Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

  • Subject Areas
    • Crop production
      • Fertilisers
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Fertilization, GMO derivatives - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005 It is prohibited to use any nutrient input for organic crop production that contains genetically modified organisms (GMO) or their derivatives. This includes manure produced by livestock fed or grazed on genetically modified material within the previous 3 months. Soil Association Organic Standards. Paragraph 3.6.7. Soil Association standards prohibits the use of manure produced by livestock fed or grazed on genetically modified material within the previous 3 months. EU Regulation 2092/91 has no clear restriction. The Soil Association standards aim to minimise the risk of contamination of organic crops with genetically modified plant material by prohibiting the use of any genetically modified crop nutrient inputs. Genetically modified organisms are prohibited from use in organic farming because of the unpredictable nature of the technology, and the risks to health and the environment.
Fertilization, biodynamic prepaparations - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Specific bio-dynamic preparations enhance soil fertility and the health of crops. These preparations are defined as field sprays (cow-horn manure, horn silica) and compost preparations (camomile, oak bark, dandelion, yarrow, stinging nettle, valerian). The full effect can only be expected when all the preparations (compost and spray preparations) are used in composted manures and as crop sprays at least once throughout the year.
Specific bio-dynamic preparations help to regulate cosmic and earth-bound forces. They soil fertility and contribute to improve the nutritional quality of the crops. EU Regulation 2092/91 gives standards for fertilization requirements but does not extend the definition of fertility to aspects of superior life forces. Bio-dynamic farming includes the aspect of earthbound and cosmic forces, which can be regulated with the support of specific bio-dynamic preparations. Only the combination of manuring and application of bio-dynamic field sprays would lead to increased fertility of soil and to a (holistic) nutrional quality of the crops.
Fertilization, general requirements - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Composted farm yard manure (preferably from own animal husbandry) with specific bio-dynamic preparations (plant extract additives) enhances soil fertility and the soil quality. Farms should have their own animal husbandry. Only in exceptional cases fare arms without animal husbandry accepted (e.g. fruit orchards, horticulture).
Manure applied should preferably originate from own animal husbandry and must be composted with specific bio-dynamic preparates. An exception from the DEMETER certification is required if no animals are reared on the farm. The EU Regulation 2092/91 makes no preferences for the origin of the nutrients applied, but only requires that farm yard manure has to be from extensive husbandry. Enlivening the soil and the maintenance and development of soil fertility are basic objectives of the bio-dynamic method. The greatest influence in this regard (besides sound soil tillage and crop rotation) is the careful use of composted and prepared manures from ruminants, in particular from cows.
Fertilization, general requirements - US NOP 2002
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The producer must manage crop nutrients and soil fertility through rotations, cover crops, and the application of plant and animal materials. The producer must manage plant and animal materials to maintain or improve soil organic matter content avoiding contamination. Approved fertilizers: (1) Raw animal manure (subject to further restrictions) (2) Composted plant and animal materials (3) Uncomposted plant materials (4) A crop nutrient or soil amendment included on the national list of synthetic substances allowed for use in organic crop production (6) A mined substance of low solubility (7) A mined substance of high solubility, provided that the substance is used in compliance with the conditions established on the national list of nonsynthetic materials prohibited for crop production. (Article § 205.203 and § 205.205)
There are only differences regarding manure and compost (see these sections) compared with EU Regulation 2092/91. A producer of an organic crop must manage soil fertility, including tillage and cultivation practices, in a manner that maintains or improves the physical, chemical, and biological condition of the soil and minimises soil erosion.
Fertilization, intensity - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In arable farming and grassland the total amount of N in organic fertilizers from organic origin is limited to 170 kg/ha (this rule is not valid for special cultures as like vegetables, drug plant and spices [without spices for threshing], orchards, vineyards and hope). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.1.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard requires a limit of 170 kg N/ha for the whole organic manure and not only for farmyard manure. Quality and environmental reasons.
Fertilization, intensity - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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The maximum amount of nitrogen that may be supplied by manures fertilizer, averaged over the crop rotation, may not exceed the amount that would be produced by those animals which the farm could support from its own fodder production (max. 2.0-2.5 LSU equivalents/ha based on the total area of the farm or less). The use of commercial organic manures is limited to this level as well.
Individual limits are set by DEMETER standards for each crop are applied for the use of fertilizers: both nitrogen and phosphorus are limited, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 in general sets a limit for nitrogen only ( 170kgN/ha and year farm yard manures). The production of fodder and crops should be in balance with the animals kept on the farm and their production of manure. In order to keep this balance and to avoid excessive use of fertilizers DEMETER limits the use of nutrients to the effective need by the crops.
