Organic Rules and Certification

All differences in one table by Subjects

  • Subject Areas
    • Horticulture
      • Greenhouse production (protective cropping)
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Title Description Difference Justification and Comments
Conversion, preconditions - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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If land area is likely to be contaminated with harmful substances, soil analyses must be realised prior to conversion to determine the actual contamination. Additional demands can be made with regard the conversion of contaminated area. (NL standards on production: Part A.I. Conditions to be fulfilled prior to the conclusion of a producer contract. Part B.III.Market gardening, 1.2-1.3.)
The NATURLAND standard is more precise by requiring soil testing where contamination can be expected (i.e. in intensively farmed greenhouses). In the EU Regulation 2092/91 there is just the general information that authorities can prolong the conversion period taking into account the former use of an area. This is to avoid the contamination of the organic crop with substances that have been applied before the beginning of the organic management.
Cropping systems, prohibited - UK Soil Association Organic Standards 2005
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Even cropping systems that do not rely on rotations must still comply with the methods of nutrient supply, weed, pest and disease control set out in the rules for crop establishment and growth, and they must not rely on outside inputs. Continuous arable rotations are prohibited. (Soil Association Organic Standards, Sections 4.6-4.11 and Paragraphs 5.1.14 and 5.1.15.)
Soil Association standards are more detailed than the EU Regulation 2092/91. Soil Association standards prohibit any cropping systems that rely strongly on outside inputs for nutrient supply, weed, pest and disease control, and any that are based on continuous arable rotations. EU Regulation does not include these specific prohibitions. The Soil Association standards are partly intended to prohibit hydroponic crop production, while allowing flexibility for other sustainable cropping systems. Hydroponic cropping systems rely on high levels of nutrient and energy input and are therefore considered unsustainable. The prohibitions on continuous arable rotations and on systems relying on outside inputs enhance the enforceability of the positive requirements for diverse, multi-annual rotation.
Greenhouse production, fertilizer, origin - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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In general, only top dressings of organic origin can be used. If such fertilizing substances are not available, or the compilation or quality is not satisfactory, it is permitted to use fertilization substances which comply with EU Regulation 2092/91.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The requirements to the origin of top dressings should be defined.
Greenhouse production, CO2 - NO Governmental regulation 2005
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The supply of CO2 is allowed, provided the gas is a sideproduct of other production (e.g. gas powered heaters).
EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The use of CO2 should be limited as a sideproduct from other inputs for ecological reasons.
Greenhouse production, contamination, reducing - Norwegian Governmental Regulation 2005
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Organic greenhouse production shall take place in houses or departments which are completely separate from conventional production. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority can give approval for the cultivation of different varieties, organic and conventional in the same house or department, if, in the conventional production no non-permitted substances can come into contact with the organic production.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area.
Greenhouse production, conversion - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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There is a two year conversion period before sowing or planting for soil beds which previously have been used for conventional cultivation.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area, the conversion time is defined similarly to the EU Regulation. EU 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area.
Greenhouse production, conversion, growth medium - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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There no conversion period for soil beds when there has been a complete change of conventional soil and the new soil and fertilizer is organic.
EEC 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. EEC 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. Soil beds with organic soil should not demand any conversion time.
Greenhouse production, fertilization - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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The upper limit of 170 kg total nitrogen per haa and year does not apply to greenhouse production where this takes place in pots and tubs.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. In pot and tub production the limit of 170 kg total nitrogen is too low for the needs of the plants.
Greenhouse production, fertilizer, origin - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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When fertilizing soil beds and tubs where the growth medium is not changed before sowing or planting, 50% of the total nitrogen should come from organic production. The additional part of the total nitrogen must comply with EU Regulation 2092/91.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as a specific area. EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The requirements to the origin of fertilizers should be defined.
Greenhouse production, growth medium/substrate - NO Govermental Regulation 2005
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When mixing new growth medium to the soil beds, tubs, pots and benches a minimum of 50% of the total nitrogen shall come from organic production. Additional ingredients and nutritional content must comply with the EU Regulation 2092/91. Organic soil can be used, and the nutritional content of the soil can be included as organic.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. There is a need to specify conditions for the origin of nutritional content when adding growth medium in soil beds, tubs, pots and benches.
Greenhouse production, heating - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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During the winter (December to February) cultivated areas under glass and plastic may be only be kept free from frost (resp. being heated up to 10 °C / 50 °F), with the exception of young plants and plants in pots and the use of heat from renewable energy sources or waste heat (for example from biogas production). (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.1.7.1)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have a restriction for the use of energy resources. Reduced use of non-renewable resources is an important measure for sustainability of agriculture.
Greenhouse production, heating - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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Heating of green houses is prohibited during the winter. The greenhouse can be kept frost free: however, heating should not exceed 5°C between the months of Decemer and 1st of March.
BIO SUISSE restricts the heating of green houses, due to the environmental aspects of energy saving. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover green house production as a specific area, and therefore has no such restrictions. Prohibiting heating of greenhouses during the winter saves non-renewable resources.
Greenhouse production, heating - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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Artificial heating in greenhous production is allowed.
EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The possibility of heating is a condition for greenhouse production in Norway.
