Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

  • Subject Areas
    • General areas of Organic Agriculture
      • Farming systems
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Animal fodder, origin - CZ PRO BIO Standards 2004 Livestock farming with the following numbers of animals must be supplied annually with at least 50 % feed from the own organic farm unit: poultry more than 1000, breeding sows more than 30, pigs for fattening more than 60 and horses with more than 10. Farms with numbers of animals less than those mentioned above are not limited. (PB Standards Part II, Chapter 3.1) PRO-BIO restricts the purchase of feed from other organic farms. EU Regulation 2092/92 Annex I/B 4 does allow the use of feed from other organic farms and its quantity is not limited by livestock numbers. The reason for this rule is to restrict animal husbandry without plant production in organic farming.
Contamination, general requirements - SE KRAV 2006
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KRAV standards for some issues cover the whole farm and not only the farmland. Chemical pesticides can not be used on gravel paths, roads and farmyards. Cultivation of GMO-crops is not allowed on the conventional part of a holding. Environmental adapted substances must be used in facilities (e.g. toilets) where the drainage is connected to manure storages where the manure will be used in the organic farming (KRAV-standards paragraph 3.1.6).
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover areas on the farm that are not farmland. For manure there are general standards that it should not be contaminated. This standard is mainly applicable for partly converted farms. Spraying herbicides against weeds on the farmyard or growing GMO crops on the conventional part is not trustworthy on a farm with organic production. This is the fact even if there are no risks for contamination.
Conversion, application of biodynamic preparations - Demeter International 2005
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Manures and composts must be treated with the biodynamic preparations. A prerequisite for the certification of the farm as "In Conversion to demeter" (Biodyn) after 12 months of farming to these standards is at least one application of the spraying preparations (cow-horn manure and the horn silica), and the spreading of prepared manures on all areas of the enterprise. (DI production standards, 4. Biodynamic Preparations)
The DI standard has additional requirements than the EU Regulation 2092/91. There is no requirement about the preparation or application of the biodynamic preparations in the EU Regulation. It is stated however, that these preparations can be used for the activation of compost. The use of the biodynamic preparations in the manure and compost is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method.
Cropping systems, prohibited - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Even cropping systems that do not rely on rotations must still comply with the methods of nutrient supply, weed, pest and disease control set out in the rules for crop establishment and growth, and they must not rely on outside inputs. Continuous arable rotations are prohibited. (Soil Association Organic Standards, Sections 4.6-4.11 and Paragraphs 5.1.14 and 5.1.15.)
Soil Association standards are more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards prohibit any cropping systems that rely strongly on outside inputs for nutrient supply, weed, pest and disease control, and any that are based on continuous arable rotations. EU Regulation does not include these specific prohibitions. The Soil Association standards are partly intended to prohibit hydroponic crop production, while allowing flexibility for other sustainable cropping systems. Hydroponic cropping systems rely on high levels of nutrient and energy input and are therefore considered unsustainable. The prohibitions on continuous arable rotations and on systems relying on outside inputs enhance the enforceability of the positive requirements for diverse, multi-annual rotation.
Farm diversity - Demeter International 2005
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Demeter farms are required to integrate ruminants or equidae. Exemptions can be approved by the respective certifying organisation. In market gardens and in enterprises having solely perennial crops, the requirement to have their own animals is not obligatory if manures, compost, green manures, and preparation usage is particularly intensive. (DI production standards, 5.1. Requirement to have livestock DI production standards, Appendix 7, APP 4)
Demeter farms are not regulated by the EU Regulation 2092/91, and there is no requirement to have any type of livestock on an organic farm according to the EU Regulation. Animal husbandry, with the accompanying fodder production is an important part of the agricultural enterprise. With respect to the development of the enterprise, the farm organism cannot do without livestock. This applies to the ruminant in particular. The fodder plants and the well-balanced manure that comes into being because of cattle, contribute considerably through the enlivening of the soil, to the long term flourishing of a farm. The harmonious co-operation of mankind with the three kingdoms of nature can lead to a living, ensouled farm organism.
Fertilization, biodynamic preparations - Demeter International 2005
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The biodynamic preparations should be made on the farm itself and applied regularly in manures and compost and on the whole farm area. (DI production standards, 1. Principles; DI production standards, 4. Biodynamic Preparations)
There is no requirement about the preparation or application of the biodynamic preparations in the EU Regulation 2092/91. It is stated however, that these preparations can be used for the activation of compost. The use of the biodynamic preparations is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method. The fabrication of the preparations on the farm itself and with ingredients collected from the farm will strengthen the development of an individuality of the farm organism and help the consciousness and understanding of the connections in nature by the farmer.
Manure fertilizers, origin - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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Farm yard manure must originate from organic farms. If not available from organic farms, not more than 50% of the necessary N and P205 may origin from non-organic farms, which are managed according the integrated production standard and additional ecological requirements as defined by Swiss ordinance. However at least 50% of manure produced on the farm must be used on farm. If farm yard manure is sold to other farms, these must be certified organic farms. The distance for transporting manure and slury is restricted to 20 - 80 km depending on the kind of manure.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the export of farm yard manure to other farms as long the limit of 170kgN/ha among organic farms is respected; it only restricts the maximum stocking rate to an equivalent of 170 kg N/ha. No limits for transporting distances for manure to other farms are foreseen in the EU Regulation. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self-sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced.
Parallel production, grazing, livestock - UK Compendium 2005 As a derogation from the principle that organic pasture should be for organic livestock, non-organic livestock are permitted to graze organic land for a maximum of 120 days per year, as long as these animals are extensively reared, organic animals are not grazing with them, and authorisation has been obtained from the inspection body. The UK Compendium contains further detail to the EU Regulation 2092/91. UK Compendium specifies a maximum annual period of 120 days that non-organic livestock may use organic pasture. EU Regulation merely states "a limited period of time each year" without specifying the maximum length of time. UK Compendium continues the previous UK limit of 120 days because this is more specific and enforceable than the unspecified EU restriction on the period that non-organic livestock may use organic pasture. The additional text was requested by UK inspection bodies.