Fertilization, intensity - Demeter International 2005
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The total amount of nitrogen fertilizer that may be used on the farm is related to the farms own capacity to produce animal manure. It must not exceed 1.4 manure units/ha (equivalent to 112 kg N/ha and 98 kg P2O5/ha). Market gardens with a high nitrogen export are allowed to use up to 170 kg N/ha after approval. (DI production standards, 3.2.1. Amount of manure)
According to the DI standards the nitrogen input allowed in general is lower than the one allowed by the EU Regulation 2092/91 (170 kg N/ha). The farm production should be based on the individual (natural and cultural) conditions of the site. It should not depend on the input of nutrients from elsewhere. This aspect refers to the principle of a circular flow economic system of organic farming and to the biodynamic principle of the individuality of a farm.
Fertilization, intensity - SE KRAV 2006
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KRAV can request that a farmer has a plant nutrient equation done for the whole farm and all inputs used (KRAV standards paragraph 4.1.6).
Plant nutrient equation or balances are not covered in EU 2092/91. To use manure and other inputs in an effective and responsible way is important in organic production. For farms where there is a risk for overuse of inputs and risks to the environment, a nutrient balance can be requested. This is also a educational tool for the farmer.
Fertilization, intensity and import - CH Regulation 2005
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The source of brought-in manures is restricted by the positive list of admitted fertilizers in organic farming. For export of manure from the own operation of more than 1 LSU/year, a contract must exist with the farm receiving this manure. This farm must be managed according ecological principles and can not exceed adequate nutrient limits as set by the legislation.
Import of farm yard manure and compost can only occur if a contract exists with the exporting farm and nutrient needs of crops are not exceeded (evidence must be provided by calculation). The EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the nutrient input of farm yard manures to 170kgN/ha; while neither of the farms (the exporting farm and the receiving farm) may exceed this limit. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced nor applied.
Fertilization, intensity, nitrogen - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In arable farming and grassland the total amount of N in organic fertilizers from organic origin is limited to 170 kg/ha (this rule is not valid for special cultures such as vegetables, drug plants and spices [without spices for threshing], orchards, vineyards and hope).
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU \Regulation 2092/91 annex I as it requires a limit of 170 kg N/ha for the whole organic manure and not only for farmyard manure. Quality and environmental reasons
Fertilization, negative effects - DE Bioland 2005
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The application of fertilizers must not negatively affect either the quality of the product or the environment. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.5 Production of Quality and Environmental Compatibility)
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not consider the product quality which can be influenced by fertilising. However it does require measures to avoid contamination of the soil. To guarantee the production of high quality food. To avoid negative impacts on the environment.
Fertilizer, intensity and import - Demeter International 2005
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The import of commercial organic manures is limited to the amount, that could be supplied by compost, green manure and stable manure and must not exceed 0,5 manure units/ ha (40 kg N/ha). This is not applicable to perennial crops. (DI production standards, 3.2.1.Amount of manure)
The DI standard is limiting the amount of commercial organic manures brought in. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not specifically limit the amount of commercial organic manures brought in, it only limits the total amount of farm yard manure that can be applied. The production should be based on the individual (natural and cultural) conditions of the site. It should not depend on the input of nutrients from elsewhere. This aspect refers to the principle of a circular flow economic system of organic farming and to the biodynamic principle of the individuality of a farm.
Fertilizers, admitted - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In principle slurry from biogas production has to come from substances of organic farming. A deviation is possible for production units where the approval for building was given before 31.12.2004. The general restrictions for the use of products of annex II are valid (3, 4 and 5). The deviation is valid until the end of 2010, if there are substrates used which are for sure delivered by the Bio Austria farm to the biogas co-production. Substrates of conventional farming may only enter a biogas co-production, if they are allowed according to the restricted Bio Austria list of bought fertilisers (see “restrictions in the positive list of fertiliser input”).
The Bio Austria General Standard restricts the use of slurry and biogas; only slurry and biogas gained from fermented substances of organic farming can be used, while the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows all products as basis for fermentation. The main reason is to create high consumer confidence.
Fertilizers, certification rules - Nature et Progres standards 2002
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There are rules for certification of organic fertilizers with regard to allowed raw material and level of application. Nature et Progrès standards also include environnemental management in the production units and maximum information for users.
Nature et Progrès standards include further details than EU Regulation 2092/91. It is necessary to certify fertilizers according to organic farming requirements (allowed raw materials) and to monitor their pollutant content as well as the environmental impact.
Fertilizers, origin - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The amount of N-input of conventional farmyard manure to cultures of arable farming and grassland is restricted. The difference between the N-amount of farmyard manure of the own farm to the amount of 170 kg [N/ha, a] has to be reduced to: a) 25 % in the case of soluble (fast effective) organic fertilisers b) 70 % in the case of slow-release organic fertilisers (relation of C:N ? 25:1). A prerequisite in arable farming is a minimum of 20 % legumes in the main crop rotation Only the following organic fertilisers are allowed for grassland: farmyard manure, composted or fermented household waste and composted or fermented mixture of vegetable matter.