Greenhouse production, lighting - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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The use of artificial light in cultivated areas under glass and plastic is forbidden. An exception is the use of artificial light for young plants. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.1.7.3)
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not restriction the use of artificial light. Contribution to the reduction of energy use (limiting intensification)
Greenhouse production, lighting - NO Governmental regulation 2005
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Production shall be based on natural lighting. The exclusive use of artificial light is only permitted during limited periods of the growing period.
EU regulation does not cover green house production as specific area. The use of artificial light - however maybe necessary in periods - should be limited for ecological reasons.
Greenhouse production, lighting, ornamental plants - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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Assimilation lighting is only permitted in seedling nurseries. (NL standards on production, Part B.V.Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees, 7.2.Assimilation lighting)
The NATURLAND standard has a broader scope. This aspect is not regulated in the EU Regulation 2092/91. Restricting assimilation lighting saves energy.
Greenhouse production, plants, origin - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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If small plants are bought-in for further cultivation in greenhouse production, these shall also be produced in accordance with the national organic rules for growth medium and the nutrition.
EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area; there are no specific rules for the cultivation of small plants/seedlings. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. The whole chain of production must be organic, also when the production is based on bought-in small plants.
Greenhouse production, rotation/monoculture - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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Monoculture greenhouse production is only permitted when the recycling of organic material within the operation is ensured, thus requiring the use of undercropping, intercropping and crop rotation whenever possible.
EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production as specific area. There was a need to specifiy this area as the EU Regulation 2092/91 does not cover greenhouse production.
Greenhouse production, steam sterilisation - NO Governmental Regulation 2005
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Thermal steam sterilisation of soil in a greenhouse requires approval from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority.
EU regulation 2092/91 does not cover green house production as specific area. Thermal sterilisation should be restricted for ecological reasons, and it is therefore required an approval from the authorities.
Manure fertilizers, intensity - DE Naturland Standards 2005
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The use of fertilizers is restricted. The total amount of fertilizers applied may in general not exceed the equivalent of 1.4 du/ha/year (112 kg N and 98 kg P2O5). In accordance with the NATURLAND extension services and related to the results of soil analyses and the specific demand of the crop, more than 110 kg N/ha and year can be applied in greenhouses. For perennials (including orchards), shrubs and christmas trees the limit is 90 kg N/ha/year. In viticulture only 150 kg/N/ha in three years is allowed, while in the latter the amount of one year may not exceed 70 kg N/ha. The amount of bought in fertilizers is limited with 0.5 DU/ha and year (40 kg N). (NL standards on production: Part B.I.Plant production, 1.Humus management and fertilization; Part B.III. Market gardening 1; Part B. V. Cultivation of ornamental plants, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, Christmas trees 1; Part B. Fruit cultivation 1; Part B. Viniculture and wine production 2; Part B. Permanent tropical plantations 1.)
The NL standard is very differentiated in limiting the amount of manure which can be applied for different types of crop production. According to the EU Regulation 2092/91 the amount of fertilizer (animal manure) is limited to 170 kg N/ha/year without any explicit limit for the amount of commercial fertilizers bought in. Fertilization shall primarily support the accumulation of humus complexes in the soil. The amount of fertilizer is to assure the activity of the soil in the long run. Over-fertilization shaould be avoided. The organic production is directly linked to the natural conditions and production capacities of the site.
Nutrients, potted plants - SE KRAV 2006
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Half of the nutrients for potted plants and in greenhouses shall come from the soil (KRAV standards paragraph 4.7.4).
This is not regulated in EU Regulation 2092/91. It is the soil that should be fertilized and not the plants. This makes it impossible to grow in substrates with low biological activity.
Plant cultivation, use of soil culture - AT Bio Austria General Standard 2006
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Vegetables may only be grown in a soil culture with the exception of chicory and cress. (BA-Rules 2006 chapter 4.1.5) Cultivation on mineral wool, hydroculture, nutrient-film technique and similar procedures are not permitted. Chicory and cress may be sprouted in water.
The Bio Austria General Standard is more detailed. The EU Regulation 2092/91 does not have this specification. To maintain consumer confidence and organic integrity
Plant cultivation, use of soil culture - CH Bio Suisse Standards 2005
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Any hydorponics or soil independent (soil-less) production is prohibited.
The Bio Suisse standard has further restrictions. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not prohibit any hydroponic or soil independent production as Bio Suisse does. BIO SUISSE considers the soil as important medium for sound organic agriculture. Hydroponic systems are artificial systems independent from the soil, which therefore do not correspond with the basic principles of organic farming.
Plant cultivation, use of soil culture, use of artificial heat - Italian Organic Standards 2005
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In Italian Organic Standards (IOS) soilless cultivation is prohibited, with the exception of seedlings for transplanting. Protected crops are allowed with detailed rules. Heating is allowed only for seedlings.
IOS Standards contain further details. EU Regulation 2092/91 does not address the issue of soilless cultivation (hydroponic), and protected cultivation is left to free interpretation. Soil-less cultivation opposes organic agriculture principles, since soil management is fundamental for this type of production. Moreover, protected crops are widely used in organic agriculture and need to be specifically ruled and defined, in order to guarantee healthy production and sustainable use of resources.