereas CODEX does not set limits for copper application per hectare and year, EU Regulation 2092/91 admits 8 kg of copper till the end of 2005 and max 6 kg of copper from the year 2006 onward: No restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations in either of the two regulations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore a restriction on the use of metalic copper is necessary.
Quality management systems - FI Luomuliitto Standards for "Leppäkerttu" quality label 2004 "The Ladybird-quality logo is owned and administrated by Luomuliitto. It is granted to farmers, food processors and farm input manufacturers producing organic products according to the quality standards of Luomuliitto. The standards are additional to the EU Regulation No. 2092/91 and consist of compulsory requirements and recommendations. The compulsory requirements include the membership of Luomuliitto and production based on quality management system (ISO9001 or equivalent). " EU Regulation No. 2092/91 does not address issues related to quality management systems. The former private, national certifier, Luomuliitto, wants to keep up with some of its own standards such as composting of the manure and domestic ingredients which requirements are regarded as important in the eyes of the Finnish consumers. Furthermore Luomuliitto wants to promote new progressive ideas such as combining the organic production and quality management.
Soil management, irrigation - CZ PRO-BIO Standards 2004 Irrigation should not endanger water resources or the soil. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not deal with irrigation. Strong consideration of environmental impacts is a principle of organic production.
Soil management, perennial crops - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
/style/images/fileicons/unknown.png
For perennial crops, the soil must be covered with vegetation all year round.
While BIO SUISSE requires a full vegetative cover of the soil on perennial crops, the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have any specific requirements. Multiple soil tillage and lack of cover crops lead to erosion and loss of organic matter in the soil. Constant vegetation will minimize such unfavourable effects in perennial crops.
Soil management, perennial crops - DE Bioland 2005
/style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png
Vineyards and hop plantations must have undercropping. In dry periods and in new plantations parts of the soil in vineyards can be kept without vegetation for three months. If this period is extended, the soil must be covered with organic material. While establishing an undercropping system, the nitrogen balance must be considered and legume species must be part of the composition. (Bioland production standards, 5.6 Viticulture, 5.6.1 Soil Care, Greening and Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.3 Greening)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not require soil coverage for perennial cropping systems as BIOLAND does. There is only the general provision to use legume species and green manure in order to maintain and enhance soil fertility. In order to reduce the problems and disadvantages of the permanent mono-culture (erosion, problems with pests and diseases) in vineyards and to ensure the production of grapes, juice and wine of a high quality. Undercropping and soil cover can contribute to soil conservation and avoid erosion. Additionally habitat for beneficial insects is provided as a contribution to a balanced ecosystem.
Soil management, steam sterilisation - CZ KEZ Standards 2005 Prior approval is called for thermal steam sterilisation of the soil (the applicant must prove that there is no other effective alternative). No similar paragraph concerning the thermal sterilisation is quoted in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Annex I/A/3 permits control of pests, diseases and weeds by a combination of the measures. Conditions of the use of thermal sterilisation are not discussed there. Nature conservation, protection of soil fauna and flora is the main reason for this restriction.
Soil management, steam sterilisation and pasteurisation - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of soils are not permitted for weed control; along with Azadirachtin (from neem) and lime sulphur, they may be used with prior permission only in protected cropping structures and only as a single response to a particular pest problem. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.10.5 and 4.11.10. Soil Association standards have further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards restrict the use of steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of soils. These methods are not permitted for weed control; with prior permission, they may be used only in protected cropping structures and only as a single response to a particular pest problem. EU Regulation does not refer to these practices. Steam sterilisation and pasteurisation are energy intensive methods, which impair soil biodiversity and are generally incompatible with organic soil management principles. As the methods require only the use of water and energy, their absence from the EU Regulation could be interpreted as allowing unrestricted use of the methods for pest and disease control.