The Bio Austria General Standard limits the amount of conventional farmyard manures to be brought in: soluble (fast effective) fertilizers more than slow soluble one. The EU Regulation 2092/91 only requires a limit of the amount of organic manure (170 kg N/ha, a). Quality and environmental reasons.
Fertilizers, origin - DE Bioland 2005
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The commercial fertilizers and manures bought in from other farms and listed under 10.1. may be used in addition to the farms own fertilizing programme. Manures from conventional farms, free from polluting substances, must be composted before use. Liquid and semi-liquid conventional manure, conventional manure from pig and poultry farming, meal from blood and bones, sewage sludge as well as synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and highly soluble phosphates (among others) are prohibited. Composted household wastes from community collection and peat substitutes require approval by BIOLAND. The use of liquid and fresh manure in herb cultivation is restricted. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.2 Permissible External Fertilizers; Bioland production standards, 3.5.3 Non-permissible Fertilizers; Bioland production standards, 3.5.6 Sewage Sludge and Compost; Bioland production standards, 5 Horticulture and Permanent Crops; Bioland production standards, 5.2.4 Fertilizing Bioland production standards, 10 Appendix)
The BIOLAND has less products on the list of allowed fertilisers in the Annex than the corresponding annex of the EU Regulation 2092/91, and conventional manures must be composted before use. Manures from conventional farms, free from polluting substances must be composted before use. Liquid and semi-liquid conventional manure, conventional manure from pig and poultry farming, meal from blood and bones, sewage sludge as well as synthetic nitrogen fertilisers and highly soluble phosphates (among others) are prohibited. To avoid contamination with harmful substances and to strengthen the farms own fertilising programme. Fertilizing is to be designed in conformity with the location and the crops involved in such a way that the quality of the products (physiological nutritional value, taste, imperishability) may not be detrimentally affected in particular by the amount of nitrogenous fertiliser. In regard to the type, the amount and the time of applying fertilizer, care must be taken to avoid placing loads on the soil and the water (e.g. through heavy metals and nitrates) (Bioland production standards, 3.5.5 Production of Quality and Environmental Compatibility) The objective of fertilisation is to achieve harmonic nutrition of the plants by means of a soil full of life. Organic material from the business itself forms the basis of fertilization. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.1 Basic Principles)
Fertilizers, restrictions - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The following fertilisers are not allowed by Bio Austria: blood meal, hoof meal, bone meal, fish meal, meat meal, feather and 'chiquette' meal the by-product of starch-production from conventional potatoes (Kartoffelrestfruchtwasser). the special basic slag 'Thomas phosphate'. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.3, 2.1.5)
The Bio Austria General Standard contains further restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it does not just limit the total amount of organic manures of conventional farms to be brought in. It also does not allow to use some products which are listed in the EU Regulation 2092/91 annex II A. Products or by-products were restricted during the BSE crisis. This restrictions were prolonged (not absolutely necessary). (principle of care/precaution). The by-product of starch-production from potatoes is readily soluble almost like readily soluble conventional fertilizers. The taste of this product (Kartoffelrestfruchtwasser) is not desired too. The special basic slag Thomas phosphate is a by-product of steel. For the production resources of recycling of old metal inclusive nickel and chromium are used. Therefore the residues of these heavy metals in the fertilizer can be high.
Fertilizers, substrates - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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Fertilization should enhance microorganism and soil activity . The use of synthetic chemical nitrogen fertilizers is forbidden. Dried farm yard manure is in general prohibited.
In general the list of fertilizers is comparable with the EU Regulation. Some fertilizers of the EU Regulation 2092/91 list are not listed in the BIO SUISSE standards. Easily soluble nutrients in general do not support the natural balance of nutrient release in the soil; therefore Bio Suisse does not support such kind of fertilizers.
Fertilizers, substrates - CH Demeter Standards 2005 Fertility should be enhanced by own farmyard manure. If not available only a limited amount of bought in manure is allowed according to DEMETER standards and it should be of bio-dynamic or organic origin. DEMETER standards provide a shorter list of admitted fertilizers. Guano is not allowed according DEMETER standards nor are animal corps preparates (except horn). The distance for the transport of farmyard manure is restricted. Peat can only be used for seedling production and only to a very limited ratio. The EU Regulation 2092/91 allows a broader range of fertilizers. There are ecological reasons to exclued Guano, to restrict the use of peat and to limit the transport of farmyard manure.
