Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

  • Subject Areas
    • Crop production
      • Crop protection
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Contamination, preventing, buffer zones - US NOP 2002 ยง 205.202 Land requirements. Any field or farm parcel from which harvested crops are intended to be sold, labelled, or represented as "organic," must: (c) Have distinct, defined boundaries and buffer zones such as runoff diversions to prevent the unintended application of a prohibited substance to the crop or contact with a prohibited substance applied to adjoining land that is not under organic management. The US require buffer zones whereas the EU does not. A buffer zone must be sufficient in size or other features (e.g., windbreaks or a diversion ditch) to prevent the possibility of unintended contact by prohibited substances applied to adjacent land areas with an area that is part of a certified operation. As long as an organic operation has not used excluded methods and takes reasonable steps to avoid contact with the products of excluded methods as detailed in their approved organic system plan, the unintentional presence of the products of excluded methods should not affect the status of an organic product or operation.
Greenhouse production, heating - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Heating of greenhouses should be limited to a reasonable degree. Greenhouses should be well insulated. Foils and fleeces used for covered production should be recycled. (Bioland production standards, 5.1.4 Crop production under Glass and Foil; Bioland production standards, 5.4.5 Use of Energy (for mushroom production)
The BIOLAND standard restrict the heating of greenhouses. Neither the heating of greenhouses nor the handling of covering material is regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. In order to reduce energy consumption and waste products.
Greenhouse production, steam sterilisation - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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Thermal steam sterilisation of soil in a greenhouse requires approval from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority.
EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover green house production as specific area. Thermal sterilisation should be restricted for ecological reasons, and it is therefore required an approval from the authorities.
Mushroom production, protective measures - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Substrate can only be disinfected using thermal processes. For the disinfection of equipment only alcohol or acetic acid can be used. The application of pyrethrum is not allowed in mushroom production. (Bioland production standards, 5.4.3 Disinfection and Plant Protection)
The BIOLAND standard has additional requirements than the EU Regulation 2092/91 which does not explicitly refer to the disinfection of substrate. Pyrethrum can be used against pests. The regulation regarding substances for cleaning and disinfection only refers to animal production facilities and equipment. To avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Plant protection, carriers and wetting agents - SE KRAV Standards 2006
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The KRAV standards requires that carriers and wetting agents used in plant protection products are examined and accepted by KRAV (4.4.4). There are simple criteria in the standard and also a reference to the IFOAM Basic Standards criteria for evaluation of these additives. (KRAV Standards Article 4.4.4. In appendix 4, 12 accepted carriers and wetting agents are listed.)
This is an additional requirement compared to the EU Regulation 2092/91. The EU Regulation does not have any specific requirements on carriers or wetting agents. For the organic farmer it is important to have a knowledge about all substances used on the farmland. It is known that some of the carriers and wetting agents also have biological effects.
Plant protection, copper - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The annual amount of copper for plant protection is more restricted then in annex II B of EEC-regulation 2092/91. Per year are allowed 2 kg/ha, to fruits 2,5 kg/ha, to vineyard 3 kg/ha and to hope 4 kg/ha. (BA-Rules chapter 2.1.5, 2.3.3, 4.1.7, 4.3.8, 4.4.3, 4.4.7)
EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006, but no restrictions are made in terms of different crops. Bio Austria General Standard restricts the amount of copper per ha in relation to different crops (2-4 kg/ha). The Bio Austria General Standard restricts copper application between 2-4 kg per ha in relation to different crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 allows 6 kg copper from the end of 2006. No restrictions are made in terms of different crops.
Plant protection, copper - AT Bio CH Bio Suisse Standard 2005
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Copper preparations are admitted for fungal disease control. Arable crops can not be treated with copper, except for potatoes, vegetables and hops. The annual amount of copper applied is clearly restricted for individual crops to a maximum 4 kg/ha metalic copper, for apple and pears 1.5 kg/ha and for berries 2 kg/ha).
Copper application is restricted to lower quantities and in terms of crops (application rate between 1.5-4 kg pure metallic copper, arable crops excluded except potatoes). EU Regulatoin 2092/91 admits 8kg of copper till the end of 2006 and maximum 6 kg of copper afterwards: no restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided.
Plant protection, copper - CH DEMETER
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Copper preparates are admitted for fungal diseases and for fruit and vine production exclusively. The upper limit for the yearly application is 3kg/ha metallic copper.
Copper application is restricted to lower quantities and specific application rates apply for different crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 admits 8kg of copper till the end of 2005 and max 6 kg of copper from the year 2006 onwards: no restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore copper applications are restricted.