Fertilizers, substrates - DE Naturland Standards 2005 The substances that can be used as fertilizers on NATURLAND farms are regulated by a positive list in the appendix 1 and by certain restrictions mentioned in the corresponding chapter (B I). Explicitly excluded from use are synthetic chemical nitrogen fertilizers, Chile saltpeter and urea, composted waste (other than green compost), faecal and sewage sludge, liquid and semi-liquid manure from conventional origin as well as conventional chicken manure. Conventional manure as well as any semi-liquid manure must be treated before application. Environmental pollution must be avoided. Mineral and trace element fertilizers that are not easily soluble (see appendix 1. 1.5) can be used after consulting an adviser and is related to the results of soil analyses, deficiency symptoms of the crop and the nutrient balance of the whole farm. Bought in fertilizers and soil conditioners can be applied if listed in the corresponding appendix 1 and the indicated conditions of use are complied with. (NL standards on production: Part B.I.Plant production, 1.Humus management and fertilization; Appendix 1.) The NATURLAND standard is similar but in some cases has additional restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91: conventional chicken manure, conventional liquid or semi-liquid manure, bone and blood meal as well as composted community household wastes are not allowed to be used. Fertilization shall primarily support the accumulation of humus complexes in the soil. As a consequence, highly concentrated and easily soluble nitrogen fertilisers are not acceptable. The risk of contamination with objectionable substances from conventional animal farming, community wastes etc. must be reduced.
Fertilizers, substrates - Demeter International 2005
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The fertilizers which can be brought into a biodynamic farm are regulated in the chapter 3.2.2. and by a positive list in the appendix 4. Certain products (such as synthetic nitrogen sources, Chilean Nitrate, water soluble phosphate fertilizers, pure potassium salts and potassium salts with a chloride content exceeding 3%, municipal composts, sewage sludge, animal manure from intensive animal husbandry systems) are explicitly excluded from use. Others (such as natural phosphate rock, ground basic slag, potassium magnesium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, sulphur, trace elements) can only be applied if the necessity has been demonstrated and after approval. Animal manure should be prepared with the biodynamic preparations. The use of brought in fertilizers must be precisely documented. (DI production standards, 3.2.2. Brought in manures and soils; DI production standards, appendix 4)
The list of allowed fertilizers is shorter in DI standard than the EU Regulation 2092/91, i.e. conventional manure from poultry farming, liquid or semi-liquid conventional manures, meal from blood, meat and bone, pure potassium salts and potassium salts with a chloride content of larger than 3% are totally prohibited. The fertilization shall be done as far as possible with the farms own resources, and therefore the import of fertilizers is restricted. Contamination with harmful substances must be excluded.
Livestock management, perennial cropping systems - Demeter International 2004
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Farms with intensive vegetable production or perennial crops should keep animals on the farm or at least cooperate with another biodynamic farm to set up a fertilising programme based on animal manure. (DI production standards 3.4.Market gardens, field vegetables, hops and other perennial crops)
The DI standard requires that animals are being reared on farms with intensive horticulture production or perennial cropping systems; where as in the EU Regulation 2092/91 no such requirement is stated. The fertilizing programme should be based on animals kept on the farm in order to promote the development of the farm as an individual living organism by using the own animal manure. Animal husbandry, with the accompanying fodder production is an important part of the agricultural enterprise. With respect to the development of the enterprise, the farm organism cannot do without livestock. This applies to the ruminant in particular. The fodder plants and the well-balanced manure that comes into being because of cattle, contribute considerably through the enlivening of the soil, to the long term flourishing of a farm. The harmonious co-operation of mankind with the three kingdoms of nature can lead to a living, ensouled farm organism.
Livestock manure, fertilizers, intensity and import The maximum application of Nitrogen in livestock manure is 140 kg total N per hectare per plan period (August 1 - July 31) and a maximum of 50 % of the Nitrogen (70 kg total N/hectare) may be conventional manure or other fertilizers listed in Annex 1 according to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Section 3.4: Fertilisers and soil improvers. According to the DK Governmental Guidelines on Organic Agricultural Production, October 2006, Section 3.4: Fertilisers and soil improvers, the maximum application of Nitrogen in livestock manure is 140 kg total-N per hectare per plan period (August 1 - July 31). Maximum 50 % of the Nitrogen (70 kg total N/hectare) may be from conventional manure or other fertilizers in Annex I A. Besides, there are general limits (also for conventional farms) for the application of N to various crops depending on soil type and previous crop. According to the EEC 2092/91 Regulation, Annex I B, Article 7.1 the total amount of manure applied on the agricultural land of a holding may not exceed 170 kg N per hectare per year in accordance with Directive 91/676/EEC. There are no restrictions on the application of conventional manure or other fertilisers mentioned in Annex I A within this limit. The lower limit of 140 kg total N/ha has been set due to environmental concerns and studies showing that the legumes in the rotation, which are not accounted for in the calculation of total N-application, may deliver a considerable contribution to the nitrogen input. The requirement that maximum 50 % of the total N may come from conventional manure is set to reduce the dependency on conventional farming and to reduce the risk of contamination of the soil.
Manure fertilizers and compost - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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Farmyard manure and compost should be derived from own organic operation or from other extensive farms.
In general the list of fertilizers is comparable with the EU Regulation 2092/91. Some fertilizers of the EU list are restricted in the positive list of the Swiss Ordinance (e.g. guano) No justification was available.
Manure fertilizers, application - FI Luomuliitto Standards for "Leppäkerttu" quality label 2004 It is required that all animal manure used for growing products intended directly for human consumption must be composted. There is no such requirement in the EU Regulation No. 2092/91. Composting of the manure is regarded as important in the eyes of the consumers.
Manure fertilizers, application - FR Nature et Progres Standards 2002
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Farmers have to compost animal manure for three months before using it as fertilizer.
Nature et Progres standards requires the composting of manure whereas EU Regulation 2092/91 does not. Using animal manure without composting may result in high levels of nitrogen on the fields that can pollute water stocks or create disorders in plants' growth. Using manure without composting may also contaminate fields with germs and parasites.
Manure fertilizers, application - US NOP 2002
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US requires composting of manure unless it is applied to land used for a crop not intended for human consumption or it is applied 90/120 days prior harvest of a product for human consumption (depending on whether the edible portion has direct contact to the soil or not)
EU Regulation 2092/91 requires that the quantity of manure applied annually may not exceed 170 kg of nitrogen/year/ha; US does not. US sets restrictions on the time between application of raw manure and the harvest of crops for human consumption; this is not addressed by EU. EU requires controlled fermentation and or appropriate dilution of slurry/urine; US sets restrictions only if applied on land used for a crop intended for human consumption. EU sets specific requirements for the capacity of manure storage facilities; US does not. EU requires consideration of the source of manure allowing manure from organic production units and regulating the amount of manure from conventional sources. EU prohibits manure from "factory farms" (but still allows from "extensive husbandry" under certain conditions). US does not address manure source. Raw manure contributes significant benefits to soil nutrient, structure, and biological activity that other soil fertility practices and materials do not provide. The responsibility to use raw manure in a manner that is protective of human health applies to all producers, whether organic or not, who apply such materials. USDA acknowledged the commenters who noted that the OFPA cites food safety concerns relative to manure use and, therefore, that food safety considerations should be reflected in the practice standard for applying raw manure in the final rule.
Manure fertilizers, application, vegetables and herbs - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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Farmyard manure as fertilizers may not be applied as top fertilization to plants cultivated as vegetables being used as blossom or leaves or herbs between cultivation and harvest. Only for herbs compost from farmyard manure is allowed during vegetation.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 as it requires in addition to the limit of 170 kg N/ha a restriction for fertilization with farmyard manure to vegetables during the vegetation period. Quality and hygienic reasons for consumer protection.
Manure fertilizers, composting - US NOP 2002 Provision for compost (§205.203, (2)): Composted plant and animal materials produced through a process that (i) established an initial C:N ratio of between 25:1 and 40:1; and (ii) maintained a temperature of between 131 F and 170 F for 3 days using an in-vessel or static aerated pile system; or (iii) maintained a temperature of between 131F and 170F for 15 days using a windrow composting system, during which period, the materials must be turned a minimum of five times. US requires composting of manure (with three exceptions where application of raw manure is acceptable). US defines 'compost' and sets requirements for composition, time, temperature, and number of times that it must be turned. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not include regulations for composting, other than allowing the use of plant-based and other biological preparations. US allows micro-organisms and other biological amendments unless specifically prohibited. An organic producer using a composted material containing manure must comply with the nutrient cycling and soil and water conservation provisions in his or her organic system plan but is not constrained by the restrictions that apply to raw manure. Therefore, producers intending to apply soil amendments will require clear and verifiable criteria to differentiate raw manure from composted material. USDA developed the requirements in the final rule for producing an allowed composted material by integrating standards used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USDAs Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS).
Manure fertilizers, export - CH Regulation 2005
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Export of manure can only occur to farms, which also comply with the maximum level of not more than 2.5 LSU/ha (Livestock units/ha). Purchase contracts for farmyard manure are only possible between holdings which provide the ecological services laid down in the Swiss Ordinance on Direct Payments of 7 December 1998 (ODP).
While the Swiss Ordinance excludes intensive stocking rates by strictly limiting manure exports from the farm, EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the manure used on the own farm to 170kgN/ha: Excessive manure can be exported to organic farms which also comply with the limit of not more than 170kgN/ha. By these means, the goal of closed circles in organic farming of self-sufficiency with fodder and nutrients can be reached.