Plant protection, copper - CZ PRO-BIO 2004 Total dosage of copper is maximum 3 kg Cu (2+)/ha/year (metallic copper). If copper preparations are used, the copper soil content has to be analysed each 6th year. Copper application is restricted to lower quantities, and if applied the soil copper content has to be determined. EU Regulation 2092/91 Annex II/B IV admits 8 kg/ha of copper (till the end of 2005 and max 6 kg/ha of copper from 2006 onwards (with special rules for perennial crops). Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote soil fertility; any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore copper applications are restricted. Standards require the use of preventive measures (crop rotation, crop cultivation, choice of varieties) too.
Plant protection, copper - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Use of copper is not allowed for plant protection purposes in any organic or conventional plant cultures in Denmark. The DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark" does not mention copper or any copper compounds. Copper is not allowed according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, while limited quantities of certain Copper compounds may be used according to Annex II B, Section IV of the EU Regulation 2092/91. Copper is a heavy metal which may accumulate in the soil and have a negative influence on the soil flora and fauna. Therefore the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark, has banned the use of copper products for plant protection purposes in Denmark.
Plant protection, copper - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guideline 2005
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Copper preparates are admitted and listed in the CODEX positive list Appendix 2.
Whereas CODEX does not set limits for copper application per hectare and year, EU Regulation 2092/91 admits 8 kg of copper till the end of 2005 and max 6 kg of copper from the year 2006 onward: No restrictions are made in terms of crops being treated with copper preparations in either of the two regulations. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore a restriction on the use of metalic copper is necessary.
Plant protection, copper - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
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Copper preparates are admitted and listed in the IFOAM positive list Appendix 3.
Whereas IFOAM restricts the application of copper to 8kg/ha and year, EU Regulation 2092/91 admits 8kg of copper till the end of 2005 and max 6kg of copper from the year 2006 onward. Copper is being accumulated in the soil: in order to promote sound soil fertility, any accumulation of heavy metals should be avoided - therefore a restriction on the use of metalic copper is necessary.
Plant protection, copper - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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The use of copper substances as plant protection products is not allowed in organic production.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 permits copper preparates (with restrictions). Copper preparates are an environmental strain and the use should be restricted. There are no productions in Norway where the use of copper preparates is crucial.
Plant protection, documentation - US NOP 2002
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The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to crop rotation and soil and crop nutrient management practices, sanitation measures and cultural practices that enhance crop health. A biological or botanical substance or a substance included on the national list of synthetic substances allowed for use in organic crop production may be applied to prevent, suppress, or control pests, weeds, or diseases: provided, that, the conditions for using the substance are documented in the organic system plan.
No differences in general except that the US has slightly different concept regarding documentation of farm practices compared with the EU Regulation 2092/91. No justification could be provided by USDA.
Plant protection, general requirements - SI Rules 2003
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Plant protection requirements in SI Rules 2003 (Art. 15) are relatively detailed, e.g naming the priority actions for maintaining plant health, balanced nutrition and substrate treatment with steam in closed production areas. An annual production plan is required as the basis for the use of any plant protection substances from the Annex (List of allowed PPP) which needs an agreement from the inspection body.
SI Rules have further requiements to the EU Regulation 2092/91. Besides measures mentioned in the EU (Annex I A, 3), SI Rules also mention balanced nutrition of the plants and treatment of substrates with steam. In addition, the use of plant protection substances must take place in accordance with the annual production plan (Art. 15) that has to be approved by the inspection body, whereas EU Regulation does not mention such a plan. In addition, the general conditions for the use of substances in the traps and/or dispensers is also described here (Art. 15) and not in the Annex as in EU Regulation (Annex II. B. III.). The annual production plan, which has to be approved by the inspection body, is probably to increase the operator's attentiveness in this respect.
Plant protection, microorganisms - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Only the named microorganism species, Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana, Coniothyrium minitans, Phlebiopsis gigantea, Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Streptomyces griseovirides, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma ploysporium and Verticillium lecanii are approved for biological control according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark". Only certain named microorganism species are approved for biological control in organic plant production in Denmark whereas the species allowed for biological control are not specified in the EU Regulation 2092/91, Annex II B, Section II. The microorganism species approved for biological control in organic plant production in Denmark are the ones which have been approved for use in conventional and organic plant production by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark.
Plant protection, substances - DE Bioland 2005
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The plant protection agents listed in the corresponding annex 10.2. can only be used, if other agricultural measures to strengthen the health of the cropping system have been unsuccessful. Equipment for the application of plant protection agents must be free from residues of objectionable substances. The use of synthetic pesticides and growth regulators is prohibited. (Bioland production standards, 3.7 Plant Protection 3.7.1 Basic Principles; Bioland production standards, 3.7.2 Permissible Measures; Bioland production standards, 3.7.3 Prohibitions; Bioland production standards, 10.2.1 Biological and Biotechnical Measures; Bioland production standards, 10.2.2 Plant Protection and Care Agents; Bioland production standards, 10.2.2.1 Generally Permissible Agents; Bioland production standards, 10.2.2.2 Agents only Permissible in Horticulture and Permanent Cultures as well as in the mentioned crops)
The BIOLAND standard has further requirements to the EU Regulation 2092/91. There are certain (mainly natural) products on the BIOLAND list of permissible products, that are not mentioned in the EU Regulation.: i.e. stone meal, bentonite, prepared aluminium oxide, "waterglass" (sodium silicate), herb extracts, herb liquid manure and teas (e.g. nettle, horsetail, onion, horse radish, parsley fern), ethyl alcohol, milk and whey products, sodium hydrogen carbonate. These products are not considered as plant protection, but fortifying agents, which can be used in accordance with the EU Regulation 2092/91 in Germany. The following products are excluded or restricted in their use according to the BIOLAND standard, but permitted in the EU Regulation.: bees wax (not considered as plant protection agent in Germany), gelatine, extraction from Nicotina tabacum, rotenon, diammoniumphosphate, metaldehyde, pyrethoids in traps, ethylene and potassium alum, copper preparations with further restrictions (max metallic copper amount 3 kg/ha and year, in hop cultivation max 4 kg/ha and year, in potato cultivation only with permission of the BIOLAND Association. If agents with copper content are used, the copper content of the soil must be continuously monitored by means of soil analysis). In order to avoid negative influences on products as well as on the environment (i.e. by the accumulation of copper in soil), substances considered to be critical and whose beneficial effects can also be caused by other products or methods are prohibited by the BIOLAND Association. Moreover some of the substances (ethylene, potassium alum) are not relevant for plant production in the area certified by BIOLAND.
Plant protection, substances - Demeter International 2005
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If the agricultural and biodynamic methods of plant care and protection prove insufficient, the products listed in appendix 5 can be applied. (DI production standards, 3.3. Plant care and protection; DI production standards, Appendix 5 Allowable materials and methods for plant care and protection)
The DI list is generally similar to the positive list of the EU Regulation 2092/91. However, the use of certain products is excluded, including synthetic phyrethroids, metaldehyde, and copper can only be applied in lower quantities. Resistance to fungal, bacterial and insect attack in the crops should be supported by biodynamic measures. Nevertheless, there may be cases, in which the treatment with a certain product is necessary in order to avoid major damage. Contamination with harmful substances must be avoided.
Plant protection, substances, Azadirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Azadirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone are not allowed for plant protection purposes in any organic and conventional plant cultures in Denmark. The DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2 "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark" does not mention Azacirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone. Azadirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone are not allowed as "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark", while products based on these substances may be used as insecticides (or mainly as repellent - Quassia), if need is recognised by the inspection authority according to Annex II B of the EU Regulation 2092/91. No plant protection products based on Azadirachtin (Neem), Quassia and Rotenone have been approved for use in Denmark by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark. To be approved a full documentation for pesticide evaluation will be needed and no companies have applied for that. Rotenone e.g. is a broad insecticide and may be very harmful to aquatic organisms.
Plant protection, substances, hydrolysed proteins - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Hydrolysed proteins are not allowed as attractants in organic plant production in Denmark, because there are no products approved by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency undder the Danish Ministry for Environment. Hydrolysed proteins are not allowed according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark". According to Annex II B, Section I of the EU Regulation 2092/91 hydrolysed proteins are allowed as attractant in authorized applications in combination with other appropriate products of this Annex II, part B. Hydrolysed protein has not been approved for use as attractant in Denmark by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark.
Plant protection, substances, mineral oils - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Mineral oils are not allowed for plant protection purposes in organic plant production in Denmark according to DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark" because there is an alternative, paraffin oil. Mineral oils are not allowed according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark". According to Annex II B, Section IV of the EU Regulation 2092/91 Mineral oils are allowed as fungicide and insecticide for use in fruit trees, vines, olive trees and tropical crops, when the need is recognised by the inspection body or inspection authority. Mineral oils are not approved for use as insecticide or fungicide in organic farming in Denmark, because there is an alternative, paraffin oil, which, according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Producion 2006 may be used against insects, spinning mites and mildew in fruit trees and bushes before bluming and after harvest plus in roses and other horticultural plants. Mineral oils contain toxic substances, which may harm beneficial organisms.