Manure fertilizers, export - CH Swiss Ordinance 2005
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Export of manure can only occur to farms which also comply with the maximum level of not more than 2.5 LSU/ha (Livestock units/ha). Purchase contracts for farmyard manure are only possible between holdings which provide the ecological services laid down in the Swiss Ordinance on Direct Payments of 7 December 1998 (ODP).
While the Swiss Ordinance excludes intensive stocking rates by strictly limiting manure exports from the farm, EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the manure used on the own farm to 170kgN/ha. If manure is exported, the farm receiving the manure must also not exceed the limit of 170kgN/ha. The Swiss Ordinance intends to keep the stocking rate on each organic operation to an less-intensive level (not more than 2.5 LSU/ha). By these means, the goal of closed circles in organic farming, with self-sufficiency of fodder and nutrients can be reached.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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The amount of nitrogen and phosphorous input per hectare is strictly limited, in general to max 2.5 LSU/ha or less depending on the crops.
Limits for the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus provided by different means of fertilisation are restricted by Bio Suisse; for different crops specific limits apply - whereas the sum of phosphorus applied by fertilisation is taken into consideration as well as nitorgen levels. The EU Regulation 2092/91 sets general limits for ferilisation intensity only for nitrogen: maximum application per yeare is 170kg nitrogen/ha. In order to avoid excessive use of fertilizers and successive contamination of the environment by leached nutrients, BIO SUISSE limits use of both nitrogen and phosphorous to effective levels required by crops.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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The amount of nutrient input must be justified by soil quality and crop requirements: evidence must be provided on the levels of nutrients used on the farm. In no case should rate of nutrient application exceed 2.5 LSU/ha.
Limits for fertilizer use are restricted not only for farmyard manure, but for the combination of all fertilizers used on the farm. Levels must not exceed the needs of the individual crops. The EU Regulation 2092/91 limits farmyard manure and commercial nutrients to a maximum of 170kg/ha, but does not differentiate individual needs of the crops. In order to avoid excessive use of fertilizers and successive contamination of the environment by leached nutrients, Swiss Ordinance limits the nutrient input to the effective levels required by the respective crops.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - DE Bioland 2005
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The application of fertilisers in agricultural production is restricted to 112 kg N/ha/year, being equivalent to 1,4 dung units/ha/year. A maximum of 0.5 DU/ha/year may be imported from outside the farm. Other numbers are indicated for specific production systems such as vegetable production in greenhouses (up to 330 kg nitrogen), orchards (up to 90 kg N), viticulture (150 kg N in three years but not more than 70 kg N in one year), hop cultivation (70 kg N), tree nurseries (90 kg N). In operations without animal husbandry the nitrogen supply must come from legume cropping, but the quantities needed in addition can be brought in in the form of other allowed nitrogen fertilisers. (Bioland production standards, 3.5.4 Quantity Limitation; Bioland production standards, 5 Horticulture and Permanent Crops; Bioland production standards, 5.1 Vegetable production, 5.1. Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.5. Fruit growing, 5.5.2 Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.6 Viticulture, 5.6.1 Soil Care, Greening and Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.7. Hop cultivation, 5.7.4 Fertilising; Bioland production standards, 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.1 Fertilising and Soil Care
The BIOLAND standard is setting precise upper limits for nitrogen input in different cropping systems . The amount of farm yard manure allowed by the EU Regulation 2092/91 is restricted to 170 kg N/ha and year without stating a general restriction for other types of commercial fertilizers or specific production systems. Fertilising is to be designed in conformity with the location and the crops involved in such a way that the quality of the products (physiological nutritional value, taste, imperishability) may not be detrimentally affected in particular by the amount of nitrogenous fertiliser. In regard to the type, the amount and the time of application of fertiliser, care must be taken to avoid placing loads on the soil and the water (e.g. through heavy metals and nitrates).
Manure fertilizers, intensity - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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The use of fertilizers is restricted. The total amount of fertilizers applied may in general not exceed the equivalent of 1.4 du/ha/year (112 kg N and 98 kg P2O5). In accordance with the NATURLAND extension services and related to the results of soil analyses and the specific demand of the crop, more than 110 kg N/ha and year can be applied in greenhouses. For perennials (including orchards), shrubs and christmas trees the limit is 90 kg N/ha/year. In viticulture only 150 kg/N/ha in three years is allowed, while in the latter the amount of one year may not exceed 70 kg N/ha. The amount of bought in fertilizers is limited with 0.5 DU/ha and year (40 kg N). (NL standards on production: Part B.I.Plant production, 1.Humus management and fertilization; Part B.III. Market gardening 1; Part B. V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees 1; Part B. Fruit cultivation 1; Part B. Viniculture and wine production 2; Part B. Permanent tropical plantations 1.)
The NL standard is very differentiated in limiting the amount of manure which can be applied for different types of crop production. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the amount of fertilizer (animal manure) is limited to 170 kg N/ha/year without any explicit limit for the amount of commercial fertilizers bought in. Fertilization shall primarily support the accumulation of humus complexes in the soil. The amount of fertilizer is to assure the activity of the soil in the long run. Over-fertilization shaould be avoided. The organic production is directly linked to the natural conditions and production capacities of the site.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - Int. Codex Alimentarius Guidelines 2005
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Manure application rates should be at levels that do not contribute to ground and/or surface water contamination. The competent authority may establish maximum application rates for manure or stocking densities. The timing of application and application methods should not increase the potential for run-off into ponds, rivers and streams.
Whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 strictly limits the input of farmyard manure to a maximum level of 170kgN/ha, CODEX Alimentarius Guidelines does not set any limits for the level of nutrient input but leaves this up to the competent authorities. As the Codex Guidelines are a guidance for national regulations it does not make sense to set a maximum limit which would be applicable everywhere in the world.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and export - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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The aim is to create the operation as an organism, which is a closed circle of nutrients and crop and fodder production - neither fodder nor fertilisers should be imported or exported. The operation is expected to be balanced in this regard. If at all, manure can only be exported to other organic units complying with the maximum stocking rate. For transporting manure the maximum distance of the Bio Suisse regulation is applied, which requires not more than 20-80km transport distance depending on the kind of manure.
DEMETER is striving for a balanced autonomous operation based on own fodder and fertilizer production (excessive manure does not occur in these operations). EU Regulation 2092/91 limits the farm yard manure used on the own farm to 170kg N/ha, if manure is exported this can be done to another organic unit, not exceeding the limit fo 170kg N/ha and year. The balance between farmyard manure produced on the own farm and the nutrients required by plant production is essential for a sound and sustainable organic production method. The need of manure export does not occur on DEMETER farms - the opposite is more often the case.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and import - CH Demeter Standards 2005
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Imported organic farm yard manures may not exceed 50% of the quantity which is needed for the crops on farm. Commercial mineral and organic fertilizers are accepted but restricted according to their quality and origin and should undergo composting.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the import of commercial fertilizers. It only limits the application of farm yard manure to 170kgN/ha. DEMETER does limit this application to the LSU equivalent that could be fed on the farms own fodder basis. DEMETER also limits the distance for transporting farm yard manure. Own animal husbandry is an important factor in a farm organism as definied by DEMETER. The lack of own animals should not be underlined by importing manures: instead own animal husbandry should be established. Furthermore, imported fertilizers can only be applied if used in combination with composted or prepared animal fertilizers.
Manure fertilizers, intensity and import - CH Regulation 2005
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The source of brought-in manures is restricted by the positive list of admitted fertilizers in organic farming. For the export of manure of more than 1 LSU/year, a contract must exist with the farm receiving this manure. This farm must be managed according ecological principles and must not exceed adequate nutrient limits as set by the legislation.
Import of farm yard manure and compost can only occur if a contract exists with the exporting farm and nutrient needs of crops are not exceeded (evidence must be provided by calculation). EU Regulation 2092/91 also requires that farm yard manure is exported to an organic farm and all farms involved in the cooperation must comply with the nutrient limit of max 170kgN/ha. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced nor applied
Manure fertilizers, origin - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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Farm yard manure must originate from organic farms. If not available from organic farms, not more than 50% of the necessary N and P205 may origin from non-organic farms, which are managed according the integrated production standard and additional ecological requirements as defined by Swiss ordinance. However at least 50% of manure produced on the farm must be used on farm. If farm yard manure is sold to other farms, these must be certified organic farms. The distance for transporting manure and slury is restricted to 20 - 80 km depending on the kind of manure.
The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not limit the export of farm yard manure to other farms as long the limit of 170kgN/ha among organic farms is respected; it only restricts the maximum stocking rate to an equivalent of 170 kg N/ha. No limits for transporting distances for manure to other farms are foreseen in the EU Regulation. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self-sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced.
Manure fertilizers, origin - CH Regulation 2005
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The source of brought-in manures is restricted by the positive list of admitted fertilizers in organic farming. For export of manure from the own operation of more than 1 LSU/year, a contract must exist with the farm receiving this manure. This farm must be managed according ecological principles and can not exceed adequate nutrient limits as set by the legislation.
Import of farm yard manure and compost can only occur if a contract exists with the exporting farm and nutrient needs of crops are not exceeded (evidence must be provided by calculation). The EU REgulation 2092/91 limits the nutrient input of farm yard manures to 170kgN/ha in general: this limit applies for the exporting farm as well as for the receiving organic farm. Organic farming should be performed based on the principle of a closed system with self sufficiency in fertilizer supply but no excessive manure should be produced nor applied
Manure fertilizers, slurry - CZ PRO-BIO Standards 2004 Slurry and poultry excrements from conventional farming are prohibited. EU Regulation 2092/91, Annex II/A permits the use of slurry and poultry excrement if it is sourced from extensive animal husbandry. Manure originating from ethically non-aceptable breeding/husbandry systems, may not be used in organic farming according PRO-BIO Standards.