Plant protection, substances, pyrethrins - DK Governmental Guidelines 2006 Pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerarieaefolium are not available for plant protection purposes in organic plant production in Denmark, because there are no products approved by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, which contain pyrethrin as the only active substance. Pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerarieaefolium are allowed according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production 2006, Annex 2: "Active substances which under certain circumstances may be used as plant protection agents on organic or in-conversion areas in Denmark", when need is recognised by the Plant Directorate, but no approved products with only natural Pyrethrins are available in Denmark. According to Annex II B, Section I of the EU Regulation 2092/91 Pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium are allowed when the need is recognised by the inspection body or inspection authority. No plant protection products based on Pyrethrins from Chrysanthemum cineraiaefolium without the synthetic synergist, piperonylbutoxid have been approved for use in Denmark by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency under the Danish Ministry for Environment, which is the public authority responsible for evaluation and approval of all pesticides to be used in Denmark. The use of syntehtic pesticides or additives in organic crop production is against the principles of health, ecology and care
Plant protection, substances, weed control - DE Bioland 2005
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The application of herbicides is not allowed. (Bioland production standards, 3.8.2 Prohibition of Herbicides)
The BIOLAND standard is more specific with regard to the use of herbicides. There is no explicit prohibition of herbicides in the EU Regulation 2092/91, but as no herbicides are listed in Annex II B, it is not possible to use any until now but might be possible in the future. The BIOLAND Association is generally rejecting the use of herbicides.
Plant protection, substances, weed control - DE Naturland 2005
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Preventive measures such as crop cultivation methods are to be applied in order to keep the crop healthy and reduce weeds to a tolerable level. The use of synthetic chemical substances for plant protection is prohibited. The allowed substances are listed in the appendix 2. For thermal weed reduction energy-saving methods have to be applied. (NL standards on production: Part B.I. Plant production 2. Part B.III. Market gardening 4)
The NATURLAND list of allowed substances is similar to the list of the EU Regulation 2092/91, but in some cases more detailed, i.e.: synthetic pyrethroids and metaldehyde are not allowed, copper can only be applied in lower quantities. Nothing is said about the use of energy for thermal weed control in the EU Regulation. The application of conventional crop protection agents is not compatible with organic agriculture. Contamination has to be avoided.
Plant protection, substances, weed control - Int. IFOAM Standards 2005
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Noxious weeds should be controlled by a combination of soil management and crop rotation measures. Application of products that are prepared at the farm from local plants, animals and micro-organisms, are permitted for weed control when crop rotation measures are insufficient. (4.5.)
IFOAM indicated methods for the control of noxoius weeds in detail and admitted substances are indicated. EU Regulation 2092/91 lists the latter in the positive list of ANNEX II B, such as 'Microorganisms approved for pest control'. No restrictions concerning the target organism are listed, therefore under EU Regulation these organisms are applicable for the control of noxoius weeds. No justification could be provided
Soil management, steam sterilisation - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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Steam sterilisation of the soil is prohibited in open fields.
The Swiss Ordinance prohibits steam sterilisation of the soil in open fields, whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not list this as a prohibited practice. Adapted crop rotation schemes and soil management in organic farming should do enough to avoid soil born diseases and unwanted herbs. Steam sterilisation demands a high input of energy and it cures only the symptoms of the problem but not the cause of unappropriate soil management.
Soil management, steam sterilisation - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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Steaming of substrate and superficial steaming of the soil for weed regulation is allowed. Deep steaming (sterilisation) of the soil requires approval by BIOLAND. (Bioland production standards, 5.1.3 Steaming Surfaces and Soil; Bioland production standards, 5.8.3 Plant Health and Regulation of Weeds)
The BIOLAND standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows flame weeding to reduce weed pressure, but does not refer to deep steaming (sterilisation) of the soil. Deep steaming for sterilisation impair soil biodiversity. Therefore it should only be used as a last resort for severe problems.
Soil management, steam sterilisation and pasteurisation - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 Steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of soils are not permitted for weed control; along with Azadirachtin (from neem) and lime sulphur, they may be used with prior permission only in protected cropping structures and only as a single response to a particular pest problem. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraphs 4.10.5 and 4.11.10. Soil Association standards have further restrictions to the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards restrict the use of steam sterilisation or pasteurisation of soils. These methods are not permitted for weed control; with prior permission, they may be used only in protected cropping structures and only as a single response to a particular pest problem. EU Regulation does not refer to these practices. Steam sterilisation and pasteurisation are energy intensive methods, which impair soil biodiversity and are generally incompatible with organic soil management principles. As the methods require only the use of water and energy, their absence from the EU Regulation could be interpreted as allowing unrestricted use of the methods for pest and disease control.
Spraying equipment, testing - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005 Organic farms must have their spraying equipment tested every 4 years. The Swiss Ordinance requires spraytests, but EU Regulation 2092/91 has no such requirement. Good agricultural practice requires all spraying equipment must be in perfect working order to ensure adequate application of agricultural substances.