Peat - CH Regulation/Ordinance 2005
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Peat can only be used for growing seedlings and marsh beds. Not more than 70% of peat can be added to substratum for seedlings.
The Swiss Ordinance restricts the use of peat to seedling production and within substrata to maximum 70% whereas the EU Regulation 2092/91 only lists peat as admitted 'fertilizer' limited to horticulture (market gardening, floriculture, arboriculture, nursery). Peat is a very limited natural resource which should be used as little as possible to ensure the supply for future generations. Peat production damages natural habitats which is not in line with the sound production methods which organic farming is aiming for.
Peat - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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The components that can be used in soil and substrate preparations are defined by the corresponding annexes. The use of synthetic substrate materials is prohibited. Peat can be used in substrates and may not exceed 80% of the mixture for seedlings and 50% of the mixture for potted plants (with exemptions). The cultivation of crops without using soil or substrate is not allowed. NL standards on production: Part B. III. Market gardening 2. Part B. V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees 2 Appendices 1,2 and 9)
The NATURLAND standard has additional requirments and restrictions than the EU Regulation 2092/91. The list of components, that can be used is more restricted, i.e. composted community household wastes (appendix 9) are excluded, as well as liquid or semi-liquid manure and chicken manure from conventional origin (appendix 1). In the EU Regulation there is no limit for the amount of peat to be used. Synthetic substrates are not regulated. The cultivation of crops without soil or substrate is not regulated. Protection of the natural peat deposits. The vital soil is an indispensable element of organic farming.
Peat, ornamental plants - DE Bioland Standards 2005
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The content of peat in substrates may not exceed 80% for seedlings and 50% for trees, herbaceous and ornamental plants. Exceptions are possible for crops, that require a low pH. Purchased composts, peat substitutes and additives must be examined with regard to their environmental compatibility and, in particular, to their pollutant content. (BIOLAND standards 5.8.6., 5.8 Ornamental Plants, Herbaceous Plants and Woody Plants, 5.8.6 Soils and Substrates)
The BIOLAND standard is slightly more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91, where the the use of peat in horticulture is not restricted. Purchased composts must not exceed the contents in heavy metals, laid down in the Annex II A. There is no requirement to examine the environmental compatibility of the components of substrate. To avoid the escessive exploitation of moor lands and to avoid contamination with harmful substances.
Plant and livestock production, inputs certification - SE KRAV 2006
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The KRAV standards cover certification of inputs in organic production. The areas covered are – animal management agents – plant protection agents – plant growth stimulants – soil conditioning agents – fertilizers – sowing and potting soil – pesticide and disinfection agents in storage areas The standards are based on the relevant standards for plant production and animal husbandry with additions and clarifications. Only products which contain 100% organic ingredients can be called organic all other certified inputs can be labelled with a special logo which stating “approved for organic production”. (KRAV standards chapter 12).
Certification of inputs is not covered in EU Regulation 2092/91. The certification of inputs is a help to organic farmers to easily find which inputs that are allowed or not. The producer of inputs can also more easily communicate that a product fulfils the KRAV standards. Interestingly many consumer products are also certified to this system showing that consumer does not only want organic food but also potting soil and nutrients for flowers.
Slury import, from biogas production - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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In principle slurry from biogas production has to come from substances of organic farming. A deviation is possible for production units where the approval for building was given before 31.12.2004. The general restrictions for the use of products of annex II are valid (3, 4 and 5). The deviation is valid until the end of 2010, if there are substrates which are provably delivered by the Bio Austria farm to the biogas co-production. Substrates of conventional farming may only enter a biogas co-production, if they are allowed according to the restricted Bio Austria list of brought in fertilisers (see 'restrictions in the positive list of fertiliser input'). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 2.1.4)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91 for biogas fermentation with approval since 2005 as they require to use only substances of organic farming while the EU Regulation 2092/91 allows all products of Annex II A. The main reason is to create high consumer confidence.
Soil and potting mixes - Demeter International 2005
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Soils and potting mixes should preferably be generated from the farm itself and must consist of at least 25% prepared composts. Peat can only be used in propagating beds and potting mixes and is limited in quantity (max. 75%). Synthetic soil improving agents are not allowed. (DI standards 3.4.2.Manures, soils and potting mixes)
The use of the biodynamic preparations in the manure and compost is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method. The farm "organism" should strive for independence from outside inputs. Peat is restricted because of nature protection reasons. The use of the biodynamic preparations in the manure and compost is an indispensable aspect of the biodynamic method. The farm organisms should strive for independence from outside inputs. Peat is restricted because of nature protection reasons.